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Non-Profit Organisations: The Purpose of this type of organisations is different from The Goldenstate Manufacturers because they are established for the social purposes for instance to help poor people, giving grants away. And the reason for the establishment is to serve the community and take care of the people as compared to the Goldenstate manufacturers they only based on their profit. Examples of this type of organisations are Greenpeace, Red Cross.
Governmental Organisations: The Purpose of these organisations is to administrate the specific functions, perform specific work and comply with the rules and regulations made by the government which differs it from The Goldenstate Manufactures. The aim for the establishment could be look after the community, provide them safe and secure environment rather than making profit like Goldenstate manufacturers. Examples for this type of organisations are Army, Police.
Public owned organisations: The purpose of this type of organisations could be profit making but spend all for the community development as compared to the Goldenstate Manufactures. And the reason for the establishment is to provide employment to the local community, Make the environment clean which is quite dissimilar to the Goldenstate Manufactures. Examples can be public trusts.
The first role that Mark as a CEO of the company need to carry out is Figurehead, as he has to communicate with the people across the organisations and also represents the company to the outside world.
The second Role/function is planning, as part of his job planning is very important. The process of thinking before doing is called planning. He needs to be pre-planned of the future aspects to run the company to get the objectives.
Carl (Operational Manager):
The first role/function is to co-coordinate with every section. As an operational manager his job should be helping each and every section under him to achieve their goals. Otherwise sections may work at cross purposes if their efforts and activities are not properly coordinated.
The second role/function could be as a Disturbance Handler because he is the one in the organisation, who needs to take initiative, dealing with conflicts from different departments.
Quality Control Manager:
The first function that he needs to be followed is controlling the quality of the product. Also, his aim should be to check that products and services carried out by the organisation meets the internal and external requirements.
The role for the quality control manager can be act like a monitor, as he has to monitor and advise the performance of the quality system and also produce reports on the performance and match it with the standards.
Research and Development Manager:
The function of the research and development manager needs to be finding and developing new products for manufacturing and also processes in accordance with market demands and applying new technologies
The role that needs to be followed is acting as a leader. Duties as a leader includes lead key projects with Research and development to support business goals, communication with people at all levels to get the information.
Sol: It can be clearly seen that Goldenstate Manufacturers as a large textile manufacturing company is not meeting its purposes effectively. Following are the reason behind this:
Company's Production has dropped by 20% over the past 18 months.
Customer complaints have increased as per the quality of the goods is not up to the standards.
Operation department is much disorganised.
General Managers of some departments are not effective in reaching the purposes of the organisation.
Staff turnover is high in some of the departments.
Leadership skills: Leadership skills are the ability of someone to make decisions and inspire other to perform better. An effective leadership skill helps the person to set and achieve the challenging goals and to make decisive action in difficult situations.
Interpersonal skills: Interpersonal skills are used by a person to interact with others at different levels in the organisations. People with goods interpersonal skills can be represent his team or whole organisation as a figurehead or a leader.
Delegation Skills: Delegation skills help a person to complete a task very responsibly by delegating it to the right person. It also helps to bring the responsible staff to the front and helps them to develop their skills.
Performance Management skills: Performance management skills help the manager to check the performance of his team or staff effectively. It includes interviews with the staff, monitor the work.
Sol: why these skills are important:
Leadership skills: This skill is very important for someone to effectively lead the team. It could be very important for James, The Dyeing Manager to properly manage the staff under him as we can see his staff is unmanaged due lack of leadership skills.
Interpersonal skills: These skills are very important for Carl, the General Manager of Operations to communicate at all levels. Due to absent of these skills he finds it hard to communicate with higher levels and also at same level people to him.
Delegation Skills: The skills are highly valued for the managers of all the departments of Goldenstate Manufactures but mainly in the knitting and finishing departments because their staff turnover is high. Staff can be motivated through delegating those jobs and give them autonomy for specific tasks.
Performance Management skills: These skills are important for Carl, the General Manager of Operations to check the performance of each department because of the largest department in the company which is not performing well. It can be done through the managers at each department and managers can further apply these skills to check the performance of their staff and report it to Carl.
