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Background of research:
Communication in a multi national organization plays a vital role and its one of the most important aspect from business point of view. Communication is vital for personal and professional communication. Communication can be both formal and informal by which the message can be conveyed between the managers and employees with in a business, or between the company and outsiders. Communication can be many was whether written, verbal, visual, electronic or non verbal but all has a special impact on the business conducted
In the early years of corporate America, company managers were communicating in top- down format. Owner or the boss of the company use to pass the rules to the manager and the some rule was passed by the manager to the employee or the down-level employee and it was followed by the employee. Such kind of management attitude had little to input and the lower level had no chance to discuss there issue and issue were discussed behind the closed doors. Which led to the growth to form labor union .this kind labor union had a power to slow or shut down the productivity until the management fulfills the demands of the employee. And in solve the issue the corporations eventually set up communication system where the higher authority, manager and file members use to speak their mind to the union leader and representative. And organization started to implement what union said and eventually realized that the employee can be useful input in organization growth. So more opportunities were increased and many employee took this chance positively and jumped in and this kind of communication came to called as bottom - up communication.
In today's business environment , most company wants and encourages the employee to take an active role in the company and views which can improve the productivity or which can leads to the growth of organization are appreciated and rewarded as well and the ideas are been passed to the higher authority. In modern business environment .there are regular employee and management meeting are held and in the meeting the lower -level employee can stand up and ask the higher - level manager a direct question with full expectation that there will be proper and direct answer in return. And now a day manager's visit factories and service center area to observe the employee job and ask its opinion rather than reading just the review. This kind of communication helps the boss to keep in touch with employee and in this form communication plays a vital role. (www.referenceforbussiness.com).
Aim of the research:
The research aims to identify and investigate how the channels of communication can be improved in an multi- national company between the employee .
Objective of the research:
The objective of the research is to find out the importance of communication in a multi- national organization. What is the link between corporate business and communication in an organization? And what are the different channels of communication in an multinational organization and how this different channels directly or indirectly effect or make difference in a organization and what are the skills required to develop a positive and productive communication in an organization. How this intercultural communication in a multi- national organization can be effective and positive from business point of view. In this the researcher aim is to find and analyze how the channels of communication can be improved in a multi - national organization which leads to a profitability of the organization.
Literature review is the process of the selected research topic which is evaluated and helps to understand the context of the selected research topic. And in this section, we deal with the barriers and importance of communication in a multinational organization and its influence in the organization.
The barriers of communication in an organization:
A good effective communication in a business is necessary and specially in this competitive business world. A good communication in an organization will alone lead the employee to success. A team member will be able to take a profitable and productive decision in favor of the organization but the knowledge of barriers in communication can be good for employee and important for human resource professional so that they can take different techniques to deal with the communication issue. And some of commonly observed communication problem in business are as follows.
Language barriers are major issue and lack of language knowledge can also be one of the biggest problems in an organization workplace and this specially observed in multi- national organization where employee work from different countries, with different nationality and they speak different languages as their mother tounge is different. This is a big issue but can be sort it out by the senior managers.
Cultural barriers :
Different culture people working together can be lead to cultural barriers and which can be one kind of communication barriers in the multi- national organization. this basically because people belonging from different country and cultures. Employee may find it difficult to communicate and feel hesitant to mix up with each other. Cultural diversity in the workplace can help greatly in dealing with this kind of issues in an organization. HR manager should come up with some unique idea and try to solve this complicated issue.
3)Less grasping power:
If listener has less grasping power can lead to communication differences in the business. In a communication between employee and manger the listener has have good active and passive listing skills. If the listener has does not have good listening and detail knowledge on the subject of discussion, then communication gets more complicated and take more time. And this kind of communication barriers can be avoided by extensive research and training to the employee.
Importance of good communication in multi-national organization:
Effective communication of information and decision is one of the essential component in management and employee relationship. There any other features of communication. It can also work as a motivational tool .all different ways of communication are vital and important it can be written, oral, verbal or non-verbal communication
1) Increase productivity and efficiency:
In a multi- national organization when there is proper communication takes place between the employee and the management level. The perfect information is been conveyed between employee which leads to proper action. And as there is less scope of misunderstanding between employees indirectly increases the productivity and services in an efficient manner..
