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Every day we solve the problem or try to solve them. Both at work and at home. More and more problems. Starting on the evening of rest and ending with how to find housing. And that's just the problems that we know who lie on the surface. And how many hidden, invisible problems? And unfortunately, the problems are not solved in isolation. For this we have to communicate, to join the organization. And if there are organizations, it means there is someone who is trying to coordinate and give the organization integrity. Then, the organization has come their problems, which also must be addressed. All this becomes too complicated. And begins to simplify the requirements. And here enters the game management cybernetics.
What kind of science of cybernetics? Initially, the founder of cybernetics as a science is Norbert Wiener. In what major additions and improvements to cybernetics introduced Stafford Beer. Stafford Beer believed that cybernetics is the science of management and communication. Since cybernetics originated, of course, she has come a long way from its beginnings to the establishment of some basic concepts and ideas which are now fundamental. But today, as never before, with the development of information systems and technology raises the question: «Is it possible to management cybernetics and its advantages, if any?» The main idea is how to correctly use the basic methodology as applied to information systems design and when it is worth doing. The correct answer and the prioritization of this issue may help to consider and improve science management to a fundamentally new and qualitatively. This is a relatively new science of its inception, but has already achieved significant results in organizations and tutoring services as commercial and noncommercial. Currently, management cybernetics developed and applied in large multinational companies in the private sector in policy -making bodies, professionally and personal life. Management cybernetics allows the head to look at the problem from a completely different look, and thus create an opportunity for organizations create a certain immune response to the difficulties in the world. Below I will try to explain the nucleation management cybernetics and the basic bonuses and ideas its use in modern business and the tasks that need to solve management problems.
Cybernetics in IS management
Before considering such a thing as management cybernetics, I would like to depart from established definitions and give your view on this term, and subsequently find out what is cybernetics. Let's try to look more deeply into the definition and see its meaning. There are many definitions of cybernetics, one of the most common sounds in this way: «Science - the basis of governance. » From my point of view, more easily and capacitance definition might sound like this: " Cybernetics is the science that seeks to know the deep essence of natural phenomena, describe them more precise language, to formalize and make more effective methods of control. "You could say that is some Ñcybernetics common base, the theory of management in nature, society, social systems. One of the problems of cybernetics, Norbert Veer has stated, is the problem of optimal control of complex dynamic systems. If you think, we live in a world of complex dynamic systems. Hence cybernetics can give us the answer how to correctly and efficiently build their relations in management issues and the relationship with the outside world. Currently, cybernetics can be divided into two large sections: theoretical and practical. Theoretical Cybernetics its aim is to study general fundamental laws and principles that govern the management of facilities of any nature. Applied cybernetics is in turn divided into three major areas:
Biological Cybernetics ( control in living organisms )
Technical Cybernetics ( management of technical systems )
Economic cybernetics ( control in society )
Economic cybernetics, as the area of â€‹â€‹application techniques and methodologies to problems of economic cybernetics solves the problem of improving governance. Its main purpose is to study the production as a whole organism in order to determine the fundamental laws and principles, which in turn govern economic processes and phenomena, the formation methods of targeting economic processes, development of specific systems of economic planning and management that would help solve problems arising in the management and business planning.
At the moment we came close to the concept of management cybernetics. I see this concept as part of cybernetics which uses the methods and achievements of cybernetics as a methodological, theoretical and technical basis for the decision to form a break.
We can say that one of the probable causes of management cybernetics, from my point of view, is the fact that cybernetics has facilitated the establishment of quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the relationship of individual events, and management efficiency, mainly through the modeling of economic processes and the use of economic-mathematical methods to optimize management and decision-making. Modeling system, which offered management cybernetics, to some extent to assess the state of production, which can be achieved provided that the management decisions and that in turn will more clearly provide immediate results and effectiveness of management actions. This is one of the fundamental capacities to assess the quality of a company, organization, understanding at what stage of life the company is using the management cybernetics. Cybernetics just need and it is important to use in the management, because cybernetics ideas and approaches expanded the boundaries of management decision theory, which is developing a system possible outcomes in different situations, when the state and behavior of the managed object is well known, but when there is little data to determine the probability results in the implementation of decisions and, accordingly, there is a percentage of risk in achieving the desired result. Or in situations where there are no reliable data to assess the state of the object management and its ability to respond to these or other management decisions under uncertainty, which is commonplace in our world of management. Thus using cybernetics in management there is a possibility to increase performance and create opportunities for addressing problems in areas such as functional operations research, mathematical analysis, and simulation, heuristics guiding decision-making, game theory, and mathematical statistics.
