Assessing the forms of recruitment process

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Recruitment process is described as the set of activities and processes of generating a sufficient number of qualified candidates at the right place and time for a particular job.

In the other words, the recruitment process which will enable individual to emphasize skills, motivation and career plan. The company must announce the job's availability to the market and focus on attracting qualified candidates where are internally or externally the organization to apply the job.

The benefit of recruitment process is able define the characteristics of applicants to whom selection procedures are ultimately applied. A particular job vacancy will be filled by someone within the internal organization or from external.

The important of recruitment process is that the organization hiring decisions are should be strong. This is because when there are poor hiring decisions will likely to cause problems from days one. For example, unmotivated or unqualified workers will not achieve the goals and direction that organization set.

Besides, workers are might give customers inaccurate information or give customers an opportunity to do business with others competitors. By the ways, these workers are might need additional training to reach the required level of performance.

Therefore, I will more explain briefly about the recruitment process of the organization that I choose in my next part of my assignment.

2.0) Recruitment Process

The industry that I choose is manufacturing company which is manufacturing the clothes business. The company manufacturer the clothes are such as blouse, pants, jackets and others.

Therefore, this manufacturing company has got a recruitment process. The recruitment process of manufacturing company can be thought of as being a 4-stage procedure.

The processes are advertisement, application form, legal consideration and interviews which are involves in this company.

2.1) Advertisement

An advertisement may be the first introduction to company for many people. Advertisement is a part of the recruiting process where is high cost and it is important to select in the choice of media.

The purpose of advertisement is to attract suitable applicants who are potential and interest. Design, contents and layout of advertisement should be careful consideration and presented effectively to ensure the right applicants are attracted.

Advertisements are the most common form of external recruitment. Other media can be used including internet recruitment sites and websites, newspapers, professional publications and journals, radio, job centres, recruiting research, specialist publications and the Employment Service.

Preferred advertising method for manufacturing company is through internet recruitment sites and websites. Company are not charge for the advertising that company undertake.

2.1.1) internet recruitment sites and websites

Internet recruitment sites are the most commonly used as a search tools for job seekers. The top internet recruitment sites such as Monster, Career-Builder, Job Seekers and Yahoo's Hot Jobs. Applicants are recruited from these sources to get recruitment to manufacturing company.

Otherwise, the manufacturing company also post jobs in the company websites. Company recruitment websites also provide valuable information and data which regarding the compensation offered by the competitors.

The career websites exist to applicants searching for jobs which are free. Much recruitment is done through internet recruitment sites and websites nowadays. By the ways, it show that there are benefit and useful to the manufacturing company. The advantages of internet recruitment sites and websites are saving time and money and even fast and more effective.

The reason that causes saving money and reduction in the time for recruitment to the manufacturing company is because company is posting the jobs online which are cheaper and produce faster results than advertising in the newspapers.

Internet recruitment sites and websites are also no involve the intermediaries and becomes more effective. Besides, internet recruitment also assists the company to weed out the unqualified applicants in an automated way.

Then, the advantages of internet recruitment sites and websites are the convenience tools which can help the applicants to classification the job by industry, function, location and others that applicants seek for.

By the ways, advertisements are really help for the manufacturing company to recruit the applicants who are talent and potential which will assist the manufacturing to achieve the company goals.

2.2) Application form

Application form is the device used to collect information regarding applicants' education, past jobs and present jobs experiences and others background characteristics.

Care also needs to be taken over when prepare the application. For example, the design of the application form should to be appropriate, realistic and straightforward to the level of the job.

In order to ensure the most suitable applicants for the job vacancies, manufacturing company is require the candidate to fill an application form.

When fill in the application form, applicants must provide the relevant and necessary documents and personal information.

Applicants might to fill in a name, address, contact information, skills, achievements and others basic information. After applicants complete fill in an application form, manufacturing company used the data as screening devices to measure and determine whether an applicant satisfies minimum job specifications, especially for the entry-level jobs.

The advantage of application form are provides a record of skills, experience, education, background, qualifications and abilities as stated by the applicant.

2.3) Legal consideration

In this recruitment process, manufacturing company must to ensure that the company recruiting practice must conform to the law. This is because the Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) law stated that the company' recruiting and hiring decisions process are cannot discriminate. For examples company are cannot discriminate from the basic of national, race, ages, gender, religion and others.