2) Employee job satisfaction:
A good communication in workplace provides a clear path and by this the higher-level and lower can communicate with each other and solve workplace conflicts and problem amongst themselves. By good communication with in workplace will give good scope and will be accepted in healthier manner by both the parties manager and employee. This will decrease the problems and conflicts that the organization faces .and it will increase the productivity and services in the organization. along with that, the employee will get scope to improve their work and will be motivated when they do good work and duties . every time they make mistake or were unable to perform some duties the management can communicate with the employee and get the result in future and healthy communication will eventually lead to satisfaction at work.
3) Convey messages:( http://www.buzzle.com)
Effective communication allows a process to take place. A sender sends a message through a medium and the receiver receives it and then the receiver reviews it and gives the feedback to the sender. With out this process no two people can communicate effectively. Hence, no work or information will be send or received which will lead to no work done so effective communication in vital to convey messages.
We can understand that the channels of communication plays an important an organization.
According to Johnson p, research methodology is the process of gathering data related to research topic. It helps the researcher by showing the different ways to conduct the research and the systematic ways to solve the research problem (Johnson p, 2000)
In the research methodology section, the researcher needs to follow certain steps, which helps the researcher to make the research, the ways to collect the data and the ways to analyze the data which is gathered.
According to Saunders M, Lewis P and Thronhill A, we can classify the research methodology into 8 basic types based on the ways of collecting the data.
Theoretical- in the theoretical type of research methodology the research is based on the experiment and some kind of hypothesis as to be used by the researcher to begin the research process
Applied- in this type of methodology is not suitable for generalized cases and can be used for individual cases and it is empirical and suitable for real world problems.
Analytical- in this method the researcher need to rely on the facts and available data to reach the solution to research problem. This research method aims to find out the reasons for the research problem. For example how and why it happened so?
Descriptive - as the name indicates the research methodology, this method use descriptive ways to find a solution to the research problem.
E,[orocal- this methodology is based on the experimental approach of data collection and it increases the possibility that result of the research finding supports the hypothesis of the research. This empirical method also based on the observation way of collecting the data.
Conceptual- in this method the researcher need to rely on the existing data and interpret the existing data or develop new theories, which help the researcher to get the solution to the research problem.
Quantitative- in the quantitative method the data collected is based on the numerical data . the method depends of mathematical calculations and the statistical reports. The results are in numerical number. Some of the statistical terms used in this type of research method are mean, median, etc.
Qualitative- the results for the qualitative analysis prepared on the basis of facts of on the basis of the trend in the chosen sample size. It is not based on the numerical data and it depends on the quality of the chosen sample or colour of the chosen sample ( Saunders M, Lewis P and Thronhill A, 2007)
In the given research problem we can choose any of the above defined research methodology. Let us assume we are going to use the quantitative analysis for this research problem.
Data collection methods
It is the term used to represent the way to collect data related to the research problem. There are two types of data type primary data and the secondary data. The way in which the data collects decides whether the data is primary or secondary.
In the research problem we can use the primary data. There are many ways to collect the primary data. The different ways to collect the primary and secondary data are described in the following paragraphs.
Ways to collect the primary data
There are many different ways that a researcher can make use to gather the primary data. Primary data is the data which comes directly from the sample size. The nature and accuracy of the collected data depends on the method of data collection and the selection of the sample size and location of the research. The different methods to collect the primary data are observation, interviews and printed or mailed questionnaires.
Observation method - in this method the researcher observes a limited sample size and findings are made on the basis of the observation. It is suitable when the researcher has a very limited number of samples and has enough time to finish the research.
Interviews- by this method, the researcher directly or indirectly asks a set of predefined questions to the interviewee and the gathered data is used for the analysis purpose. The researcher can either conduct direct or telephonic interview with the interviewee and it is necessary for the researcher to prepare a set of questions which is related to the research topic. This method is also suitable when the chosen sample size is small.