One of the most important parts of cybernetics is part of the theory of information, which is the basis for information systems design. Science is widely used in the development of institutional management. For this purpose, operations research, organizational analysis, design, relationships between individual units based on network planning methods and management. The main ideas of management cybernetics based on the automation of individual transactions or groups of operations within the cycle of production management, as well as for creating workstations in managing and developing information management systems.
Considering the cybernetics and management is important to note the next time the subject of cybernetics is the fundamental laws and principles of management that are common to wildlife, human society and industry. Management cybernetics, from my point of view, exploring the specific form of management - managing the production and its specific to this area and particularly the problems. Particular attention should be paid to the general laws and principles of cybernetics that occur in specific controlled conditions of production - economic organizations. Of course you can clearly note that the broader concept cannot replace the private and thus, the cybernetic concept of wider scope and content management concepts in a special science. On the other hand, the complex issues that we study the management cybernetics do not fit into the problems of cybernetics. Participants in the relationship management cybernetics primarily serve people. Production management has as its foundation rather social in nature. It is primarily management of human activities, and management features also carry people. It is obvious that the management cannot be completely formalized, although it may be to some extent, divided into separate, relatively simple, mathematically described by the operation. A number of functions and management techniques are extremely subject of production management.
Certainly a wide Spector facilities are subject to examination by the management cybernetics is the economic system. The subject of the study is different in nature information processes, which occur in economic systems and mechanisms for economic management. Economic systems are the object of study of economic cybernetics and management cybernetics. Various economic theories are studying the relations of production, the operation of objective economic laws, or a deep foundation process of the economic system. Management cybernetics based on the results of economic analysis, in turn, examines the structural and functional forms of organization and management of these processes. With respect to management cybernetics is important to understand the basic concepts of cybernetics as a system model, a "black box "; the principle of external addition, the feedback law is a necessary and sufficient diversity and related with the principal findings and conclusions.
At the moment still an open question as how binds cybernetics and management. Quite simply, in the framework of this communication is a fundamental principle which is called "feedback ". It is the universality of the concept of feedback has allowed many to understand the phenomenon and to establish an analogue control processes in living organisms, machines and society. Between elements of two types of relationships - real and substantive information. In general, the feedback means between the outputs of any element to the input of the same element are carried out directly or through other elements of the system. The concept of feedback takes the importance of management systems, because the feedback is used as a channel through which a governing body receives information on the status and results of operation of a managed object. In the example of management cybernetics feedback manifests the unity of management and control part.
It is known that the backbone of any economy is the production, creation of economic output. In turn, financial stability, solvency, liquidity, operational efficiency is impossible without having a sufficient level of scientific management theory and determined its effects on the economic processes of the enterprise. Thus, it is important to note that management uses achievements of cybernetics as a methodological and theoretical basis for making informed decisions and common issues, goals, objectives, functions and management practices.
Thus, summarizing all the above mentioned would like to highlight several key points that I made â€‹â€‹for myself while working on this job.
The emergence of cybernetics, the science of common patterns management processes, implemented in living beings, machines, and their complexes, and allowed to gather and synthesize a huge number of facts which showed that the management of all organized systems is similar. The difference in the management of objects relating to the criteria of purpose, objectives and content management. However, the structure and construction management processes in organized systems of all ranks have the features of a deep affinity, community. These circumstances are explained by the fact it seems to me that the management is always an information process. Cybernetics studies the receipt and transmission, storage and conversion, processing and use information. Communication between management and information processes - the major achievement management cybernetics. It helps to understand the technology management process and, most importantly, expose its study with quantitative methods. A distinctive feature of the cybernetic approach to learning and improving management processes - the use of their counterparts in the animate and inanimate nature, and modeling. The main objective is to achieve on the basis of inherent methods and tools for the optimal level of control, i.e., the adoption of best management decisions. Thus, this is called a cybernetic control, which:
Provides an optimal solution of multi- dynamic problems of the organization;
Uses specific techniques, advanced cybernetics (feedback, self-regulation and self-organization, etc.);
Extensive use of mechanization and automation of administrative operations through the use of computing and control technology and computer technology.
Considers the organization as some larger system, each element of which is taken not only in itself but as part of a larger whole, to which he belongs;
From cybernetics management borrows the following laws and principles of requisite variety, emergence, external addition, feedback, choosing solutions, decomposition, and hierarchical control and automatic regulation (self-regulation).