Being your advisor, I believe that its my duty to keep you aware of the basics of management in order to help you to gain more confidence on this upcoming big project, which is targeted to a whole new market, which are children ranging from 5 to 15 years. And I think that the products would be demanded in the upcoming winter since its a collection of Classic and Vibrant.
So, in this booklet I have mentioned and explained about each and every basic of management with related examples, which I believe you need. Would help you carrying out this project, and to make it successful.
From this booklet you would e able to know about the basic meanings of management, importance of management for your business, the natures of management, functions of management with their importance, the planning process, the difference between managers and leaders, and about Herzbergs motivation theory and how you can motivate and improve the performance level of your subordinates, as tips.
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I hope that you will be able to carry out this project easily after reading all these, and that it would be successful Masha Allah. And if you have any questions related to this informations or such thing, contact me. Ill be always available for such a hardworking businesswoman like you.
Aishath Malha Hussain
Definition of Management
Firstly you should know about the basic definitions of management.
There are various definitions of management. Some are:
1 Management is an art of getting things done through and with the people in formally organized groups. It is an art of creating an environment in which people can perform and individuals and can co-operate towards attainment of group goals. (Harold Koontz)
2 Management is an art of knowing what to do, when to do and see that it is done in the best and cheapest way. (F.W. Taylor)
3 Management may be defined as the art of getting things done through others.
Basically, the 3 definitions say the same. It states that management is an art of getting things done by or through others, in order to attain organizational goals. Usually it is getting things done by subordinates by leaders or directors in business organizations to achieve the organizations objectives, for which they are actually paid for. While managing, the leaders or directors have to create an environment in which their subordinates or employees can work and co-operate to achieve the pre-determined goals. And also, we should know what to do at the right time at the right place at the best and cheapest way. And management could be also said as delegating work to others
So, while you are carrying out the project, you should delegate work to your subordinates after planning, so that everything will go according to your plan, in the best and cheapest way.
Importance of management
Management is very important in carrying out businesses. There are various reasons for this. Some are:
1 Helps in achieving goals and objectives
Management enables the factors of production and resources in an effective manner, which helps to achieve pre-determined goals. When the objectives of the organizations are well decided, there would be no wastage of time, effort and money. In management, resources are arranged well which makes them into useful enterprise by proper directing and controlling to achieve those pre-determined goals.
For example, if you plan well about the production of the cloths, and arrange the resources or manage the factors of production well, it would help you in achieving your target levels.
2 It reduces costs/Helps to economize
In management, we plan to achieve the maximum results with the minimum input. So we use proper planning we would be able to get the maximum output with the minimum input. And if the physical, human and financial resources are used in such a manner, it would help in reduction of costs. Economizing is making the best use of what we have.
For example, when you plan well and produce cloths, you would be able to produce them more within a short period of time, with less material if its not being wasted. So you would be able to economize.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
3 It helps for the survival and growth of the business
Since management keeps in touch with the changing environment, it enables the organization to survive easily with the changing environment. So the better the business is managed, the easier they would be able to survive and grow.
For example, if you dont manage the business well, the business might do losses and might become bankrupt. Or if you doesnt plan well of marketing f the cloths, there wont e any demand for your cloths in the market and there wont be any growth of the business. So you need to manage well for the survival and growth of the business.
4 Helps to achieve common objectives.
Management would be needed wherever two or more people work together. It is because they need to be controlled and co-ordinate well so that they would be able to achieve the goals and objectives of the business.
For example, if your business isnt well managed, the employees who work wont know what to do. But if the business is well managed, everyone will know what they are supposed to do, and every one will be after the common objective, which would help them to achieve that easily.
5 Helps to create co-ordination
Management creates team works or working in teams which will lead to increase in co-ordination within the employees.
For example, if you dont manage your business well, workers wont know what they are supposed to do and will do whatever they want in whatever method they like individually to earn money. But if the business is well managed, they will have to work in teams to achieve the objectives, which would create co-ordination between them.
6 Management provides motivation for employees and increases the leadership levels of employees.
For example, if the business is well managed, it would increase the motivation level of the employees since they will know that they are working in a good business. And also it would increase the leadership levels of the employees when they are being motivated.
Natures of Management
Secondly, you should know about the natures of management. Basically, there are 6 natures of management. Those are :
1 A Process
2 An Activity
4 Group Activity
6 Integrates resources
Now Ill be going through will all the natures with definitions with related examples, which would make you easy to understand.
As a process, management consists of 3 aspects :
1 Management is a social process = Means that management includes interaction with
Management includes socializing, which means getting
to know others, which increases motivation of employees.
Eg = while your employees work in producing the classic
and vibrant cloths, they need to interact with each other
in order to finish the tasks, which would increase there
motivation since they would e able to know others.
2 Management is an integrating process = It needs the efforts of all individuals.
Management includes working in teams.
Eg = while your employees are producing cloths,
and if division of labor is applied in the production
process, they should work in teams in order to
complete the tasks.
3 Management is a continuous process = Continuous handling of problems and solving issues.
Eg = In each batch of cloths you produce there will be
problems arising about the quality or such other. So
each time you have to solve problems.
Management is also an activity because a manager is one who accomplishes the objectives by directing the efforts of others. It is an :
1 Informational activity = It is informational as it will provide informations throughout the
people working in the business, both horizontally and vertically.
Eg = Informations would e transferred within the people while they
are working in teams or together as informal communication.
2 Decisional activity = Continuous decision making to handle issues and problems. In order to
implement action decision needs to be taken.
Eg = While carrying out the business, problems would be occurring
always. Like the quality of a batch of cloths might be very low. So you
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have to take decisions to correct them. And once its solved even, again
after sometime another problem might occur. So its called as a
3 Interpersonal activity = Interpersonal means of or relating to relationships or
communication between people. Needs continues
communication and work relationships to work to flow and progress
towards the goals.
It involves continuous communication with others.
Eg = In the production process all the employees have to
communicate with others always for completion of tasks.
Refers to the branch of knowledge which is connected to study of :
1 Principles & practices of basic administration. (equals to everyone )
Eg = What time we have to come and leave.
Also involves the day to day jobs.
2 Certain code of conduct to be followed by manager and various methods of managing resources efficiently.
Eg = Way of behavior.
Way of dressing.
Since management satisfies both these problems, therefore it qualifies to be a discipline. Though it is comparatively a new discipline but it is growing at a faster pace.
Management as a group refers to all those persons who perform the task of managing an enterprise. ( All the employees, staffs, workers, subordinates etc )
In common practice management includes only top management ( seniors )
However, tasks or responsibilities are divided upon different individuals. