EFFECTS OF ATTITUDES,ORGANISATION CHARACTERISTICS AND EXTERNAL MARK...

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

By; Kamran Maqbool Supervised by; Mr Muhammad Ilyas

The purpose of this research study is to un-rust the reasons of turnover intentions in private sectors universities in Lahore. There may be several factors involved why an employee leaves their organisation. It could be a voluntary turnover where the employees choose to leave the organization or otherwise. Some of these reasons include better career opportunities, increased compensation, boredom with current tasks and market forces etc.On the other hand, Involuntary turnover would occur when employees are asked to leave for reasons including poor performance or inappropriate behavior. Turnover has both monetary and non-monetary consequences as an after myth of the turnover. These costs include separation processing, recruitment, new-hire training, lower productivity, loss of revenue and team morale but he would have the thought of high risk high gain during voluntary turn over.

In the global village the dilemma to uncertainty regarding organization is pulling out the market external forces and somewhere, that uncertainty creates anxiety. This research study is to un-rust the relation among turn over intention with gender bias, institutional commitment, perceived organisation alternatives, organization commitment, perceived competitive pay, organization characteristics and task significance. The result of this research study make clearer the path and the performance of the employee with unearthing the hurdle or factors for retaining in the same institution.

Keywords: attitude; organisation characteristics; external market; employee turnover intentions; private sector universities

Country; Pakistan.

Field of Research: Human Resource Management

Introduction

Pakistan which is at the verge of economics destruction because of economic political and natural calamities, thence it the need of the time to emerge the systematic enhancement in the standard of education and stop the brain drain or otherwise. Present research study is an attempt to test the factors of turnover intentions among university employees. So far the competitive environment among the Pakistani universities are being emerged during that caused the scarcity of competent and qualified teachers whose are every rare-some. Pakistan is one of the countries where literacy rate is relatively very low. Apart from other factors, employees/teacher uncertainty regarding job can be considered a major reason for low literary rate. So far few of the Pakistani universities could be able to rank among top 500 universities of the world, yes which is appreciable with in limited resources. Government of Pakistan is also emphasizing the growth and development of university teachers/employees with various initiatives. In this situation it is very important to find out the determinants which can reduce the employees' turn over in Pakistani universities. The objective of this research is to provide facilitation towards the decision making in universities across Pakistan. which can improve the performance of University employees and especially teachers. The present research study could be a great assistance to human resource managers of private sector universities in Pakistan for formulation and implementation of HR practices that will ensure high level of employees' performance resulting in increased achievement and learning among students whose are the end product of universities.

Methodology:

The population selected for this research study was service sectors especially private sectors universities of Punjab in Lahore. The sampling frame for this research study includes 13 private sectors universities of Punjab. More over, researcher had used random sampling for quantitative and qualitative data collection. Researcher also took the informed consent form the employees of the private sector universities.

The questionnaire for this research study was a self -administered instrument, which probed work history, demographic, and perceived management variables. The questionnaire was constructed to gather information to answer the research questions put forth. Questionnaires were given to the employees at private universities and a personal interview to determine the relevant factors which were not included on the survey instrument/questionnaire and so that real objectives of research could be fulfilled. The qualitative questions was open ended and asked respondents to identify specific reasons for departing the institution.

The participants included full time university teachers from 13 leading private sector universities of Pakistan. A total 115 questionnaires were distributed By and large 94 were received back making response rate as 82% and a sufficient sample size was collected for study of outcomes. Lahore is called the heart of Pakistan where 14 private sectors and 12 public sector universities are being functioned out of that we had taken 94 samples for the qualitative and quantitative study from private sectors universities.

Content Validity:

Content validity was used to evaluate the questionnaire.

Mixed Research:

The researcher had used qualitative and quantitative techniques to explore topics and explain other findings linked to her research.

Purpose Of Choosing Qualitative And Quantitative Method:

The purpose of the research study was to investigate the causes of employees turnover because of management styles (insuffiecient HR practices) in Pakistan.thence it was very compulsory to used quantitative and qualitative method. The findings of such an investigation would be useful in refining personnel practices and hopefully decreasing the incidence of organization-linked employee turnover in the private sector universities in Lahore. The outcomes of the reliability testing, descriptive study, linear regression, Pearson correlation coefficients, and study of variance (ANOVA) was used for proceeding findings.

Research Model:

Our research was based on the following model.

This model put forward that organizational commitment mediates the influences of organizational contentment, organization characteristics and perceived competitiveness of pay on turnover intention. Perceived organization alternatives directly influence or sensitized the organizational commitment and turnover intention. Turnover intention mediates the correlation between organizational commitment and actual turnover.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Previous studies have had continuously depicts that individuals who were highly commemorated to their institution would be less likely to ponder about departing the institution (Iverson & Buttigieg, 1999; Jaros, 1997). This accessory to the institution is usually called organizational commitment. Meyer and Allen (1997) suggested that a "dedicated employee is one who will stay with the institution through thick and thin in every regard, attends work frequently, puts in a whole day, protects company assets(tangible and intangible) and who contribute to company goals'. Organizational commitment emerged thence an employee's need and whishes and desires were contented in the institution and their talent and expertise were being consumed and utilized. In contrast to organization contentment that is linked to the organization, institutional commitment emphasizes links to the institution. Institutional commitment is also relatively more stable and emerged over time as compared to organization contentment, which may vary day-to-day (Mowday, Porter and Steers, 1982; Thatcher, Stepina and Boyle, 2003).