Sol: From all of the leadership theories, I think Ron; the finishing Manager closely aligns with Behavioural Theory. As we can see he follows the same approach as of the Adam, the knitting manager who is more likely follows autocratic approach. Adam believes in "My Way or No Way". Ron's Leadership is autocratic because his leadership depends on Adam's Behaviour. In the case study it can be clearly seen that his autocratic behaviour on the staff is not allowing them to do the things without his knowledge.
Leadership Style- Adam, the Knitting Manager: From the case study, it is quite cleared that Adam follows the autocratic Leadership style, as his philosophy is "My way or no way" which is more of the autocratic. He has control over all the decisions for his staff and he does not allow any staff member to do the things without his knowledge.
Leadership Style- James, the Dyeing Manager: The leadership style of James is Laissez-Faire. James is much relying on his staff, as he does not care if the workers do their job or not. He gives full freedom to the staff and follows a completely hands-off approach, which is more likely an approach that is followed by Laissez-Faire style.
Leadership Style- Adam, the Knitting Manager: According to my point of view, I think Autocratic leadership style of Adam is not appropriate. following are the reason why this style is not appropriate:
Due to his autocratic behaviour staff is unable to contribute ideas in any decisions made by him which results in lack of creative solutions.
Staff turnover is high in his department which is the reason of his autocratic behaviour.
Leadership Style- James, the Dyeing Manager: The Laissez-faire style following by James does not seem appropriate. Due to the following reasons I believe that this style is not suitable:
Laissez-faire style is not ideal in his department because staff members lack the knowledge that they need to make decisions and complete tasks. Dyeing department is always behind the deadlines to complete their task, as stitching department waits for them to get the fabrics.
Because of the more freedom to staff, they do not care about their manager, does not work on time and not effectively which leads to poor quality of work.
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory:
Herzberg's two-factor theory states that there are different factors which influence the people in different ways that affects their behaviour to work. Some of them cause job satisfaction and other job dissatisfaction. Job satisfaction factors are called satisfiers (motivating factors) and job dissatisfaction factors are called dissatisfiers (Hygiene factors). This theory tells the difference between both the hygiene and motivating factors. To motivate someone there is the need to increase satisfiers (Motivating Factors) and also keeping in mind not to ignore the dissatisfiers (Hygiene Factors).
Difference between the two factors:
Motivators gives positive satisfaction that arise from basic conditions of the job such as Achievements, Recognition, Responsibility, Advancement, Personal Growth whereas Hygiene factors does not give positive satisfaction. The hygiene factors could be Status, Security, Relationship with the Subordinates, Salary, Work Conditions, Company policies.
To motivate Carl:
To motivate Carl, Mark has to identify his Hygiene factors which are sticking Carl to the workplace. Even though these factors do not give positive satisfaction for long period but still if these factors are absent, they may lead to dissatisfaction from the job. In Carl's situation the hygiene factors could be status, Recognition as he is more strict and firm in his job. Other factors can be loyalty, pay, job security, as he has been working for this company for long time. After identifying the satisfiers, the next thing that Carl has to do is to think about how he can satisfy his motivational factors. The things that he can do are set goals for Carl to achieve some targets such as makes the clothes ready before the deadlines, Increase production by 10% in 1 year. And if he achieve his targets given to him, he will be promoted to the higher position or he will get increase in salary as well as an extra bonus will be given to him if he successfully reaches the target of increase in 10% of production target. These are the satisfiers which can motivate him to do the goods job and by this his dissatisfaction to the job can be avoided.
Sol: Following are the four ways that Adam must do to motivate his staff and also how he might do these:
In the case study it is quite cleared that Adam's approach is autocratic. He is too strict to his staff do not allow them to take initiates. The first way that he has to do to motivate the staff is to change his leadership style from autocratic to democratic. The thing which lacks in the department is I think trust between staff and manager which makes the staff to look for another jobs. To do so, he can delegate jobs to his staff which can create trust between him and staff. This is the factor for staff to be motivated. And leads staff to remain in the job for longer periods.
