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Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) was established on January 10, 1997 when PETRONAS was invited by the Malaysian government to set up a university.Â
The campus is built on a 400 hectare (1,000 acre) site strategically located at Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia. The University is a wholly-owned subsidiary of PETRONAS, the national oil company of Malaysia.Â
UTP offers a wide range of engineering and technology programmes at undergraduate and postgraduate levels complemented with a strong focus on Research and Development. The programmes are designed with high industry relevance to provide a dynamic learning environment.
The University community comprises of students and staff from various countries and is located in a beautifully landscaped setting, amidst the new township of Seri Iskandar. Its peaceful environment, wide open spaces and abundant lakes make these serene surroundings an ideal place to study.
There are a few departments established under UTP itself and one of it is Lab Facilities & Services Unit (LFSU). LFSU is the one that responsible and take care of matters in lab such as lab facilities, lab equipment and also lab technologist.
There are around 77 staff under LFSU including the lab executives and lead by one manager. The manager of LFSU is Mr. M Hatta B. Amran. He's the one who's responsible on LFSU matters and progress. Mr. M Hatta B. Amran was born on 26 of March in year 1967 at Kuala Kangsar, Perak.
He sit for Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) on year 1984, based on good SPM result, he has been selected to further his study at Kolej Pengajian Persediaan, UiTM Shah Alam in American Associate Degree. He finishes his study in 3 years and went to Mississippi State University, USA to further his study in BSC Mechanical Engineering for another 3 years.
On 1992, he's been working as an engineer at J&A Associate Sdn. Bhd until 1995. With 3 year experiences at J&A Associate Sdn. Bhd, he's been chosen to work at United Engineers (M), also as an engineer. He's been working with United Engineers (M) for about 4 years until he's resign and join the KLCC Project Bhd. on 1999 until 2005. After 6 years with KLCC Project Bhd., he decided to resign and join UTP on 2005 until now as a Manager of Lab Facilities & Services Unit (LFSU).
Motivation Programmes Assessment
Motivation refers to the individual forces that account for the direction, level, and persistence of a person's effort expended at work. Direction refers to an individual's choice when presented with a number of possible alternatives such as whether to exert effort toward product quality or toward product quantity. Level refers to the amount of effort a person outs forth such as a lot or a little. Lastly, persistence refers to the length of time a person stick with a given action such as try to achieve product quantity and give up when it found difficult to attain.
When talking about motivation is often defined as getting someone moving. According to the literature review that have been done before, motivation theory breaks down these forces into internal or intrinsic motivation, and external or extrinsic motivation. When we motivate ourselves or someone else, we are developing those incentives or condition that we believe will help move a person to a preferred behavior. Whether it is through intrinsic motivation or extrinsic motivation, most individuals are moved by their beliefs, values, personal interests, and even fear. One of the more difficult challenges to a leader is to learn how to effectively motivate those working for them. One of the reasons it's so difficult is because motivation can be so personal. Typically, inexperienced leaders believe that same factors that motivate themselves will motivate others too. Another misconception held inexperienced leaders is that same factors that motivate one employee will work on another. In fact, nothing could be further from the truth. As we will learn later on, one size does not fit all when it comes to motivation.
Fundamentally, all motivation comes from within. So the most common concepts of motivation are those of self motivation, internal motivation, or intrinsic motivation. All of these terms are used interchangeably to describe the same motivational factors that come from within person.
Later, we will describe a second from of motivation, which is extrinsic or external motivation. While it is certainly recognized that external factor can motivate us, this is a secondary factor. For external forces to be effective in motivating us, they must be in harmony with one of our intrinsic motivational factors.
In fact, several theorists such as Combs (1982), or Purkey & Stanley (1991), maintain that there is only a single kind of intrinsic motivation. That motivation is one that can be described as engaging in activities that enhance or maintain a person's self-image or concept of oneself.
Other theorists such as Malone and Lepper (1987) define self motivation in broader and perhaps more useful terms. Malone and Lepper believe that motivation is simply what people will do without external influence. Said another way, self motivation or intrinsically motivating activities, are those in which people will partake in for no reward other than the enjoyment that these activities bring them.
