Challenges and Opportunities Being Faced by Leaders

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Nowadays, there are many issues faced by leaders, organizations, and society. There are many challenges in the modern world that force people to think creatively, to give new ideas, to invent and to move forward.

Issues and opportunities faced by leaders, organizations, and society as a whole are: security, trust, new technologies, communication and creativity. All these issues are important in the modern society and keep it constantly updated and alive. These issues and solutions can be seen in the articles The World's Growing Food-Price Crisis and Wikileaks news and analysis.

Different types of leadership such as transformational leadership, emotional intelligence, spiritual leadership, situational leadership, and chaos theory influence the society, the governments and the leaders. Transformational leadership reflects the theory and the changes of the individuals and society. Ideally, it creates positive change to become leaders that are essential for the modern society.

Emotional intelligence is a concept in psychology that describes the ability to recognize people's own feelings and those of others, as well as the ability to deal with them. Emotional intelligence is the ability to recognize feelings in self and others, and ability to handle them. The term was popularized by Daniel Goleman, in his 

famous book, "Emotional Intelligence", published in 1995. Goleman believes that emotional intelligence can be organized in five capacities: to know the emotions and feelings, manage, recognize, create your own motivation, and managing relationships.

Spiritual leadership is a servant leadership. Servant leadership can help to realize these opportunities and address the issues to the society. This kind of leadership intends the performance of the tasks by people that no one else wants to do. Jesus Christ Himself taught us, "just as the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many" (Matthew 20:28).

Chaos theory - is the mathematical apparatus, describing the behavior of certain online dynamical systems subject to under certain conditions, a phenomenon known as chaos. The behavior of such a system seems random, even if the model describing the system is deterministic. In leadership the chaos theory has its own "face" and peculiarities.

Situation Leadership is one of the most effective and commonly used models of leadership. Developed in 1968 by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard, it is based on the assumption that a good boss to his subordinate should provide what the latter needs to effectively carry out the tasks placed for him. Leadership, therefore, intends that the chief should be based on their influence on subordinates not only the chain of command but also built their authority (which builds through its governance).

 "Situation" is because the behavior of superior depends on the situation in 

which it is subordinate. The opinion of experts in organizational development consists of the few types of leadership.  For others, not that there are several types of leadership: leadership is one and, as leaders are people (individuals with personal characteristics defined), the classifications are the way they exercise or have acquired the power to direct, and a fact not necessarily imply that it is a leader. 

Arieu defines a leader as "a person capable of inspiring and associate others with a dream." It is therefore important that organizations have a mission high transcendent, since it is a powerful way to strengthen the leadership of its directors. There is a fundamental rule of leadership is the basis for a good leader, whatever it is, to perform effective leadership. Most authors named the gold standard in personal relationships, and it is easy, simple and very effective: "Do not put people in your place: put yourself in the place of the people." In short, as well as you treat the people they will treat you.  Charismatic leader: it is the leader who has the ability to generate enthusiasm. The leader is chosen by his way of giving their fans enthusiasm.

Leadership Developer. According to this classification, there are various styles of leadership: Autocratic leader: an autocrat leader assumes all responsibility for decisions, initiatesactions, directs, motivates and controls the ratings.

Entrepreneurial leader: a leader who adopts the participatory style uses the query to practice leadership. Not to delegate their right to make final decisions and points out specific guidance to his subordinates, but check their ideas and views on many decisions that affect them. Liberal Leader: Using this style of leadership, the leader 

delegates authority to subordinates to make decisions. Proactive leader: this type of leadership promotes the development of the potential of people, the way a gardener looks and powers your garden. Fearless Leader: This type of 

person is able to relate to many institutions and individuals, persuasive, critical, with

 positive outlook. It has the ability to consult others for decision makers. Frequently Ratings:  According to the formality of your choice Formal leadership: preset by the organization. Informal leadership: emerging in the group. 