Another reason for staff leaving the job is they are not always cleared about the task that they are doing and they get much pressure from the manager to do it. They gets de motivated and looks for other opportunities. So the thing that Adam must do is make the communication clear between him and his staff and communication should not be one way. He might do this by organising meetings with the staff before handing over them any task and also makes the meeting open for suggestions and also get their feedback to check how cleared they are about the task that is given to them.
One more way to motivate staff that he must do is check the future aspirations of the staff to know if they do not feel that they can achieve their future goals in this organisation. That can be biggest reason for them to leave the job and to join other organisations. To check their future goals he might sit with each of the staff and ask them about their future aspirations and he can promise them if they do their work properly, he will help them to fulfil their aspirations.
Providing them more attractive, healthy and safe environment could be the other way that can make the employees to stay on. Adam might do this by making sure the furniture and equipments in the department complies health and safety requirements. Make rest rooms for the employees where they can take time out.
Sol: Benefits of delegation for Ron:
Increases motivation: In the case study Ron follows autocratic approach and he does not allow staff to take initiatives. If he delegates the task to the staff, it can create the trust between him and his staff which makes the staff to be motivated. When staff gets new tasks and opportunity, responsibilities they will be motivated to do their best to get the job done. Delegation also gives a message to the staff that you trust them.
Opportunity for the staff to develop the skills: The other benefit of the delegation is staff development. If Ron delegates the task to any staff, it gives the opportunity to the staff to develop his skills. In this way new leaders can be formed in the department. More skilled people in the department bring more productivity to the work.
Time management: As in the case study it is cleared that finishing department always go up the deadlines to send the fabrics to the stitching departments. Time management is the bigger thing that they have to think about. By delegating the tasks to the staff Ron can manage the time properly. This could actually save his time as the work will be divided within the staff on behalf of their skills and the results will be more effective than the usual ways. At the end finishing department will easily finish their work within the deadlines.
Sol: Steps for the effective delegation:
Selecting the task and find appropriate person: Choosing the task is the first step for Ron to do because there are some tasks that involve sensitive or confidential information that cannot be delegated. For Ron he can only delegate the tasks which do not want much supervision and quality for example shrinking tasks of fabrics. Finding appropriate person for the delegated task is the second step to be followed. It is very important for Ron to spend a lot of time to find the person who meets the required criteria and has the ability to do the delegated task of shrinking for example to dedicate the above task of shrinking he has to check the skills of the staff.
Define the task and outcomes that needed: After choosing the task and delegate it to the appropriate person, the next step is for Ron to define the task properly to the delegated person and also ensure that the person has fully understanding of the task and also explain the expected results for the task. For example to do the above shrinking task Ron will define the shrinking process completely to the staff and also get the agreement from the staff which can be in writing or verbal. Ron will also tell him that what results he has needed from him. For example the outcome for the above task can be shrink 100 products in one week to meet the deadlines.
Provide resources: The third step of the effective delegation is to provide resources needed for the task to accomplish. The resources can be anything for example money, information about the process and also the different ideas and viewpoints from the previous experiences. In Ron's situation he can provide documentation to do the shrinking process, finance, shrinking machines, shrink manuals and also labour which will help him to finish the process.
Track and monitor the work: The next very important step is to track and monitor the task while the Staff is working on it. It is very important to monitor the task to get the expected results. Ron can do the monitoring by communicating with the staff, and get the feedback time to time to ensure that staff is on the right track to accomplish the task. Ron can set the timelines for the staff to provide the feedback to him in every 2 days. This will help him in the case if something wrong happens in between the task such as if they run out of the fabrics. Ron will immediately resolve it if he will be aware of the issue.
Evaluating the results: The last step in the effective delegation is evaluation. Evaluation process includes check the results meets the requirement and also check for any errors that has faced during the process. Ron can do this by checking the quality of the shrunk fabrics with respect to the previous shrunk clothes. Also, if they are not meeting the quality standards check the mistakes and errors that has found during the shrinking process. Ron has to also check the performance of the staff responsible for the task. If he worked well, choose him for the future tasks and also give him appreciation and rewards for effectively finishing the task.