By the ways, the manufacturing company is recruits, hiring, training, promoting and compensates workers without regards of any race, colour, religion, ages, sex, marital status, national, ancestry and others.

2.4) Interview

Interview serves as a communication channel that allows manufacturing company and applicants to communicate and collect information among each other when conduct the interview.

The purpose of this interview is for manufacturing company to get a personal impression of applicants and give applicants chance to learn more about company. The qualifications of the applicants may be shown through interviews. A clear interview plan is necessary for the manufacturing company.

In order to make a fair assessment of applicants, applicants must do the preparation to know what information is needed and how best to collect the information from the interview. Many company are have own interview plan. The more structured the interview, the more effective likely to be.

However, the interview is not a good predictor of job performances. Applicants can improve the chances of having the successful interview. Todays, manufacturing company is trying to implement different approaches to overcome the limitation of interview.

During the interview, the interviewer will discuss different topics with applicants. By the way, applicants are encouraged to do most of asked question, talking and learn more about. This is because it will encourage and give the opportunity for applicants to describe the experiences and even develop own ideas.

All applicants are subject to strict interview process. Manufacturing company is using competency based and behavioural questioning techniques to gain a true understanding of the applicants' abilities.

At the end of the interview, manufacturing company will ensure that all the appropriate documentation including references covered all the points in the interview plan. Manufacturing company will take and give feedback to the applicants.

Selection criteria for the manufacturing company are related to the job attitudes, personality, language ability, educational background, work experience, support and accept the training. Based on the performance of the applicants during the interview, the management team will make the final decision on recruitment.

Once an applicant is deemed worthy of recruited, manufacturing company will call and invited the successful applicants to meet with a director of the manufacturing company and director will arrange a suitable jobs and training for applicants. Therefore, the applicants will entered into an employment contract of manufacturing company. It should be before the employee started work, or start work within a week.

3.0) Conclusion

From the manufacturing company recruitment process, we can see that the company are mainly announce the job's availability and focus on attracting qualified candidates from the externally market to apply the job.

External recruitment is refers to the manufacturing company fill the vacancy from any suitable applicant outside the business. There are a lot of disadvantages for the external recruitment.

The disadvantage is like maybe causes the great risk for the manufacturing company when recruit wrong people from the external. This is because in attracting external recruitment, contact, communicate and evaluation of staff is more difficult.

On the others hand, the manufacturing company also requires a longer training and adaptation phase for the applicants. Applicant also need to takes time to familiar with the company procedures, policies, Colleagues and company characteristics.

Besides, the internal staff may feel that the internal staffs have been ignored. External recruitment will affect the company who believe some of the internal staffs are qualified for the morale of staff vacancies.

Next disadvantages are longer process and more expensive process due to advertisements and interviews required. External recruitment may cause time consuming and become longer process.

This is because applicants from the external usually need long time to understand the structure of company, company products and services, colleagues and customers, to complete the process of socialization.

Otherwise, while the applicants may have excellent and successful skills, training experience or experience in previous company, but these factors do not guarantee to get the same success or ability in the present company.

Besides, recruitment process for external is need a very high cost of recruitment, including recruitment costs, advertising fees, testing fees, consultants fees.

Therefore, I think that the external recruitment process are not suitable and not cause efficient and effective for the manufacturing company. This is because a lot of disadvantages of more focusing on external recruitment process as I mention in the above.

By the ways, I think that the manufacturing company can recruit the employees from the internal. Internal recruitment is when the company want to fill the vacancy from within the existing workforce.

The object to recruit from internal is to get a good selection of applicants who are good quality for the particular jobs. The company can also use the internal recruiting to fill the high-level position or any vacancy in the company.

When manufacturing company using the method of internal recruitment, the advantage is building on the existing staff's skills and training. Therefore, company also might provide the chance and opportunities for development and promotion for the internal staff.

So, it can be motivating to the staffs in the company. It is a best way to retain the valuable employees whose are potential and expert. Then the staffs have opportunity to extend their ability and skills to the benefit of the organisation.

On the others way, company' staff can also recommend relatives or friends to work in the manufacturing company. The benefit of this way is the employers who recommend by the staff will be more reliable. Besides, the recruitment costs are also lower. It shows that it is the cheaper and quicker ways to recruit the workers.

Advantages to form of internal selection recruitment are lower cost and save time. This is because the staffs are already familiar with the business' products and services and even culture in the company. Besides, staffs are also familiar of how it operates or manufacturing the products.

On the others hand, internal recruitment are less costly than external recruitment and it generates higher staff satisfaction, development and commitment. It will offer the opportunity for career to the internal staffs rather than outsiders.

In the nutshell, when there is an opening, the company should have the clearly recruitment process plan and decisions to locating the potential individuals who might join in the company.

4.0) References

Recruitment process, viewed 14 March 2011, http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un/unpan021814.pdf

Recruitment process, viewed 14 March 2011, http://www.adlittle.com.my/recruitment-process_my.html

Advantages of recruitment process, viewed 14 March 2011, recruitment process. http://recruitment.naukrihub.com/advantage-and-disadvantage-of-e-recruitment.html

Advantages of internal recruitment, viewed 14 March 2011, http://zhidao.baidu.com/question/57219108

Internal recruitment, viewed 14 March 2011, http://en.allexperts.com/q/Human-Resources-2866/2008/4/recruitment-4.htm

Recruitment process, viewed 14 March 2011, http://www.acas.org.uk/index.aspx?articleid=748

Laurie J Mullins. Management & Organization Behaviour 4th edn, Tottenham Courd Road, London.

Luis R. Gomez. Mejia. & David B. Balkin & Robert L. Cardy. Managing in Human Resources 5th edn, Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, p. 26 & 158.

Scott Snell & George Bohlander. Principle of Human Resources Management 15th edn, Nelson Education Ltd, Canada.

Richard L. Daft. New Era of Management 9th edn, Nelson Education Ltd, Canada, p.329-330.

5.0) Bibliography

Recruitment process, viewed 14 March 2011, http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un/unpan021814.pdf

Recruitment process, viewed 14 March 2011, http://www.magautarecruitment.co.za/services.html

Recruitment process, viewed 14 March 2011, http://www.walsall.gov.uk/index/jobshop/recruitment_process.htm

Recruitment process, viewed 14 March 2011, http://www.mwrecruitment.com.au/recruitmentprocess.html

Advantages of recruitment process, viewed 14 March 2011, recruitment process. http://recruitment.naukrihub.com/advantage-and-disadvantage-of-e-recruitment.html

Application form, viewed 14 March 2011, http://www.acas.org.uk/index.aspx?articleid=748

Application form, viewed 14 March 2011, http://www.southcn.com/job/careercenter/reviews/200402170477.htm

Interview, viewed 14 March 2011, http://www.adlittle.com.my/recruitment-process_my.html

Advantages of internal recruitment, viewed 14 March 2011, http://zhidao.baidu.com/question/57219108

Internal recruitment, viewed 14 March 2011, http://en.allexperts.com/q/Human-Resources-2866/2008/4/recruitment-4.htm

Laurie J Mullins. Management & Organization Behaviour 4th edn, Tottenham Courd Road, London.

Luis R. Gomez. Mejia. & David B. Balkin & Robert L. Cardy. Managing in Human Resources 5th edn, Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, p. 26 & 158.

Scott Snell & George Bohlander. Principle of Human Resources Management 15th edn, Nelson Education Ltd, Canada.

Richard L. Daft. New Era of Management 9th edn, Nelson Education Ltd, Canada, p.329-330.

Question 2

Research and comment on Strategy for Managing People Resources of any of the following. (Select One)

Olympia College

CIMB Bank

Great Eastern

Proctor and Gamble

Dolce and Gabana

Coca-Cola Bottling Company

Adidas Company

Nike Shoes

Colgate-Palmolive

Volvo Motors

1.0) Introduction

Strategy for Managing People Resources is the activities that enable the industry to achieve its strategic goals as well as possible. The role of strategy is very important in industry because strategic for managing people resources provides overall direction to the industry. So, it is need to be paid more attention in to improve industry's performance.

Difficult strategic are require managers in the industry who are creative, innovative and fresh thinking to implement in the industry. Strategy is a part which consists in any industry and which has the advantages of implementing an effective managing people resource system in an industry.

If the industry does not have a proper strategy of managing people resources will cause lack of management system in industry activities. When want being a good manager should know the strategy on how to work with employees and get employees' best performance in order to increase the productivity of industry. The strategy for managing people resources must be clearly to react and development the overall business strategy for the industry.

Therefore, I will more explain briefly about the strategy for managing people resources of the industry that I choose in my next part of my assignment.

2.0) Strategy for managing people resources

The industry that I choose is Volvo Motors. This industry is origin in year 1927 and the production line at the factory is in Hisingen, Goteborg.

Therefore, Volvo had been developed from a small local factory to one of the world's largest industry as todays. The products of Volvo Motors are consists heavy trucks, buses and construction equipment. Furthermore, Volvo Motors industry has more than 100,000 employees.

Products and services of Volvo Motors are important elements in a network of transport and logistics solutions. This is because that the products of Volvo Motors are important for daily life to function for human being around the world.

Therefore, Volvo Motors has got the strategy for managing people resources in the industry. The strategy for managing people resources of Volvo Motors can be thought of several types of strategy. The strategies are motivation, performance appraisal and maintaining an effective workforce/ incentive plans which are involves in this industry.

2.1) Motivation

Motivation is the strategy that accounts individuals intensity, direction of effort toward attending the goals of industry. Basically each individual is different from others. Some are interested in work and some are assumed lazy.

By the way, Volvo Motors industry was understand the needs of individual and implement motivational programs to meet the needs of individuals and to encourage individual to achieve the industry goals and at the same time achieve the individual' goals.

Motivation gives positive satisfaction to the employees. Examples of motivation are such as challenging work, recognition, responsibility, achievement and others.

Therefore, there are many theories of motivation coming up in the Volvo Motors to help the managers to motivate the employees in the industry. The motivation theories that Volvo Motors industry implement are goal setting theory, equity theory and theory Y.

Furthermore, industry is always listening to the employees. Sometimes the managers will encourage the employees to make the positive suggestion. By the ways, the employees will feel that the managers are concern and take care at them.

2.1.1) Goal setting theory

Goal setting theory is suitable for implement in all types of industry. If the ability to motivate and lead the workers is higher, the outcomes of performance of the industry will be excellence.

Volvo Motors implement this theory because of setting goals can let employees to achieve the goals and cause higher performance and productivity for the industry.

Volvo Motors motivate employees based on industry goals which using SMART goals. S refer to specific, M refer to measurable, A refer to attainable or achievable, R refer to realistic and T refer to timely.

The employees of Volvo Motors always are motivated when employees have to accept higher and difficult goals and when the risk taking is higher. At the same time, the Volvo Motors industry also looking for the employees who are willing to take risks and meet higher goals.

When there have employee with self-efficacy, which means that employee believes that he or she is capable to achieve the higher goals which are required in Volvo Motors industry. It shows that clear goals setting could motivate the employees greatly.

2.1.2) Equity theory

Equity Theory describes the relationship between how fairly an employee perceives that he or she is treated and how hard he or she is motivated to work.

For example, individual who perceives rewards are equal to contributions, there should be the highly motivated employee in the Volvo Motors industry.

Otherwise, if individual feels that working and being rewarded are same rate as others peers in the Volvo Motors industry, then individual will agree and satisfied that he or she is being treated fairly. Therefore, individual will feel satisfaction and happy when working in Volvo Motors industry.

On the others hand, the inputs should be balance to the outputs. For example, when individual hard work for doing the jobs, individual will get the rewards as how many individual have been contributed to the jobs.

2.1.3) Theory Y

Last motivation strategy for Volvo Motors industry is implementing the theory Y. In this theory, managers are do not force work and no implement punishment to the employees. Managers in Volvo Motors industry are giving benefit and freedom to them. Therefore, the employees will automatically motivate themselves as well as possible.

So, the advantages are employees are more creative, ambitious, self-direction and capable. Volvo Motors industry can prove that control and punishment employees are not the only ways to make people work effectively to commit to the aims of the industry.

Besides, employees who are self-motivated and like to work are do not need any force from the managers in the Volvo Motors industry.

Therefore, theory Y is also a successfully strategy to improving working conditions and cause the productivity in Volvo motors industry higher. Under the proper conditions that Volvo Motors implement, employees not only to accept but also will try to seek responsibility. If a job is satisfying for the employees, then the result will be commitment to the Volvo Motors industry and get reward through employees' achievements.

On the others hand, the Volvo Motors industry is using positive encouragement to meet the goals. Offering the rewards or additional compensation for outstanding performance will encourage employees to reach for the goals.

2.2) Performance appraisal

Performance appraisal is the steps of managers in the Volvo Motors industry to observing and assessing the employee performance, recording the assessment and providing feedback and praise concerning the acceptable elements of the employee's performance.

It designed to help employees understands own roles, objectives, expectations and performances success in the industry. Thus performance appraisal also guides and develops the employee's potential towards greater job effectiveness.

