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As now day's companies are all over the places, so communication is the essential element of today's world. Face to face meetings are more appropriate when meetings are held internally or within the country. As like if a person had meeting with a corporate client who is based in same country then he does not need for virtual meeting and increase a cost. He can go to the person meet him face to face and also can judge him due to his behavior. We also find that an added assistance of face-to-face meetings is time away from an ordinary job and speed of communication for certain kinds of tasks. We conclude by noting restrictions in our data gathering and with instructions for additional study raised Schwartzman
Increase of attachment between team members is one of the examples of face to face meeting, as CMT'S CEO wants to open a new location in Asia due to many contacts and dynamic nature of the city. He has to personally meet his contacts before sending his team members, he might have thought of video conferencing or so but that can be held when the contact has been built up. CEO is supposed to go with his team members to show a support and strength to work in different location.
Another example our face to face meeting has was that it reinforced the importance of each of our relative roles within the team. Communication becomes easy for each member and contribution of points is simplified as well.
Thirdly, hollow the meaning of kick-off meetings, researchers have noted that face-to-face interactions are significant to produce and continue social contact that enable dispersed work. Urry (2002; 2003) dispute that instant of physical contact are vital for social life because physical co-presence is an significant way to build collection social investment since it provides an ability to determine dedication (Boden & Molotch, 1994) and put up faith.
Last example of face to face is existing research on face-to-face interactions in distributed teams suggests that these interactions will be used first for socialization to build or sustain team relationships (specifically trust, shared understandings and group cohesion) and second for work activities for which face-to-face interaction is better suited
Virtual teams take part in an increasingly significant role in many organizations, posing a practical difficulty for managers who must plan or oversee their work, as well as for team members who must learn to contribute effectively in this context. Virtual teams are increasingly common in many association and researchers have begin to struggle with their concerns. Lipnack and Stamps (1997) define a virtual team as, "a group of people who cooperate from side to side co-dependent tasks guided by common purpose" and work "across space, time, and organizational boundaries with links strengthened by webs of communication technologies".
Computer mediated meetings example would be that people can work from anywhere to anytime. Usually they don't have to fix a personal meeting face to face, just a gap of communication is linked. Video calling can be operated from the place where it is to another destination or country.
Another example of virtual communication can be that it saves time cause of the gap technology difference. During important conference call or video conference it can be arranged on spot for the conference to take place. According to , Qureshi & Zigurs the virtual team has made communication easy just like face to face meetings.
Thirdly Hinds and Weisband (2003) suggest that developing a shared understanding in virtual teams through shared experiences can influence the ability of teams to co-ordinate work and perform well. As the work will not be so scattered and overloaded. The work structure will be designed in such a way that virtual team can fully participate in activities by the organization.
Lastly the overall virtual meeting could be recorded for future references. To reduce workload of staff from papers and filings this would be easy way to keep and track records. People needed while at the virtual team are selected and can be called upon more.
KEY ELEMENTS IN SETTING UP THE CMTS SUBSIDIARY IN CHINA
One of the key elements in setting up the subsidiary is the recruitment and selection process. It will be a top priority to decipher the assumptions of the cultural choices as to how the practices will be customized and also as to how will their execution needs to be managed. The first issue and example of issue that CMTS will have to be aware of in hiring the local talent will be
- ? How to equivalent labor (education, age) will be accessed
Looking for the right person is always going to be one of the most important challenges which are going to be faced by CMTS especially because they are new with the environment of the local marketplace and the accessible human resources.
So CMTS will have to find the right candidate who has the skills and abilities to get the job done right and the person chosen should be able to fit in the existing corporate culture. CMTS will have to look at the various places where similar people will be found with the similar abilities, beliefs and values. The candidate should be well expertise, experienced and motive of the work should be well known.
The standard profile represented in UK, Germany and France can be quite different from the profile of China.
- ? Diverse national standards (skill, education, subject, language, university)
During recruitment in China, CMTS will have to recognize how to have way in to the corresponding employment pool.
The education systems are different in very country which makes it difficult for CMTS to figure out the one with the right profile. For example the college graduates of Germany students cannot reach the job market of until they reach the age of 28 years in comparison to the British graduates who can enter the job market at the age of 22. This can be a problem at times when the younger employees who have a lot of experience is assigned to an older manager who has more education.
The Local Talent also has very different types of skills and abilities which owe to the different types of skills and abilities which owe to the different national values placed on education, the amount and the subject.
One of the recent study which was based on the scenarios with the 300 managers in 25 from France, Germany, Italy, Spain and UK found that there are so many considerably differences in the attitudes towards the hiring practices. For example the English, French and Italians chose foreign multilingual employees with a generalist background while the Germans and the Spanish preferred to hire local employees with a more technical background.
CMTS will have to understand the different systems of education which can create obstacles to the recruitment in that candidates with similar education credentials may neither be able or willing to do the same job.
- ? Difficulties accessing the graduates from the prestigious universities
The graduates who come from the elite universities might not be interested in working for a foreign company like CMTS. CMTS may also face difficulty in accessing the most exclusive labor pools as there will be competition from the local companies to hire the graduates in their own companies.
For example the Japanese companies aggressively outbid each other in order to secure the graduates from the prestigious universities to work for them. The top students of the Tokyo University has launched complains because they are being stopped by the companies to meet the foreign companies during the annual recruiting season.
- ? How to recruit-agencies, personal connections
The cultural differences do not influence where the companies like CMTS need to recruit but they have to pass through the right channels of recruitment. For example the hiring process in China will require going through the governmental agencies such as the Foreign Enterprises Service Corporation Offices (FESCO) and the local labor bureaus and the personal connections. This can make the managers in the US not very comfortable with it and such practices are avoided there. However in more collectivist counties favoritism is the natural outcome of the logic of the interdependence. When an employer takes on one person a moral commitment is established. . The implicit understanding is that the employer will look after the employee and possibly for the family as well.
THE TWO SPECIFIC MODELS OF STRATEGY RELATED TO CULTURAL ASSUMPTIONS AND APPROACHES IN ADAPTING TO THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
The controlling model can be distinguishing as regional and formalized as stated by Susan & Jean (2002:p56). Upper institute may consult the expert professional to help in plan strategy. Official planned research unit can be acknowledged to expand strategy to be submitted to higher control or the board for contemplation. Authorized scanning units can in accumulation subsist that are in charge to track natural dealings. Scanning is determined and in control for obtaining the necessary knowledge.
Information is gained from the information of the business or the specialist and tends to be quantitative and determined as stated by Susan & Jean (2002:p56). For investigating the information the forecasting economic models and the structured scenarios can be used.
Based on this information and investigation, top organization makes the decisions and then hands them down to be implementing.
Performance engages careful expansion, set clear and precise target, open contact of what needs to be done.
According to Susan & Jean (2002:p57), the cultural assumption embedded in this model are:
- circumstances can be documented ( is intelligible and predictable)
- Exact information can be obtain (by active and purposeful scan) and analyze to reduce ecological generalization.
- Fact is permanent by maintain and facts manipulate with numerical model.
- Calculated visualization must be able to be articulated as real purpose, open and significant.
In link with the adapting model is supplementary decentralized and informal as stated by Susan & Jean (2002:p57). Accountability for strategy is inconspicuous all the way the alliance. Scan is broader base and less planned information is achieve from individual source, associates plus mates as well as from side to side check (field visits) and accordingly tends in the direction of the more qualitative and biased.
Information is translated from start to end to local grown or spontaneous models. Powerful debate is buoyant linking lots of public from all levels within the association. Planned decisions are possible to be reach agreement. (Socially constructed)
The fundamental assumptions in this model as stated by Susan & Jean (2002:p58):
- Situation cannot be eagerly recognized or limited. As a result the association must be stretchy and ready to act in comeback to unforeseeable environmental procedures.
- Individual relationships and links are measured to extend common thoughtful, therefore familiarity basis are more individual biased.
Controlling model is on the whole suitable with CMTS.
