In a competitive market, what separates a successful company from the others is the competitive advantage that it can build over others. Companies score over each other in terms of technologies, processes, strategy etc. However all these can be replicated and therefore are not a sustainable competitive advantage. In order to survive in this world of Globalization and transformation of systems, Human Resource management plays a vital role. Human Resource policies on the other hand are the strengths of an organization which cannot be copied and transposed which in turn helps the organization to develop a competitive edge over other players in the market which further helps in the success of the organization. ( Burke & Cooper 2004 ).
The Competitive advantage is required to tide over various dynamic changes happening in the industry. Earlier school of thoughts emphasized on entry barriers like economies to scale, protection of patent rights, regulation of competition, way into finances etc. current views however stresses upon the "Human Skills & Efficiency" as an asset. Efficiency, flexibility and innovativeness are the sought after skills which helps the organization in facing various challenges in the market due to increased competition, globalization, innovation and technological advancement HRM system helps an organization in building brands, creating recall value in the mind of the customer and in achieving goals and objectives of the organization. That is why these days HR is not seen as a cost but as an investment which seeks to create value and increases the performance levels of organization as well as of its employees. (Burke & Cooper 2004).
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Many surveys which were being conducted over the past few years clearly indicate "Communication" as the number one issue confronting them. Communication is an integral part of any organization as it forms the channel through which the information flows in an organization. It shows the flow of direction and responsibility whether upward or downward. As a result it also impacts the employee motivation as well as a sense of grasping organizational goals and vision(Shell 2003). Communication helps in determining the superior- subordinate relationship in an organization (Shell 2003).
The major issue with communication is that it is a subjective thing and as such its very difficult to lay down a set pattern and procedure for it. Further, the basic necessity of it also makes it a universal responsibility for all levels of management, whether it's top, medium or low. It's the duty of every employee at any level of management that he passes his message in its most undiluted form (Shell 2003). In order to perform all nature of duties and tasks in an organization, effective communication is very important, people at all levels should be able to express their views to their fellow mates in order to avoid miscommunication and complete the task effectively and efficiently.
Despite its basic nature of its importance can be felt from the fact that minor miscommunication can result in huge losses, there rae seven basic rules of communication. According to the First Rule, Effective communication process and procedure is a strategic application. Second Rule says that the process of Effective communication depends upon employees at all levels of management; it's the responsibility of all employees to make it most effective and undiluted. Third rule says that this process is involves persistent expansion and learning. Fourth rule says that diversity among employees enriches the process of communication. According to Fifth rule the most effectual communication is provided by complex organizations. Sixth rule states that culture of an organization has a great impact on the process and complexity of the communication cycle. While the Seventh rule says that effective communicators prefers persistent networking as the manner of their communication. To construct a tactical process of effective communication is a challenge for managers, so that they can move the information in the system more quickly and effectively. (Shell 2003). Communication helps in building up a healthy relation between an organization and its employees, thereby creating a healthy atmosphere for workers to work in and achieve their organizational goals more quickly and making its organization more successful. Communication acts as an interface between employees and the company by motivating them to give their best for the company.
1.2 Background of Barclay's
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
It is very difficult to determine the expansion and operations of the London banking agents. The first stone regarding history of English banks was unturned by studying the history of Barclay's bank.
Barclays was founded 300 years ago in London. Today this bank has become one of the largest financial institutions across the world. Although its headquarters remains in London, it has spread across its operations in various continents like Asia, America, Africa and Europe.
Barclays deal into two huge business clusters, one involves Worldwide Retail banking and the other involves Corporate Investment and Wealth management services for its clients across the globe which are further divided into number of business sub units.
The bank deals in two major areas of business; one is Group centre, which involves all human resource related tasks and corporate affairs. This area is headed top management who makes strategic policies and goals for the bank and also acts as a major support function. The other area is The Absa Group, which is one of largest financial services provider of South Africa. Major stake of this group was acquired by Barclay's Bank in 2005 under its international spreading out plans. The core services offered by this bank are its corporate and retail business processes. In 1690 in Lombard Street, the bank was established by John Freame and his associate, Thomas Gould. The business was renamed as 'Barclays' in 1736 when the only daughter of John Freame got married to James Barclays. (Http://group.barclays.com/Careers/Barclays-around-the-world).
Barclays group believes that success of a business not only lies in its expansion and profits, but it lies in its motivated and satisfied employees. Employees of an organisation can be motivated by both monetary and non monetary benefits. But when an organisation is able to satisfy both the needs of its employees, they work more effectively and efficiently towards the accomplishment of organisational goals and make a healthy relationship between the organisation and its employees. Therefore, the proposed study aims at understanding the effect of job satisfaction and motivation measures applied at Barclay's for its grand success in its business operations.
1.3 Aims and objectives of the study
The aims and objectives of this study involve:
Strategies adopted by the Barclay are in order to motivate its employees.
Measures taken by Barclay's in order to enhance job satisfaction of its employees.
To assess the motivation programs as to how far they have been able to enhance job satisfaction levels of employees in an organization.
To determine the role of employees in achievement of company's goals and objectives. Also to study the success of employees and organization on the whole.
1.4 Research questions
Research Questions form a very integral part of market research. Research questions are one of the most efficient tools in measuring the performance of various marketing programs. It takes various aspects into consideration while measuring the level of performance of a marketing program which involves increase or decrease in sales levels, price of market share, brand choice of the customers and purchasing behavior of the customers etc. latest market research tools have made easy for an organization to deal with huge data analysis and storage (Franses & Paap 2001)This study basically intends to determine the importance of job satisfaction and motivation of employees measures used in success of Barclay's business. Following points would be taken under consideration under this project:
What motivation strategies were adopted by Barclay's?
What measures can be adopted by Barclay's in order to enhance job satisfaction of its employees further?
To conclude what measures can be used to determine the success of business?
To determine the factors that contributed in the success story of Barclay's.
Chapter 2- Literature review
Barclays PLC is worldwide economic services groups whose workplace is in London, United Kingdom. In 2010 it is the globe's 10th biggest depository and monetary services company and the 21st biggest group (Forbes, 2010). Barclays function in further 500 nations and regions across and provide about 48 million clients.
Barclays is a worldwide depository and is structured in two trade groups. Capital Organization and commercial & savings depository, and Universal Retail Depository. The Commercial and Savings Depository and Capital Organization groups include of three commerce components: Barclays Funds, (savings depository), Barclays Corporate business depository and Barclays Funds (funds organization). The Worldwide Retail Depository group includes four trade components: Barclaycard (credit card and finance terms), Barclays Africa, UK Retail Depository and Western Europe Retail Depository.
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This section handles the several assumptions of inspiration and work contentment or discontent. Subsequent assumptions would throw spotlight on describing inspiration and work contentment or disappointment at office. The main dispute is to consider what hit individual to continue at an office and work together in things that bring sense of accomplishment and at times discontent at their office. This is agreed in two parts; one part would glance into assumption of inspiration; and second would glance into an assumption that us pleasure in concerning work contentment or discontent and thus appropriate prose.
2. 2 Segment one - theories of motivation
This is an individual's inclination that performing the similar duties for certain period of time, ones interest is lighten. The minority of individual loose the magic in their jobs. Several persist in their report to make sure stability in their incomes and safe remuneration once they had emotionally suspended. Several people consider a transformation in profession give back their missing interest and passion. (Pinder, 1998:11)
The circumstances which are argued over discuss on general difficulties faced by several groups. Inspiration: a few of the staff might be provoked at the time of completing their task and a few might be not. It is the duty of organization to handle workers disinterest.
Encouraging workers is an important matter in 1789, a founder who initiated an industrialization of fabric in U.S.A and was leaning in a way to generate an operational atmosphere and circumstances that are at ease for employees to accomplish their work.
Inspiration at job is explained as a bunch of active energy which increases inside a person to start job associated with actions and to choose the period, concentration, type and power (Harrington, 2004:13)
Assumptions of inspiration are classified into two components: content assumption and procedure assumptions. Content assumption is familiarizing in way to limits inside a staff that boost, guide, maintain and discontinue actions. They attempt to survey the particular wants and desires which encourage the individual. Procedure assumptions are further laid stress on accepting the way the human activities is thrilled, aimed, guided, and congested by causes mainly outside to an individual. The two groups had an important contact for directors who are concerned with the procedure of encouragement by the spirit of their profession (James et al, 1999:124)
This is too essential to include the content assumption that are center with recognition of important inner components and describing the way these method must be positioned inside the person; as method centers on few emotional method and are further adjust towards the implementation of persons judgment organization since it is related to performance.
2.3 Process theories of motivation at Barclays
One would now know about diverse method of inspiration assumption that is pursuing by Barclays. As talked earlier, method assumption tries to clarify and explain causes inside a person which boost, guide, maintain and discontinue actions. The major procedure assumptions of inspiration at Barclays to be talk about comprises:
1. Communal knowledge assumption
Work devises assumption.
2.2.1 Social learning theory
The central component of primary actions and inspiration is learning. Learnt actions are main performance inside an association. Different components inside learning are observation, outlook, targets and affecting reaction. Thus learning is explained as a method where a normal performance directs to continuing transformation in actions. (James et al, 1999:124)
Common learning states that the details which one obtains greatly of ones actions (for example driving a vehicle, by a window plan, verbal communication) via reproducing and examining others in a group circumstance. The bandura-influence analysis of a performance is a purpose of equally individual uniqueness and ecological circumstances. According to Bandura, a group learning assumption describes performance in limits of normal interface between cognitive, behavioral and ecological reasons.
A central component of group learning assumption is idea of own efficacy, explained as principle which is able to execute proficient in particular circumstances. Own-efficacy decision contact person selection of conditions, duties, and attendants. At Barclays, workers are evaluated by mode of conduct which they exhibit in certain duties or projects.
Pygmalion outcome is the new thoughts which have a possible result; it states the enhance routine or learning whose outcome is a helpful prospect of others. At Barclays, Pygmalion outcome compose further to consider towards worker doing good and the majority of the time create workers to execute. The powers of influence of workers relied on his director, his connection with workers, and management /bond in group (Barclays). In force of actions prospect has an important task (James et al, 1999:124)
Group learning assumption represents explicit learning, and self organization. Human being frequently recognizes and copy parents, links, idols, and esteemed leaders. For instance, one knows not to leap from porch to bottom as one had intellectual images of critical disasters. An essential component of group learning assumption is thought of own efficacy that is abstractly implicit as trust which we are able to do sufficiently in a particular circumstances
2.2.2 Expectancy theory
Anticipation assumption is regarded the more suitable inspiration and guidance assumption. It is regard as rather accepted explanation of inspiration. Anticipation assumption is supposed to be much precise in forecasting workers performance.
Anticipation assumption is explained as a way of leading options among dissimilar types of deliberate actions (Vroom, 2003:14). According to Vroom, nearly all actions are in deliberate power of person and thus provoked. The anticipation assumption is enlighten in conditions of four ideas
First and second level outcomes: Accomplishment of task is the result at the initial stage resultant from actions. This conclusion includes efficiency, outcomes, revenue and class of presentation. The results of the subsequent stages are mostly the cost of primary stage conclusion. In easy terms it is stated as an outcome of initial stage labor. At Barclays this is related to the workers who put strong effort and commitment at job are content in subsequent stage by the rise in wages , endorsement, group approval etc. but the workers who do not execute good at initial stage, they will face condition such as no increment, negative response by group at subsequent stage.
It states that the person consider that the initial stage production is related to succeeding stage production.
3. Valance- a precedence of result as observe by workers. For instance an individual might choose a promotion above a move to dwelling place. A result is absolutely valent once it's favored and once it's evaded. When individual does not react or unconcerned to circumstances then the result is zero valence.
Anticipation is supposed as person opinion concerning the possibility which the precise performance might be chased by particular result like stage of presentation (James et al, 1999:124).
A different research is printed in support of and not in favor of anticipation thinker. For example (Humphreys and Einstein 2004:58) focus on person thinking of job surroundings and connections of that circumstance by individual expect.
