1. Coercive power It's depends on the ability to punish or apply sanctions to behaviours. Basically it come from the physical, economic strength and reinforced by wrong and threatening attitudes and behaviour. If the focus of effort did not achieve the required goals then normally moves dire consequences. This is ability to the obtaining compliance with promised or actual punishment - dismissal, suspension, demotion, assigning unpleasant task, not treating in a proper manner.
2. Reward power It's defined as ability to provide benefit or promotions to another person. This is the way to influence performance and activities by holding out compliance with promised or offering actual rewards for compliance and acceptance. It's dependent upon the nature and volume of reward and extent to which these meet the requirement of those over whom influence is sought.
3. Expert power It's buttress on the possessed technical skill and specialized knowledge applicable to the job or task at hand. Power or influence the root from extremely expertise is based upon the quantity and nature of requisite, the position of the nature of the expert and keen to use his skill.
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4. Legitimate or positional power based on the organizational position, hierarchical level, and status. In the organization subordinates do not match with leader right to influence over them by good quality of the leader official authority.
5. Referent power ground on the attractiveness of the power holder to the other person in the relationship. Example:- In the organisation, lower skills of expertise may be hired because his wider characteristics or point of reference are considered more fit.
Power Influence on the management Managers were discussing about the next year budget and the technical director can forward to the personal director that is really good for everyone and the best way to spent more money into producing technology than into office automation. Then last stage the agreement is reached without any cause exercise of power. This example is showing that the distinction between power and influence is difficult to uphold since the work out of power is often based on some earlier workout influence .(Sandra Dawson ,Analysing Organisations, Third edition pgno-170)
Power is the capacity in a relationship to influence the other, these base of power are dynamic. They may be expected to change over time and they depend on the perceptions of the parties in the relationship.
A sixth source of individual power is information power. This is the possession of information important to the organization or having access to information power .Database and network managers usually have information power because of their control over the flow of information. Usually low on legitimate power, can possess a high level information power .This occurs when they control access to decision maker or to information either formally in files or informally via the grapevine.
Last but not least, connection power has been noted as the power that comes from position in a network of work relationship. The more connection with other people at work, the more people known, and the greater is one's ability to get things done.
Some of these forms of power can be shared by allowing participating in decision making or distributing of power is called empowerment.
Politics:-Organizational politics is the process of one person exerting influence over another. Politics the exchange relationship as acted out in day to day forum of the organization. Politics and influence depends on the power relationship between the parties involved .The most effective political behaviours have been found to be rational persuasion ,inspirational appeal and consultaion.Coalition,legitimating and pressure are the least effective .Ingratiation and exchange are not effective strategies for influencing superiors but are not effective strategies for influencing superiors but are moderately effective for influencing subordinates and peers.
Cause of organisational politics:- (Unclear objectives, Vague Performance Measures, Lack of Transparency, Strong Individual and Group Competition)
1. Variation and conflict in the goals between one individual employee and another individual employee.People join and work in organisations to achieve their personal interest in addition to contribute his maximum abilities to the organisation goal. Example if one employee's goal is to contribute his maximum abilities to the organisational and the goal of another employee is to contribute his abilities to the organisation only upto the level of keeping himself on the job. In such a situation the second employee may influence the first employee to minimise his contribution and to make his position safer or he may change that the contribution of the first employee are not appreciable. Thus variation in goals may lead to organisational politics. The chance for good conflict is less in case of variation in goals.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
If the two employees have the same goals, then also there is a conflict. Example If the two employees have in mind promotion and the same position, it would result in a conflict between the two, the employees with common goal can foresee the possible conflict and possible danger. And they may even politicalise the issue in order to weaken the candidature of each other party. They exhaust their resources in pulling down the legs of each other rather than contributing to the development of the organisation.
Thus the resources and time of organisational members are wasted in politics affecting organisational effectiveness.
2.Variations in degrees of success/failure between -(a) employee and other employee,(b) one employee and group of employees. Variations in degrees of success of failure are another cause for politics. Generally two individuals cannot attain the same level of success or cannot fail at the same rate. The employee or group whose degree of success is less than of another employee or group may try to defend himself by depreciating the successful employee either publicity or privately. Sometime if employees visualise that their success will be less than that of the other employees they try to find fault with the very system or with superior or techniques adopted by other employees. Otherwise they start using cheap techniques to win over the other employee.
3. Variations and conflict in goals between -(a)two section of a group, and (b)between to groups. When two or more sections of a group or two group strive to attain the same goal one section of the group is interested in their success whilst another group is interested in the failure of the other group. Thus some sections of the group (preferably with less resources and ability to attain the goal) are particulars about the failure of the other group.
4.Individual Goals vs Organisational Goals:-Employee joins the organisations for personal ends by helping the organisation in attainment of organisation goals. The employee does not contribute all his recourses to the attainment of organisation goals. Some employees give priority to their individual goals and use their time and resources for personal ends. The practice leads to many conflicts. Then the individuals start politicizing.
Group Goals vs Organisational Goals:-All the group/departments may have goals different from those of the organisation.Since the department/groups are interested in attaining their goals , conflict between group goals and organisation goals and organisational goals will arise which will provide a room for politicking by groups/department.
Common Political Tactics in Organizations
Attacking or blaming others
Using information as a political tool
Creating a favorable image (Impression Mgt).
Developing a support base
Forming power coalitions with strong allies
Creating obligations (reciprocity)
To avoid or minimize association with failure - scape-goating
Purposeful withholding or distortion of information.
Adhering to norms, drawing attention to one's success and influences, taking credit for other's accomplishments.
Getting prior support for one's decision.
Making influential people feel good.
Teaming up with powerful people who can get results.
I did you a favor so you owe me a favor
Costs and benefits of organizational politics
To manage organizational politics and gain its benefits, an organization must establish a balance of power in which alternative views and solutions can be offered and considered by all parties and dissenting views can be heard
Balance of power should shift over time toward the party that can best manage the uncertainty and contingencies confronting the organization
If balance of power does not encourage allocation of resources to where value is created, the organization suffers
If powerful managers can suppress views against their interests, debates become restricted, checks and balances fade, bad conflict increases, and organizational inertia increases
Techniques of Organisational Politics:-
Employees use different techniques in the process of organisational politicking important among them are.
1. Information Hiding:-Employees who resort to politicking hide the information needed by other employees pursuing the same goal.
2.Push up:- Employee elevate their leader/co-worker to the level above their ability.
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Pushing down: Superiors under value their subordinates in the process of organisational politics.
Pulling UP: Superiors over value their subordinates in the process or organisational politics.
Pulling down: Employees resorting to organisational politics disobey orders of their superiors.
Publicise success and hide failures, distort performance rates, restrict output and quality product, pass the buck, Red-hearing, discrediting the other ,sabotage ,empire building ,falsification or withholding information/data, puffery, mislead.
These are some of the techniques of organisational politics. Employees use some other techniques also depending upon the situation.
Effect of organisation politics:- Organisational politics are prevalent in most of the organisation at present .they may grow in future due to lack of values, openness, accommodating nature .But organisational politics result in increase in interpersonal conflict ,intergroup conflict wastage of human resource as employees spend their resources in politicking rather than contributing to the organisation. It also affects the other contributions to the organisation. +It affects the morale of the sincere committed and able human resources .Finally it also affects organisational performance and efficiency.
Politics of management performance Evaluation Executives do agree that evaluations are sometimes affected by political considerations and by conditions in the organization as a whole. Politics played a role in the evaluation process because executives took into consideration the daily interpersonal dynamics between them and their subordinates; the formal appraisal process results in a permanent written document; and the formal appraisal can have considerable impact on the subordinate's career and advancement. Executives sometimes inflated the appraisal to provide ratings that would effectively maintain or increase the subordinate's level of performance. Their primary concern was not the accuracy of the ratings. Inflated ratings occurred primarily on the overall performance rating, as opposed to the individual appraisal items. Executive justifications for inflating the appraisal were the following.
1.Â To maximize the merit increases a subordinate would be eligible to receive, especially when the merit ceiling was considered low
2.To protect or encourage a subordinate whose performance was suffering because of personal problems (feeling sorry for a subordinate also resulted in an inflated appraisal)
3.Â Â To avoid hanging dirty laundry out in public if the performance appraisal would be reviewed by people outside the organization
4.Â To avoid creating a written record of poor performance that would become a permanent part of a subordinate's personnel file
5.Â To avoid a confrontation with a subordinate with whom the manager had recently had difficulties
6. To give a break to a subordinate who had improved during the latter part of the performance period
7.Â Â To promote a subordinate up and out when the subordinate was performing poorly or did not fit in the department.
These findings help to explain why pay and performance are sometimes not well related. Three other reasons why pay and performance may be weakly related are as follows.
1.Â People are paid to join the organization. At times a person's job is less important than the fact that that particular person be seen as part of the company.
2.Â People are paid an entry salary required by the market for their services, whether or not they can actually return that degree of performance to the organization.
3.People who have been with an organization for many years and whose skills are not easily transported to another firm may be paid less than deserved because they have little choice but to accept it.
REMEDY:-The important remedy to organisational politics is organisational development and building up of value system among its employees.
Control is one of the noteworthy functions in the Organisation .the main object of control is to
bring to light the difference between the standard set and performance and then to take
important steps to prevent the incidence of such variation in future in term of quantity and quality. It is the process through which managers assure that actual activities conform to planned activities. Control is the inspection current performance against prearranged standards contained in plans to ensuring ample growth and acceptable performance.
Strartegies of control in organization:
Four type of control approach come in organization
Characteristics of an effective control system:-control do effect on the management system in a two way one is positive and second is negative.
In this poem mention about control process is to measure performance and compare predetermined standards. Measurement of performance done through the personal observation, the subordinates being observed while they are engaged in work and various summaries figure, reports, statement, chart. Is the control system well organised, fast comparison of this numbers with the standard number is may be possible. There find a different variation. Some variation is desirable such as the output above the standard or costly below the standard. If the other variation is undesirable and variation in the delivery time agreed upon with the customer or a variation in the speed limit fixed for all drivers.
Corrective action should be taken without wasting of time so that the normal position can be restored quickly. Manager should also determine the right cause for deviation. The main cause of deviation is inadequate, poor equipment, machinery, lack of communication and information system, lack of motivation of subordinates, faulty system of training and selection of personnel, defective of remuneration.
Conclusion:-Through the refrences power is defined as the capacity to get decisions and actions taken and situations created with accord with and support ones interest.power and polit
References:- (Weber,1947,Introduction to organizational behaviour,Penny Dick and Steve Ellis,Third edition ,pg no:-232)".