All decisions are made from the head office which implies to all the staff fundamentally to follow the directions. This model is proper because the surroundings is steady. Lower-level Manager is not skilled or talented to make executive decision.
The office in Sorrento, Italy is capable of making main decisions, as the Chief Executive Officer is a expert and accomplished with a ordinance management. This model makes use of the top managers who build the top decisions.
Controlling model will help to make use of the quantitative method of applying the in turn and facts of their branches and this will help to them develop more.
Calculating model is the most appropriate since the crucial point is on job to be capable and person's accomplishment content. Controlling is on the whole suitable since it assume surroundings to be recognized since it can be winning on conditions that the controlled grouping is identified.
It is mainly appropriate since senior managers create outstanding conclusion that is all judgment done by the top management. Controlling model is mainly appropriate because time is linear and segmented and so, it is easy to plan in totaling to be researched for.
POTENTIAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE GERMAN BRITISH AND THE CHINESE APPROACH TO MANAGEMENT PRACTICE.
The four value dimensions according to Hofstede in which the countries differed are as follows
- ? Power Distance
- ? Uncertainty avoidance
- ? Individualism/ Collectivism
- ? Masculinity/Feminity
Power distance indicates the amount to which the society accepts the unequal distribution of power of power and institutions and organizations.
According to hofstede power coldness is defined as the extent to which the less influential members if institutions and organizations recognize that power are dispersed unequally. In other words people in the high control distance cultures are more comfortable with a larger status differential that the low power distance cultures.
The key ideas of Power distance.
Centralization: People should depend on a leader. Less influential people should be more dependent on powerful . Subordinate expect to be told what has to be done.
Privileges' and position symbols for managers are both probable and popular. The commanding is entitled to privileges' and should not conceal their power.
Inequalities among the people are both expected and desired. Wide salary range between top and bottom of organization.
Teachers are gurus who transfer personal wisdom. They are treated with respect by students.
Organizations' in countries with high power distance would tend to have more levels of hierarchy (vertical differentiation)
Refers to the society discomfort with uncertainty prefer certainty and stability. This dimension refers to how relaxed people feel towards ambiguity. Culture which ranked low ( compared to other cultures), feel much more contented with the unknown . As a result high uncertainty avoidance cultures prefer formal rules and any uncertainty can express itself in higher nervousness that from low indecision avoidance cultures.
Subjective feeling of nervousness. The uncertainty inherent in life is felt as a permanent threat must be fought. Emotional need for rules even if they never work. Motivation by security and esteem or belongings'.
Consensus is important. Aggression and emotions may at correct times and places be ventilated.
Suppression of deviant ideas and behavior. Resistance to novelty. Low tolerance of deviant people and ideas. What is different is dangerous.
Respect for Laws and rules. Tight rules for children on what is dirty and taboo. Experts and authorities are usually correct.
In countries with high certainty avoidance organization would tend to have more formalization evident in a greater among rules and measures. Also there would be greater specialism evident in the importance attached to scientific competence in the role of staff and in defining jobs and functions. Managers would shun taking risks and would be irritated by stability and security. The role of leadership would be more one of planning organization, coordinating and other scheming.
THREE LEVELS OF CULTURE
Artifacts and Behavior
According to Susan & Jean (2002:p11) Cultural theory can be observed in the following areas
- Architecture and Design
- Greeting rituals
- Codes of address
Architecture and Design
Architecture and Design
Entering a production the mainly apparent artifact is the structural design of the building. Let's see the following examples of the following countries stated by Susan & Jean (2002:p11).
Chinese company repeatedly fined big, open, packed organization where everybody as well as the superior sits jointly.
Europeans like to feel the room in a bank, open, loud, overcrowded, strong message with everybody meaningful what everybody is doing.
UK open room place of work plan is too well-liked except this room for the most part expected to be separation off by half walls.
Germany work individual is more possible to come across personal office with closed door bearing official title.
France closed door does not indicate the similar require intended for solitude so a quick tap earlier than entering is fairly ordinary but in UK one waits to be invited after the knock in order to enter the office.