On the behalf of over conversed arrangement of anticipation assumption, Barclays job inspiration comprises component of attempt, person aptitude and observation, actions guided towards aims, fundamental and extrinsic compensation, contentment, and supposed justice. Thus, different writers firmly believe that few further essentials are there in the anticipation assumption of inspiration are:
1. Follower self concept- The combined involvement of Arthur, home offered the inspirational importance of supporters inside a manager dyad. This idea explains the things of compelling managers direct to improved supporter inspiration that offers help to supporters in improvement and protecting person's notion
2. Follower motivational development- A work of Leonard is enhancing the inspirational progress. The idea which the person might know-how phase of inspirational progress where an initial actions might be provoked by usual satisfaction except time, experience and development might guide the person to exhibit actions appeal for stuff such as position or individual contentment.
Follower self efficacy- the notion of own efficiency have an extraordinary emotional legacy (wood & bandura, 1989). Beside this there is evidence supporting the relationship between self efficacy, effort, and performance.
Task complexity- All managers and supporters had an association that is represented with jobs. It is recommended by different writers that altering components of job might alter person's job uniqueness. Though the alteration act as an unhelpful inspirational condition, because workers are frequently provoked to produce optimistic own character in job location. At Barclays it is frequently attempted not to alter the job report of a worker frequently because they do not experience inspired to find latest modification in organization of line director, office and tasks.
Leader responsibilities- guidance performance and tasks is a complete course of job inspiration street et al (1996: 5). Whichever study or job is not finished capably if not inspiration and guidance go together. At Barclays, line directors are frequently educated to inspire and encourage their group to execute.
Temperament- Several writers think that diverse person behavior character desires to accept and course facts in a different way. (ziegert, 2000:307). It is too assumed that a complete job inspiration form depends on traits of admirer and manager and their contact outline. Also it has been establish that learning was inclined by level of contest among tutor and learner approach. At Barclays, work outline are rewarded with accepting the character of a person
There are different reasons on which philosopher change in anticipation assumption. They vary on the ideas and methods of evaluating them and investigate plans. However no prescribed method is there in across examination. This is not precise in anticipation assumption that method is applied across examination and whose results are related to which person in what circumstances. This is believed that anticipation assumption generates a hidden theory that every inspiration is awake. Though, it is usually identified that persons are not constantly alert in regard to their reason, anticipation, and perceptual course. According to this basic structure of anticipation assumption, we consent to a complete form of job inspiration which comprises of notions and components of attempt, person aptitude and observation; aim intended for performance, central and extrinsic compensation, contentment and supposed justice. These researches confine the variety of assumptions and influential ties.
2.2.6 Job design theory
Job plan assumption focus to know duty uniqueness of profession how these character coordinate to structure diverse profession and how to communicate to worker inspiration, profession contentment and presentation. At Barclays, profession plan assumption mainly set for exactness the profession duties, recognizing duty character of profession. Providing workers with job diversity, job individuality, job importance, job independence and criticism will direct to three intellect state (skilled meaningfulness of the job, skilled duty for result, and information of the authentic outcomes) which therefore is the outcome in enhanced interior inspiration, better work routine, work pleasure, fall in absence and income, has been declared by The Oldham representation of profession character developed in Japan. (Kini and Hodson, 2002:605)
The force and importance of this assumption for administration is that line director at Barclays should make sure that
To get hold of arrangement timetable within restraints of Barclay's line director should give liberal hand and freedom.
1. For performing job competently workers should be capable to develop ability.
2. The tasks that group members carry out for association which is important for attaining Barclay's targets should be repeatedly pursued with group.
Director must alter nature of worker's work frequently to avoid boring effects work so as to generate novelty and charisma.
Director should make sure that response and remedial actions as to how workers are doing in Barclays.
2.3 Content theories of motivation
Workers act on everyday basis on the values which they carry in place of work such as -thoughts, attitude etc. content assumption of inspiration focus to recognize and explain different aspects inside the being that strengthen, express maintain and end performance. It helps line executives to appreciate feelings and values of workers.