According to the relationship between leader and followers, Leadership dictator, forces his own ideas in the group instead of allowing other members to be responsible, allowing them to be independent. It is inflexible and likes order. It also destroys the creativity of others.  Autocratic leadership: the leader is the only one in the group that makes decisions about work and organization of the group without having to justify them at any time. The evaluation criteria is used by the leader are not known to the rest of the group. Communication is unidirectional: from leader to subordinate.  Democratic leadership: the leader makes decisions after group discussion enhance, thanked the opinions of their followers. The evaluation criteria and standards are explicit and clear. When it comes to solving a problem, the leader offers several solutions, among which the group has to choose.  Paternalistic leadership is confident in his followers, making most of the decisions giving rewards and punishments at a time. His work is that employees work harder and better, encouraging, motivated and excited to potential rewards if they target.  Liberal leadership- the leader adopts a passive role, leaving the power in the group. At no time judge or evaluate the contributions of other group members. Group members enjoy complete freedom, and have the support of the leader only if asked. 

Depending on the leader's influence over his subordinates there is: 

Transactional leadership: members of the group recognized the leader as an authority and leader. The leader provides the resources considered valid for the group. 

Transformational or charismatic leadership: the leader has the ability to modify the scale of values, attitudes and beliefs of the followers. The main actions of a charismatic leader are discrepancies with the established and wishes to change, proposed a new alternative with the ability to excite and convince their followers, and the use of unconventional and innovative means to achieve change and be able to take personal risks. 

Authentic Leadership: the one leader who focuses on lead in the first place itself. He is a leader with great self, fair, spiritual, compassionate and generous. Only once the leader's mind can lead others.  Lateral Leadership: takes place between persons of the same rank within an organization or organizational or can also be defined as the process of influencing people of the same organizational level to achieve common goals with the organization.  Leadership at work: business evaluates two important features in the executive, with the intention of assessing its capacity to address: firstly, the ability and, secondly, the attitude. The first is obtained by learning new methods and procedures, such as the ability to construct a balance sheet, cash flow, floor plan or marketing plan. But in many cases these skills are not applicable, because managers lack a good attitude, that is, appropriate behavior to try to implement these methods. Among the most requested and attitudes required is leadership ability, the same can be cultivated but, according to many authors, is part of the individual personality. How to know if we are configured as leaders and, otherwise, how to develop these skills in ourselves? This is a topic of considerable debate and study, but it is necessary to discover if we have some leaders and what do we lack to be fully achieved. 

Other classifications. A classification of the type of leadership is the formal, which represents the direction of a working group or designated officially, another less obvious is the recognition by members of an informal institution that has great influence, but a free, non pay and so charismatic. In sociological studies of community development and participatory observation, these people are key to the field. In the decade of 1970 several Spanish sociologists studied the issue of the role of 'informal leaders' as a relevant topic of the sociology of the organization. 

Leadership can also be classified as follows: individual leadership (role model), 

executive leadership (planning, organization, direction and control of a project) and

institutional leadership.

When leadership is needed, usually for office in an organization, we speak of formal leaders. Thus, this leader should have certain skills: communication skills, organizational skills and administrative efficiency, which is to say that a good leader is a person responsible, communicative, and organized. Credibility: The Basis of Successful Leadership. According to the authors of the book, the key to successful leadership is based on credibility. Credibility is defined as having the quality of being believable or seems real. Credibility is important for any leader since people are more willing to follow someone if you can believe what that person says and does. One must remember that there is a difference between management and leadership.  There are six disciplines that are key to credibility: 

1. Discovering oneself; 

2. Appreciating constituents; 

3. To assert shared values; 

4. Build capacity; 

5. Serve a purpose; 

6. Sustaining hope.

All in all, the values and beliefs that are needed by leaders to realize these opportunities can be generated after the evaluation of the needed issues and the obvious challenges that the society faces. The articles of The World's Growing Food-Price Crisis and Wikileaks news and analysis show the people's influence, the leaders, the feedback and opinion of the society considering the main issues of the situation. Leadership is an indispensable quality that has to be present in society and to lead it to the future.