Malone and Lepper have integrated a large amount of motivational research into a summary of seven ways we, as the leadership of our organizations, can design environments that are self motivating.
The Motivation Theories.
Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Higher Order Needs
e.g. morality, creativity, inner potential
e.g. confidence, respect of others and the need to be a unique individual.
Lower Order Needs
e.g. family, friendship and love.
e.g. health, employment, property and social stability.
e.g. food, water, sleep and shelter.
Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, as shown in figure 1, offers a pyramid of physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs. Higher order needs in Maslow's hierarchy are esteem and self-actualization. Lower order needs in Maslow's hierarchy are physiological, safety, and social. Maslow assumes that some needs are more important than others and must be satisfied before the other needs can serve as motivators. For example, physiological needs must be satisfied before safety needs are activated, safety needs must be satisfied before social needs are activated, and so on.
Clayton Alderfer's ERG theory is also based on needs but differs from Maslow's theory in three basic respects.
First, the theory collapses Maslow's five need categories into three:
Existence Needs -desire for physiological and material well being.
Relatedness needs - desire for satisfying interpersonal relationship.
Growth needs - desire for continued personal growth and development.
Second, whereas Maslow's theory argues that individuals progress up the needs hierarchy, ERG theory emphasis a unique frustration regression component. An already satisfied lower level need can become activated when a higher level need cannot be satisfied. Thus, if a person is continually frustrated in his or her attempts to satisfy growth needs, relatedness can again surface key motivators.
Third, unlike Maslow's theory, ERG theory contends that more than one need may be activated at the same time. ERG theory thus offers a more flexible approach to understanding human needs than does Maslow's strict hierarchy.
Different approach to examining motivation have been took y Frederick Herzberg. He simply asked workers to report the times they felt exceptionally good about their jobs and the times they felt exceptionally bad about them.
Hygiene factors in job contest affect job dissatisfaction.
Motivators in job contest affect job satisfaction.
Quality of supervision
Base wage or salary
Relationships with peers
Relationships with subordinates
High job satisfaction
job satisfaction High
Sources of dissatisfaction and satisfaction in Herzberg's two-factor theory.
From the table above, Herzberg noted that the respondents identified somewhat different things when they felt good or bad about their jobs. It does also portray about the different factors as primary causes of job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction. Hygiene factors in job context, the work setting, are sources of job dissatisfaction. While motivator factors in job content, the tasks people actually do, are sources of job satisfaction. Herzberg also have been suggested the technique of job enrichment as a way of building satisfiers into job content.
Leadership Style Assessment
Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. Kurt Lewin (1939) led a group of researchers to identify different styles of leadership. This early study has been very influential and established three major leadership styles. The three major styles of leadership are (U.S. Army Handbook, 1973):
Authoritarian or autocratic
Participative or democratic
Delegate or Free Reign
Although good leaders use all three styles, with one of them normally dominant, bad leaders tend to stick with one style.
I want both of you to. . .
This style is used when leaders tell their employees what they want done and how they want it accomplished, without getting the advice of their followers. Some of the appropriate conditions to use it are when you have all the information to solve the problem, you are short on time, and your employees are well motivated.
Some people tend to think of this style as a vehicle for yelling, using demeaning language, and leading by threats and abusing their power. This is not the authoritarian style, rather it is an abusive, unprofessional style called "bossing people around." It has no place in a leader's inventory.
The authoritarian style should normally only be used on rare occasions. If you have the time and want to gain more commitment and motivation from your employees, then you should use the participative style.
Let's work together to solve this. . .
This style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process (determining what to do and how to do it). However, the leader maintains the final decision making authority. Using this style is not a sign of weakness; rather it is a sign of strength that your employees will respect.
This is normally used when you have part of the information, and your employees have other parts. Note that a leader is not expected to know everything - this is why you employ knowledgeable and skillful employees. Using this style is of mutual benefit - it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better decisions.
Delegative (free reign)
You two take care of the problem while I go. . .
In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decisions. However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made. This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. You cannot do everything! You must set priorities and delegate certain tasks.
This is not a style to use so that you can blame others when things go wrong, rather this is a style to be used when you fully trust and confidence in the people below you.
A good leader uses all three styles, depending on what forces are involved between the followers, the leader, and the situation. Some examples include:
Using an authoritarian style on a new employee who is just learning the job. The leader is competent and a good coach. The employee is motivated to learn a new skill. The situation is a new environment for the employee.
Using a participative style with a team of workers who know their job. The leader knows the problem, but does not have all the information. The employees know their jobs and want to become part of the team.
Using a delegative style with a worker who knows more about the job than you. You cannot do everything and the employee needs to take ownership of her job! In addition, this allows you to be at other places, doing other things.
Using all three: Telling your employees that a procedure is not working correctly and a new one must be established (authoritarian). Asking for their ideas and input on creating a new procedure (participative). Delegating tasks in order to implement the new procedure (delegative).
Forces that influence the style to be used included:
How much time is available?
Are relationships based on respect and trust or on disrespect?
Who has the information - you, your employees, or both?
How well your employees are trained and how well you know the task.
Type of task. Is it structured, unstructured, complicated, or simple?
Laws or established procedures such as OSHA or training plans.
Positive and Negative Approaches
There is a difference in ways leaders approach their employee. Positive leaders use rewards, such as education, independence, etc. to motivate employees. While negative employers are emphasize penalties. While the negative approach has a place in a leader's repertoire of tools, it must be used carefully due to its high cost on the human spirit.
Negative leaders act domineering and superior with people. They believe the only way to get things done is through penalties, such as loss of job, days off without pay, reprimanding employees in front of others, etc. They believe their authority is increased by frightening everyone into higher levels of productivity. Yet what always happens when this approach is used wrongly is that morale falls; which of course leads to lower productivity.
Also note that most leaders do not strictly use one or another, but are somewhere on a continuum ranging from extremely positive to extremely negative. People who continuously work out of the negative are bosses while those who primarily work out of the positive are considered real leaders.
Use of Consideration and Structure
Two other approaches that leaders use are:
Consideration (employee orientation) - leaders are concerned about the human needs of their employees. They build teamwork, help employees with their problems, and provide psychological support.
Structure (task orientation) - leaders believe that they get results by consistently keeping people busy and urging them to produce.
There is evidence that leaders who are considerate in their leadership style are higher performers and are more satisfied with their job (Schriesheim, 1982).
Also notice that consideration and structure are independent of each other, thus they should not be viewed on opposite ends of a continuum. For example, a leader who becomes more considerate does not necessarily mean that she has become less structured.
Varying Leadership Style
While the proper leadership style depends on the situation, there are three other factors that also influence which leadership style to use.
1. The manager's personal background. What personality, knowledge, values, ethics, and experiences does the manager have? What does he or she think will work?
2. The employees being supervised. Employees are individuals with different personalities and backgrounds. The leadership style manager's use will vary depending upon the individual employee and what he or she will respond best to.
3. The company. The traditions, values, philosophy, and concerns of the company will influence how a manager acts.
Relation between leadership style and motivation programmes
Leadership and motivation are synonymous to one another. In organizations, where managers behave like managers, they have worker to work with. Whatever they sat by virtue of their authority vested in them by the organization, the workers are bound to obey. The difference amply highlights that a leader is not someone designated as such, it is something which is God gifted and resides inside a manager, whom we call good manager. Such people effect the motivation of their colleagues and workers according to their style of leadership. All leaders are not able to lead effectively. It is just a handful of people who can do that. So there is a strong correlation between the leadership style and the motivation.
From my observation and literature review found that when a leader really trust his team mates, he exerts minimum or no supervision at all, after giving them general guidelines and guidance. This has a corresponding positive effect on the team, who become self motivated and this self motivation in turns triggers their creativity to come up with different approaches to solve a problem freely. In such a case, not only the workers will work more diligently, but would also try to come up with different solutions to increase the productivity.
On the contrary, a leader who has less faith in his subordinates or knows much more than the team may not delegate responsibilities and may keep the entire control to him such as the authoritarian style. Such managers get the things done little by act of motivation and more by the carrot and stick technique i.e. coercion, pressurizing, manipulating and harassing. I such an eventually, the motivation slips to its lowest degrees and workers work out of fear of losing jobs and cuts in salaries.
Then, leadership style can influence level of motivation. However, throughout a lifetime, motivation is influenced by changing ambition and leadership style he works under or socializes with. According to www.motivation-tools.com, there is a table that can be referenced for relationship between style and motivation programmes.
Leadership Style versus Motivation Programmes
Motivation is based on:
Worker with decision making responsibility.
Leader of ideas or people.
Thrives on change
Personality type and efficiency depend on leader's skill and the work environment he's created.
High level of supervision
Command and Control
To be like others
Threat, fear motivated
Reacts to force
According to the table above, we can say that self-motivated or visionaries will not accept authority controlled environments. They will find a way to escape if trapped. In a team motivated environment, dependency types will become inspired and strive to be acceptable with independent thinking coworkers. And also associates influence the level of individual motivation.
In order to reach a high level of leadership, a leader needs to have a strong sense of self motivation. Success does not come by chance, but rather when people know they want and decide to get it no matter what.
Furthermore, in order to become a leader in chosen field, a leader needs to have the motivation to be the best. A leader needs to know what he want, and have a strong desire that makes you willing to do anything in order to reach it. But once in a leadership role, motivation will begin to play a different role in his life. While it takes personal motivation to reach a status of leadership, it requires an ability to motivate others to be successful in that position.
Leader is people who can inspire others to take action for a common goal. The problem that most people have is getting people to be passionate about the goals that they are hoping to achieve. The most successful leaders are those whore are able to clearly portray their vision into the minds of others. When others can clearly see that vision for themselves, they will begin to have a strong desire to achieve that goal.
When those who depend on leader for leadership are inspired to achieve that purpose that leader are aiming for, you will be a successful leader, and your goals, no matter how large, will be reached. In order to get people motivated and inspired to do their best to reach the common goals, you need to make sure they have a personal attachment to the outcome. And when people do not have a personal benefit that they can pursue, they will have a hard time having the commitment to do what you are want them to do.
However, when your people have something to get excited about, a real passion or a personal benefit that they would love to realize, they will have their own sense of motivation and therefore your job as leader will have been a successful one.
Know what other people want and show them the way to get it. This is the way to get people to take action on their own accord. Understanding the relationship between leadership and motivation will give you the power to collaborate with motivated individuals to accomplish your vision.
Each style has its own pros and cons on the level of motivation and thus cannot be sustained over a period of time suiting all solutions. Rather a manager cum leader has to continuously adjusting his style vis-à-vis the situation at hand and the kind of team he has.
Cited by Herzberg "if you want people to do a good job, give them a good job to do".
I propose that the theories which have shown success as well as successful parts of other
Theories are integrated into an overall theory of leadership style to maximize leader success. This has been my task throughout this survey.
I see leaders and managers as having a great deal of impact upon the motivation and consequently the productivity of organizations. Recommend that they promote productivity initially through carefully executing selection and placement procedures. Another essential aid to improve motivation is to have and carry out an effective way of evaluating and improving one's leadership style. There are many factors which are involved in this process.
First is the need to have what I would call a clear mirror of present style attributes and the effects which flow from them. This mirror should be sought by the leader himself where possible. It would include the traits of the leader and his current view of group and individual maturity levels of the subordinates. Also included in this style, mirror would be feedback from those with whom he does or should interact.
The leader should then evaluate his present impact on motivation in the organization in
Light of this data and create objectives to improve his style range, adaptability, personality traits, and situational analysis skills in order to contribute to the maximization of productivity of his work group. Furthermore, what is needed in order to have highly effective organizations is a group of leaders that can be called 'Whole Leaders'. They would be persons with good understanding of leadership principles and theory as well as the application skills discussed in this paper.
They would have excellent traits, continuity, adaptability, and capabilities of hard work and human relations. They must be teachable, trainable, and able to teach and train. In conclusion the impacts of leadership style upon motivation and productivity are many and very complex. As has been shown in history, leadership and leadership style theories have been studied and practiced by many. Excellence in theory and actual practice are essential to effective management skills and productive motivation.