The study the artifact and performance to explore culture, greetings rituals participate an very significant function as stated by Susan & Jean (2002:p12).
UK do not give a lot of consequence to protocol but others take it quite seriously. For example the business negotiations can start off very badly if respect is not shown.
In France salutation are tremendously private. French people prefer to hand shake everyone instead of waving and saying a casual hi hello..
This is also a cultural artifact where the dress code is different as per the degree of formality. Nowadays people in the work place can wear casual clothes on Fridays and Saturdays.
These days the agreements of the business are negotiate by giving in writing or also by word of mouth. The French people agree verbally and by trembling their hands and this means that the deal is fixed and it's a matter of honors to respect it and to follow it.
Beliefs and Values
Beliefs are statement of detail regarding the mode things are. Values favour states about the method things have to be about principles. Values have an consequence on inspiration and supervision in diverse country. Diverse directorially associated values of employees and managers approximately the world exist.
Assumptions will replicate the attitude and principles with the meaning of original them. For example one assume meeting will begin on time so there is a mutual positive approach in the direction of promptness.
Culture provides an anchor to the countries, business and individuals and also provides guidelines of how to do manufacture according to the National Association of Social Workers (2002). It establish mode of behavior, presentation values, and method of commerce with interpersonal and environmental relations that will reduce uncertainty and increase obviousness and there by cheer people and expansion among members of society.
FUNCTIONS OF CULTURE
- 1. Culture helps contact by practice of a verbal message that is general.
- 2. Culture help anticipate how community will respond to procedures.
- 3. Culture gives the information and skill major for worshipper's sustenance requirements.
- 4. Culture assists to be on familiar terms with others of related environment.
Panico (2004) states that information of consumers, products, services and income have to be operate for the companies to keep on to be competitive.
One theme that constantly surface is the relationship between culture and nationwide competitive advantage. In today's global economy the businesses are searching for better ways to become more competitive as stated by Panico (2004).
A culture nurturing is needed for producing sustainable results and a lasting aggressive advantage.
A competitive advantage is recognized by looking at the costs of doing the business in a particular country.
The impact of culture of competitive advantage
According to Klein (1995), culture is one of the factors which improve the efficiency of the people, groups and organization. Culture will help to encourage the workers, and boost up their moral and develop obligation of planning and objectives.
The following are the impacts of culture giving a competitive advantage to the following areas:
Leadership and Culture
Culture helps the leaders who are familiar particularly those with task-oriented and people oriented skill and style, this helps to create optimistic cultures in the organizations and this creates a competitive advantage. Manager can take benefit of new information that can assist them to recognize and produce suitable culture and this will be a ready for action advantage as it will symbolize an influential and enable ability to utilize ecological opportunity and threats.
Performance and Culture
Culture provides strong support and is powerfully and completely related to association outcome as stated by Klein (1995). Culture foster the steadiness and constancy which help the organisation to protect their value and competitiveness
Cultural principles make clear the behavioral norm of members. Culture can improve the firm's flexibility and as a result its efficiency and presentation. It establishes relations among civilization and expressive and behavioral outcome, such as incentive, team efficiency, and devotion.
Motivation and Culture
Culture gives a competitive advantage by enhancing person motivation. The nature of the firm's culture provides important insight concerning a firm actions expecting for individuals.
It favours the teamwork, inspiration, and threat intriguing behaviours and in addition foster high level of inspiration which results as a competitive advantage to the firm as it satisfies the members.
Group Level Outcomes and Culture
Culture provides a physically powerful division level authority and a high level of internal unit synchronization as stated by Klein (1995). It help the member to have a physically powerful individual proposal and reasonable difficulty taking, challenge regulations with the intention of making common sense, and in addition develop sharing tasks among the team members.
Trust and Culture
Culture has a fair impact on quality regardless of the strategy adopted by the organization as stated by Klein (1995). This adds to the impact of culture as a competitive advantage to the organization.
[Assessed on 21st august 2009]
[Assessed on 22nd August 2009]