Questionnaires - this method of data collection suitable when the researcher need to collect a large number of data. The researcher needs to prepare a questionnaire and answers for the questions should be a one word or the researcher needs to provide a set of options from which a person can choose. Nowadays we can see the researchers use free websites or online tools (for example survey monkey website) to gather the data or the researcher may email the questionnaires to the participants email address.
In the research problem we can use the questionnaire method to collect the data from the participants.
Ways to collect the secondary data
We can gather the secondary data by making use of the existing information or by referring the previous researches conducted by a trusted person or even we can make use of the reports of some trusted sources.
For example sometimes it is necessary for the researcher want to know the profit earned by a company in a short period time and in this case we can say that the company's annual report is an example for the secondary data source.
In the research we can choose the quantitative analysis as the research methodology and questionnaire as the way to gather the data from the sample size.
Set the sample size and location for the data collection
The researcher needs to find a sample size which should represent the entire population and should be capable of producing an unbiased result for the research problem. The researcher can not include the entire population in the sample and can randomly choose items from the large population.
In the give n research problem we can choose the sample size as 50 people from the population. The sample should contain employees working for the branded organisations and fresh graduates who all are looking for job. In the questionnaire we can include questions related to measure the effectiveness of the retention techniques and the employer branding. In the questionnaire the researcher can include both the popular employers and unpopular employers. For instance the researcher can asks the participant about the organisations which would they likes to work with. In the research we can classify the sample size 50 into 25 employees from the people working in the Sainsbury and 25 from the local people of the selected area.
The researcher can approach the above mentioned set of people from the population. It is necessary for the researcher to prepare a schedule for the data collection and can choose a particular location for the data collection.
Set timetable for the data collection activities.
It is necessary for the researcher to set a date and a time for the collection of data related to the search. By doing this the researcher can track the number of days taken for each activity in the research.
Data analysis and findings
After the collection of the data, the researcher needs to evaluate the collected data. The researcher can categorise the data on the basis of age, work and sex and can prepare the information on the basis of that.
For example in the current research if we apply the data analysis we may get results similar to that of the following. Out sample size is 50.25 males participated in the survey or 40 people love to work with the branded employers.In this stage the researcher can avoid the unwanted samples from the sample collection and remove the samples which seem to avoid the occurrence of an unbiased result. After the data analysis process, the researcher gets the real data required for the research.
Methods to reveal the research findings
Once the researcher filtered the collected data, it is necessary to display the findings with the help of some graphs or charts. The common tools used in this method are the scatter diagrams, bar charts and pie diagrams. Sometimes it is necessary for the researcher to use some statistical calculations like mean, median, correlations and graphical displays such as scatter diagrams or regression analysis graphs.
As we have chosen the quantitative analysis method and questionnaire method we can make use of some diagrams to represent the findings of the research. For example we can use pie diagrams or bar charts to represent the number of respondents for a particular question.
In the case of qualitative analysis, the researcher can use some tabular forms to compare the features of the sample.
Scope of the research
In the given research, the researcher has limited the size of the sample to 50 people and the result of the research based on the responses from the chosen sample. The researcher needs to choose the sample to get an unbiased solution to the research problem. In the research, the researcher have chosen 25 employees from the Sainsbury supermarket and 25 people from the public and the data collected from these two groups using the questionnaires.
In this section the researcher needs to give much importance to the privacy of the participants in the data collection methods. In the research, the research does not want to collect any personal information from the participants. If the researcher has the details of the participants, the researcher has no rights to use the data with out the consent from the respective person. According to Resnik B D ,the persons who all participated in the data collection method should be independent of the influence of any third parties and the researcher needs to give equal opportunity to all to participate in the data collection process (Resnik B D, 2009).
Preparation of research schedule using the Gantt chart
According to Barkley B T, the researcher can make use of the Gantt chart to identify the length of the whole research process. It also the researcher to break down the research in to different processes and shows the effective ways to finish the research in time. It shows how the researcher can carry out more than one task at a time (Barkley T, 2006).
In the given research also if we apply the Gantt chart, we can break down the processes in to different parts and allocate a particular time schedule for them. it helps the researcher to conduct more than one process at the same time.
The report helped me to identify the importance of channels of communication and it gives me insight of how communication play vital role and can be improved and I can make use of these learned things n my final dissertation.