Some of the content assumption of inspiration at Barclays consists of:
1.Maslow's need hierarchy
2 McGregor's theory X and theory
3. Herzberg's two factor theory
2.3.1 Maslow's need hierarchy
Abraham Maslow established the assumption which is one of the most accepted and broadly used assumptions. It as been declared by Maslow that uppermost stage desires for self actualization and lowest level desires physiological requirements. Individual requirements are explained as:
Needs for Esteem
Belongingness, love and social needs: necessity for companionship, association, communication and love. The desires for love, warmth and belongingness can approach when the requirements for security and for physiological well- being are pleased. Individual try to come out from thoughts of aloneness and isolation said by Maslow. Both giving and getting love, warmth and the sense of belonging is occupied in this.
Protection and security: peace of mind from danger, security from aggressive actions or atmosphere
Physiological: essential requirements of food, drink, refuge etc. These are too measured as natural requirements. Requirement for air, food, water, and comparatively stable body temperature. Physiological requirements are the strongest requirements as if an individual was underprivileged of all requirements; the physiological ones would approach first in the person's hunt for contentment. Esteem: necessity of self-esteem and admiration from others. The worker feels self-assured and precious as an individual in the association when these requirements are fulfilled whereas the individual feels lower, pathetic, powerless and valueless when these requirements are discouraged. Self-actualization: A person's want to be and perform that which the individual was "born to do" has been explained as self-actualization by Maslow. A human being is not apparent about what he desires when there is a desire for self-actualization. The hierarchic assumption is frequently offered as a pyramid, with the bigger, lesser stages presenting the lesser requirements, and the higher point presenting the requirement for self-actualization, at Barclays. Since the only cause is the obstruction are located in people's way by the world makes the directors consider that citizens would not go sound in path of self-actualization.
2.3.2 McGregor's theory X and theory Y
McGregor's theory X and theory Y
McGregor in his Theory X assumes that the human nature is generally negative from within and therefore the people essentially behave badly.
Theory X is also known as the dictatorial approach to the management because it describes that a person should be regulated with hard circumstances and rules including even punishments for the achievement of organizational goals. The theory normally has following assumptions--
1. The workers avoid working for they don't want to do it.
2. Workers are lazy, so they do not want to set and achieve any goals.
3. Workers need to be guided and pursued by their superiors.
4. Workers have to be monitored and strictly controlled.
Theory Y is also known as the participative approach to the management which is contrary to Theory X. It assumes that-
1. Workers are willing to work and are self-esteemed.
2. Workers do not avoid their responsibilities but they are even more sensible towards their duties.
3. Workers are determined and they take work as rest not burden.
4. Punishments cannot work as a remote to discipline. Workers are self - controlled and need not to be oriented for work.
5. Workers become more committed if they are rewarded with incentives for their achievements.
6. Freedom enables the workers to explore and increase productivity.
Theory Y was applied to the management style by the managers at Barclays with a thought that if freedom and opportunities are granted to the workers, they tend to fully exploit their potential and competence to originate creativity and efficiency in their work. Moreover the managers are of views that negative behavior of humans is not inherent but it gradually develops with the experiences. Thus any kind of pessimism can be eradicated through positive atmosphere and incentives.
Herzberg's two factor theory
A study was conducted by Herzberg to determine the factors responsible for the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of the workers. The theory emphasizes two factors mainly- Hygiene and Motivation. Though the existence of hygiene factors does not lead to workers satisfaction directly, yet its absence can create dissatisfaction among them.
1. Working Environment
2. Security and protection
4. Post and position
5. Relationships between the workers and with their subordinates
6. Company rules and regulations
7. Control quality of the management
1. Realization of goals
2. Acknowledgement for the achievement
3. Accountability for the work
4. Concern and interest for the job
5. Promotion to higher levels
6. Expansion and growth
Combination of hygiene and motivation factors in four situations:
1. Low hygiene + low motivation: unenthusiastic employees have a lot of complaints
2. Low hygiene + high motivation: motivated workers have a lot of complaints which means that workers like their jobs but are not satisfied with salaries or working conditions.
3. High hygiene + low motivation: Unenthusiastic workers have fewer complaints
4. High hygiene + high motivation: This is the ideal situation where the highly motivated workers have fewer complaints.
Herzberg Theory was applied in Barclays where managers insured their worker's high rate of hygiene and motivation.
Many theories of motivation have been developed over times to know the factors which revitalize people at work to put in their best for the attainment of organizational goals. Similarly different theories are there to make a difference between why some people are contented with their jobs and some are not. All the motivational theories more or less carry same purpose of letting people follow their ideals and like them get identified for their piece of work by putting in their best which will automatically lead to their satisfaction. Sometimes people also work a little extra after seeing others getting punishments for not meeting their deadlines. Well! We are here to discuss these theories to judge what brings satisfaction or dissatisfaction to the workers.
In the successive explanations we will be watching more definitions, facts and reports dealing with job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Though the task of describing these aspects is a tough job, yet, we have been guided by a number of theorists and intellectuals.
According to many the satisfaction of a worker depends widely upon the basic features of the job which can be viewed as if a worker likes his job , he is satisfied and vice-versa.
On the other hand some researchers feel that satisfaction or dissatisfaction are just the emotional expressions i.e. if a worker is happy, he is said to be satisfied with his job and if he is unhappy, then his job might be dissatisfactory.
According to Cheung and Schering (1999:563) the inherent enthusiasm of workers shows whether they are satisfied with their jobs or not. For instance if a worker is ready to take challenges and feels accelerated by the kind of work he's been given then the job is said to be satisfying his urge. On the contrary if the worker is not interested and enthusiastic for his work, his job is said to be dissatisfying for him.
Fair-mindedness and the means of rewarding for the performance are the key points to describe satisfaction of a worker from his job according to Bateman and Snell (1999:548). Their theory states that if the fair rewards are given to the workers for their efforts and performance, they feel satisfied. Similarly if they feel that they have not been treated fairly, their job stands dissatisfactory for them.
Therefore it can be summarized that the emotions of workers and their approach towards their job as well as the basic nature of the job define the viability of the work as satisfactory or dissatisfactory. At Barclays since HR rules and regulations are people oriented, the employees are highly satisfied. At Barclays following theories have been implemented--
2.5 Theories of Job Satisfaction (or Dissatisfaction)
2.5.1 VIE Theory
This theory is inspired from the expectancy model of Vroom by Porter and Lawler (1968). Along with the three basic factors of expectancy, influential, and valence, there are certain other factors like scrutiny of skills and uniqueness in the approach applied by the workers as well as the inherent enthusiasm of the workers and the external rewards given to them in terms of incentives. According to this theory if a worker wants to transform his efforts into the expected performance, he has to first of all identify the demands of the job. And for his good performance he will be enthusiastic inherently as well as will be rewarded by superiors in the form of money or any other incentives. Also this model assumes that the levels of rewards depend upon the levels of performance by the workers i.e. if his performance outshines, then he will be rewarded excessively. At Barclays, the worker is given with a job with a consideration that he understands the needs of the job and will perform to his best.
(Dipboye,Smith, and Howell 1994: (116-117).
ADAPTED FIGURE 2.1 The Porter-Lawler's (1968) Model of Motivation And Job Satisfaction
2.5.2 Comparison Theory
Lawler (1973) in Dipboye, Smith and Howell (2000) explained in their model of surface satisfaction, the concepts of desired needs and the actual attainment. This model is called so because in this the satisfaction of job with various factors is taken into account such as the pay, control system, or the kind of job etc. It is an extension over the expectancy theory of motivation because where the expectancy theory describes the comparisons made by workers in terms of the pay and rewards received against work done by them, this theory further takes into account certain other features also like worker's character in terms of his skills, age, and training and the job's character like the degree of duty and complexity involved in it. Moreover this theory also exemplify that workers find their job satisfaction by making comparisons between the inputs given by them and the outputs returned to them by the job as in equity theory of motivation. At Barclays, both the equity and the comparison theories are applied.
Lawler's (1973) Model of facets satisfaction
The facet model of satisfaction can simply be analysed as-
If the workers receives the pay equal to what was expected by him, the worker feels happy and content.
If it seems to the worker that he has received the amount less than he had expected, then hewill be unhappy and dissatisfied.
If it seems to the worker that he has received the amount more than he had actuallu expected, the worker might feel guilty about it.
High Performance Cycle Theory
Amalgamation of work motivation and job approach can be perceived with this theory. The motivational composition of goal setting theory perceives that for high performance, high goals and higher expectations are essential which further leads to expectations of higher rewards and higher level of satisfaction and higher level of commitment for the future obligations along with the blend of some other factors such as persons capability and job complexity.
Locke And Latham's High Performance Cycle
Other Literature On Job satisfaction ( Or Dissatisfaction )
The significance of feelings at work has been pointed out by many authors. In a working atmosphere the feelings of the workers determine whether they are satisfied or not, Reece and Brandt (1996:234). This statement is against the notion of those authors who think that emotions are nothing to do with job contentment and carrying out business is simply rational in nature. It was observed by Kim and Garman that the personal lives affect the workers mood and their behavior at work . They keenly watched that the work result is directly related to the financial stress along with factors like absentesm, pay satisfaction, and time used in work etc. In other words they observed that the workers having higher level of monetary requirements were not satisfied with their pay, used more time to work comparatively and were absent from their work very frequently which led to poor productivity. Therefore they suggested that people at work should be satisfied emotionally first i.e. they should be given good wages so that they feel like working for their responsibilities and produce efficiently.
A significant relationship between the job satisfaction and the motivation was detected in a study made in the IT industry and it was realised that when the person was questioned about how important was job satisfaction for him? He answered back that he never found his superiors with making job satisfaction as their primary goal, however he also agrees that good managers wanted their subordinates to be happy. He also provided with the reasons for his doubts-
According to him people can never be satisfied to their optimum level. It is the basic nature of the human that as he keeps on getting more, he wants to receive even more.
Also he thinks that it is not worth to satisfy people since satisfaction does not always leads to better productivity because he claimed that no person ever says that he performed well because he got good pay or job security.
The gauge to measure the job satisfaction ranges differently from person to person and from organization to organization. It is not necessary that what is satisfactory for one person may be satisfactory for others also. For some people they want cool work and fair pay and for technical people challenging jobs have more attraction.
It has further been explained by him that dissatisfaction of workers is equally important to be dealt with but it should not be the primary focus of the managers instead they should motivate their workers which can show the direct impact on their work. According to him people who are motivated want to do their best irrespective of their personal contentment. Job satisfaction can also be obtained through motivation. Bateman and Snell add to this that sometimes content people produce desirably less than what is produced by dissatisfied people.
It's also been shown that the reason so many people struggle with the demands of work these days is because they expect so much more from their jpob than they used to. This is what leads to disappointment or even disillusion - a meaning gap .
Peterson,Pujaand Suess in Mexico indicated that work sionships, pay satisfaction, supervision, coworker relationships,pay,and promotion potential were predictive of overall job satisfaction. Also prognostic of overall job satisfaction were supervisor conductand perception of company financial and social status. Behavioral,affective and continuance commitment were predicted by sex,education,directive conduct, organizational status, and satisfaction with supervision. The traditional possitive relationship between job commitment and job satisfaction was not supported.
In a another studyy it is fond that the American overall satisfaction with their job has risen considerably in last 15 years, Interestingly the majority of people in this study declared them completely satisfied with relations with colleagues, physical safety of their workplace, the flexibility with the hours of work, the superior, job security,workload,vocation time. These same workers were less inspired about the substantial benefits of work as in money, health, and insurance and on the job stress.
Examining the impact of social effectiveness on the relationship between vocational effectiveness beliefs and various job performance dimensions as well as career satisfaction. Hochwater, Kiewitz, Gundlach and Stoner found that people who held low social efficacy beliefs performed better than individual who reported being more satisfies with their career than their high social efficacy equivalents.
Some says satisfaction at work is all about how an individual feel about his or her job and various characteristic of his or her of work. So it shows if any employee likes any part of his or her job he or she is satisfied but if they do not like any aspect of it they are unhappy and dissatisfied.
Walkup showed that motivated and satisfied employees are critical to the success of organization, especially service industries. Motivated and happy employees are the best way to ensure that customers receive great service and keep returning. Russ Umphenour one of the executives who participated in this focus grop study remarked," sales are driven by satisfied customers who are driven by satisfied employess". Optimal staffing has been shown to impact directly on staff morale and Job satisfaction which in turn transfers to the customers experience and the bottom line. People also get dissatisfied with their jobs simply because their jobs don't make meaning any more. Giving work that is meaningful seems the only way for managers to make their employees happy.
In a study of the effects of organizational communication on job satisfaction and motivation. Burton, Pathak and Zigli illustrate that role clarity problems leads to stress, tension, anxiety, dissatisfaction, turnover lack of job interest and less innovation. They also indicated that different workers from different working environments have varying degrees of role clarity needs.
Huang and Van de Vilert showed that the link between intrinsic job characteristics and job satisfaction is stronger in richer countries, countries with better governmental social welfare programs, more individualistic countries and smaller power distance countries. By contrast, extrinsic job characteristics are found that intrinsic job characteristics tend to produce motivating satisfaction in countries with good governmental social welfare programs irrespective of the degree of power distance, while they do not tend to work so in countries with poor governmental social welfare programs as well as large power distance culture.
In summary, as the literature reveals job satisfaction or dissatisfaction is a complex dynamic state which can be brought about many factors. Some factors are within employees themselves and they have a direct or an indirect control or influence over them. Some factors are outside the employees and employees may not have a direct or indirect control or influence over them. Also evident from the analysis of theories of motivation is the fact motivation and job satisfaction goes side by side in an employees work life both are important aspects of work life.
The research process onion of Saunders, Lewis &Thorn hill (2003) will guide the researcher in order to come up with the most suitable research approaches and strategies for this study. The research process union will be used as a basis to show the researcher's conceptualization of the most applicable research approaches and strategies that will lead to the gathering of the necessary data needed to answer the research questions stated, as well as to arrive to the fulfilment of this research undertaking's objectives. The research will use the descriptive method to determine the effects of employee motivation and job satisfaction to HSBC's business success. Descriptive research tries to explore the cause of a particular event or situation. It also wants to present facts concerning the nature and status of a situation, as it exists at the time of the study (Creswell 1994). In addition, such method tries to describe present conditions, events or systems based on the impressions or reactions of the participants of the research. Basically, a descriptive research utilizes observations and surveys. For this reason, the study calls for the use of this approach because it is a goal of the study to gather first hand information from bank managers and other people knowledgeable about risk management and financial stability.
Â The descriptive approach is also quicker and more practical in terms of financing. Moreover, this method will allow for a flexible approach, thus, when important new issues, probabilities, and questions come up during the duration of the study, a further investigation and confirmation may be allowed. Lastly this type of approach will allow for decisions to drop unproductive areas of research from the original plan of the study. The choice and design of methods are constantly modified during data gathering based on continuing analysis. This will give way for creation of an investigation of important new issues, concerns, probabilities and questions as they arose.Â
CHAPTER -3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
Study was conducted to examine the factors that cause satisfaction or dissatisfaction in the employees relating to job, employed by the South African broadcasting Corporation also known as BARCLAY. The study focused the analysis of the employees of the NEWS division of the Corporation. Also, the study will highlight the features that result in the satisfaction or dissatisfaction in regard with the job and reasons for the motivational level high in some employees and low in others of the journalistic staff of the NEWS division of the BARCLAY. The purpose of the study is to find the answer to a question: what makes some employees happy at work and others not?
H1: the real motivators and dissatisfaction results in the satisfaction caused by the hygiene factors
The study is based on the Herzberg's Two Factor Theory of motivation which states that there are two types of factors that interact in the employment condition which can make employees either satisfied (motivators) or dissatisfied (hygiene factors).