The causal research study of organization contentment, institutional commitment and strain/anxiety on turnover intentions (Elangovan, 2001) yielded support to the following sturdy causal associations;

Job Stress

Job Satisfaction

Organizational Committment

Turnover Intention

Only institutional commitment straightly influence turnover intentions. Institutional commitment has a very sturdy downbeat effect on turnover intentions. This means the lower the institutional commitment, the higher the propensity for an employee to leave. Organization contentment and organization strain/anxiety did not directly affect turnover intention but only through institutional commitment. The implication is that any intrusion intended at affecting turnover needs to spotlight more on weight institutional commitment, relatively than organizational contentment. Other studies which showed similar associations include Igbaria & Guimaraes (1993) and a research study conducted by Healthcare Register (2001).

Griffeth, Hom and Gaertner (2000) evaluate five hundred correlations from 42 studies. This meta-study concluded that demographic factors such as gender and race were modestly influential. In regard of by and large organizational contentment, career facade were originated to be better turnover forecatsers and by and large organizational contentment was the best forecatser of turnover. A meta-study of turnover intention among accountants by Dole and Schroeder (2001) endow with similar findings with Griffeth et al. (2000). Chiu and Francesco (2002) scrutinized the associations between turnover intention and positive affectivity and downbeat affectivity, and the mediating functions of organizational contentment and affective commitment in those associations. They originated turnover intention to be down beatly linked to positive affectivity, organizational contentment and affective commitment. Organizational contentment and affective commitment mediate the correlation between positive affectivity and turnover intention. By and large, the outcomes pointed out no significant correlation between downbeat affectivity and turnover intention.

A qualitative research study of turnover intention of graduates in their near the beginning career (Jane S. & David G. 2001) depicted that the most imperative group of factors weight the level of commitment was whether the `pre-join' anticipation of the occupation have been met. These prospects were in esteem to the kind of organization they were placed, line of business management assists given and training and development they received. The second group of factors was culture and climate of the institution concerning whether they felt they fitted in and the quality of correlation they enjoyed at work. The third group of factors was whether they can balance work/home life harmony, recognition and reward for achievement and career growth.

Findings

This study establish that `Job Satisfaction' is the foremost forecatser of `Turnover Intention' among Universities Employees. It is also establish that Perceived Competitiveness of Pay and Job Feedback are the forecatsers for Job Satisfaction.

The correction study outcomes endow with evidence of the relationships between Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention among Employees in Universities. Job Satisfaction is positively linked to Organizational Commitment, and Organizational Commitment is negatively linked to Turnover Intention.

In this study, both `Job Satisfaction' and `Organizational Commitment' are negatively linked to `Turnover Intention'. The regression study generated a model that gave accent on Job Satisfaction, Perceived Competitiveness of Pay and Job Feedback in forecasting Turnover Intention. The importance of Perceived Competitiveness of Pay implies that employees would have to continue the competitive pay strategy as part of their total strategies to retain Employees. The competitive pay strategy should always tie in to the Employees' Overall Job Satisfaction. Providing proper Job Feedback is equally important by means of on-going or day-to-day communications to employees through effective performance assessment process or even a gesture of thanks to show acknowledgement on work accomplished.

The foremost conclusion and theoretical implication of this study is that `Job Satisfaction' and `Organizational Commitment' can be independent determinant variables for `Turnover Intention'. For the practitioners, especially researchers, this study provides useful information in drawing up human resource plans in order to reduce turnover problems.

This study has a number of implications for Pakistani universities. Firstly the weak correlation between Performance Evaluation Practices and teachers' performance needs prompt attention. If ineffective performance evaluation practices exist in the universities than it would be difficult to gain desired output from the teachers. The public sector universities need to change the typical confidential reporting system. The time period for evaluation should be reduced from one year to six months and outcomes should be communicated to teachers so that they can improve their performance. The evaluation system should be devised in such a manner that it is linked with promotion and compensation so that teachers consider it important.

As far Compensation Practices are concerned they have direct impact on

Teachers performance in Pakistani universities. Currently The Higher Education Commission in Pakistan has announced attractive salary package for university teachers, which is a very positive step to enhance teachers' performance. The rest of the universities should pay special attention towards this most important aspect of HR to enhance teachers' performance. Promotion practices not only help teachers to grow in organizational hierarchy but also serve as mode for professional development. Since this study proves relationship of promotion practices with teachers' performance, it is up to the government and the universities to devise career development programs for teachers which should allow them to grow in their careers as well as there should be opportunities to grow professionally. Employees also indicated that their professional development is a matter of serious concern that despite the shift in ultimate responsibility and ownership, the value of investing in a comprehensive career-development process is still widely recognised and informed by needs such as attracting and retaining high-performing employees, the need to instill a mindset of continuous learning, and to improve employee satisfaction with opportunities for career growth. Through performance management system, Management use the findings and recommendations of this study to curb the gaps within the universities. Given the nature of the labour market today, where change is constant and the complexity surrounding commitment, further research of a similar kind is clearly required to further demystify issues that were not covered, clearly explained or explored to a satisfactory level, in the study described here.

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.