The purposes of performance appraisal in Volvo motors industry are provide feedback, to set performance goals, to identify training needs, and to provide inputs for management of pay administration, rewards, and promotion to the employees in Volvo Motors industry.

When Volvo Motors industry implements the strategy of performance appraisal, managers will use the performance appraisals form. This is because performance appraisal forms are essential for recording and documenting the performance evaluation process completely of the employees in the Volvo Motors industry.

Moreover, the manager in Volvo Motors industry will identify the strengths and weaknesses in each employee's performance. Therefore, managers are provided plans and actions to describing to employees about the performance area that needs to improve in order to motivate them to further develop their skills. Performance is improved when the employees are committed to attaining the industry' goals.

Volvo Motors industry provides feedback and discusses the performance to employees, because industry thinks that employees are having potential to grow and develop. By the way, this strategy can create a good quality and healthy working climate and even employee motivation.

On the others hand, when Volvo Motors industry using the strategy of performance appraisal is to helps the employees see how employees contribute the jobs and performance to the business.

Therefore, success or failure to achieve the industry goals can become the part of the performance appraisal. Moreover, the manager in Volvo Motors industry will recognize and reward outstanding performances through possible designation of salary increases, promotions, and additional responsibilities of the employees.

Through the performance appraisal, this is the great opportunity for industry to identify, recognise and rewards the expertise in employees. This is because the experts may able to complete the specific test rather than others employees.

2.3) Maintaining an effective workforce/ incentive plans

Volvo Motors industry is using this strategy to managing people resources which is very successful and efficiently. This is because, for example, if the employees in Volvo Motors industry good in maintaining an affective workforce, the compensation of the employees will be increased as well as possible.

Furthermore, the Volvo Motors industry also establishes the structure to setting the goals and datelines for the employees. So the employees can be responsible for completing the work effective on time.

Moreover, Volvo Motors industry also makes the reasonable demand. The industry not forces the employees to implement the task in the short period.

2.3.1) Compensation

Compensation is the payment that employees receive in exchange for employee's labour. Compensations are such as wages, salaries and tips.

The term of compensation is refers to all in monetary payments and something used in replace of money to rewards employees by the industry.

The compensation structure in Volvo Motors industry is pay for performance. Compensation of Volvo Motors industry is a payment to an employee in return for the employees' contribution to the industry.

Developing the strategy of compensation is also an important part of managing people resources in Volvo Motors industry. This is because this strategy will help industry to attract and retain the talented and potentiated employees.

On the others hand, compensation system in Volvo Motors industry also has an impact on strategic performance. Nevertheless, compensation also enhances motivation and growth of the employees.

2.3.1.1) Pay for performance

Pay for performance also known as incentive pay which is the compensation of effort and performance that employee contributed to the industry. Compensation strategy is based on a pay for performance because this strategy help the Volvo Motors industry to increase the productivity.

Pay for performance refers to the standard by which managers tie compensation to employee effort and performance in the industry. Without this compensation, motivation to perform with greater effort will be lower and result the wage costs is higher in the Volvo Motors industry. Furthermore, the employees are like to think that the compensation of the employees are should be link with the performance.

Pay for performances in Volvo Motors industry are including individual performance bonuses and standard hour plans. Each of these compensation systems in the Volvo Motors industry are differently. With the pay for performance, it helps the Volvo Motors industry achieve the strategic goals successfully.

a) Individual performance bonuses

Bonuses for individual performance are not rolled into the base pay in the Volvo Motors industry. Employees are needed to earn the bonuses during the performance period in the Volvo Motors industry. Bonuses are linked to the objective performance measures.

Moreover, the bonuses are encouraging employees in Volvo Motors industry to hard work as well as possible. For example, employees are receiving bonuses when meeting the target on sales or the production numbers is increased.

b) Standard hour plans

Another incentive systems is standard hour plans which is a plan that pays workers extra for work done in less than a pre-set standard time. If employees in Volvo Motors industry does not finished the task in the expected time, the paid of employees are still same based on the standard time which already been set in before.

The Volvo Motors industry encourage the employees to work as fast as employees can, but at the same time need to care about the quality of the products. When the employees are wanted earn extra income, employees are need to workers extra for work done.

3.0) Conclusion

From my research, I feel that the strategies for managing people resources that Volvo Motors industry implement are good strategies. This is because the strategy that Volvo Motors industry implement will bring a lot of advantages to the industry and even for the employees itself.

The advantages are such as when Volvo Motors industry implements these strategies very well, the employees and industry will achieve the mission and vision of the industry.

Vision of the Volvo Group's is to be valued as the world's leading supplier of commercial transport solutions. Moreover, the mission foe the Volvo motors industry is creating value for customers and shareholders.

Volvo Motors industry uses the expertise to create transport-related products and services of superior quality, safety and environmental care for demanding customers in selected segments. Therefore, Volvo Group's is work with energy, passion and respect for the individual.

When Volvo Motors industry achieves the mission and vision, reputation of the industry will be very well-known and famous. As we can see nowadays, the Volvo Motors have been prove that the industry is already achieve the mission and vision very well. This is because when name of Volvo Motors industry is listening or says by someone, others will easier know about the industry in the mind.

On the others hand, We can see that Volvo motors industry motivates employees in many different ways in order to prove that the company is not only care about profit they can gain from employees but also employees' crises.

Volvo motors industry develops an incentive plan for the employees to encourage employees to work hard to achieve the industry and individuals goals. Besides, when using these strategies, Volvo Motors industry will go above and beyond the expectations.

Moreover, when the employees are motivated and encouraged by the Volvo Motors industry, the advantages is the absenteeism of the industry will very low. This is because employees are like and interesting to work in Volvo Motors industry. Employees feel happy and satisfied with the strategy that implement by the Volvo Motors industry.

By the ways, the employees are not miss the work, the volume of productivity will be very high. Besides, the industry can also save the costs for new employment employees. This is because industry no needs to employ more extra employees to do the task when the absent employee does not finish done the task.

The key factor for success of the Volvo Motors industry is to improving the strategy for managing people resources as well as possible.

As an conclusion, the strategies in the above that Volvo Motors industry implement will help a firm retain its top talent and potential employees and even keep employees happy and satisfied. This is because the industry knows that the employees are the critical to the success.

4.0) References

Volvo Motors, viewed 17 March 2011, http://www3.volvo.com/investors/finrep/ar03/group_2003_eng.pdf

Volvo Motors, viewed 17 March 2011, http://www.volvogroup.com/SiteCollectionDocuments/VGHQ/Volvo%20Group/Volvo%20Group/Presentations/Volvo_2010_eng.pdf

Volvo Motors, viewed 17 March 2011, http://www.volvogroup.com/group/global/en-gb/career/career%20paths/hr_comms/pages/hr_comms.aspx

Volvo Motors, viewed 17 March 2011, http://www.volvogroup.com/group/global/en-gb/volvo%20group/history/volvo_80years/Pages/volvo_80-years.aspx

Volvo Motors, viewed 17 March 2011, http://www.volvogroup.com/group/global/en-gb/volvo%20group/history/Pages/history.aspx

Volvo Motors, viewed 17 March 2011, http://www.volvogroup.com/SiteCollectionDocuments/VGHQ/Volvo%20Group/Volvo%20Group/Presentations/Volvo_2010_eng.pdf

Strategy for management, viewed 18 March 2011, http://www.onestopmba.com/mba-articles/mba-customer-relationship-management/details/strategies-for-managing-human-resource-in-m-a-54.asp

Strategy for management, viewed 18 March 2011, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strategic_managementV

Strategy for management, viewed 18 March 2011, How to Manage People for Strategic Advantage | eHow.com

Advantages of human resources, viewed 18 March 2011, http://www.smallbusinessbible.org/advantages_humanresource.html

Performance appraisal, viewed 18 March 2011, http://www.fao.org/docrep/w5830e/w5830e0g.htm#performance%20appraisal

Compensation, viewed 18 March 2011, http://www.managementhelp.org/pay_ben/cmpnstn/cmpnstn.htm

Strategy for managing people, viewed 18 March 2011, http://walmart-thekeytosuccess.blogspot.com/2007/11/strategy-for-managing-people-resources.html

Laurie J Mullins. Management & Organization Behaviour 4th edn, Tottenham Courd Road, London.

Luis R. Gomez. Mejia. & David B. Balkin & Robert L. Cardy. Managing in Human Resources 5th edn, Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, p. 26 & 158.

Scott Snell & George Bohlander. Principle of Human Resources Management 15th edn, Nelson Education Ltd, Canada.

Richard L. Daft. New Era of Management 9th edn, Nelson Education Ltd, Canada, p.329-330.

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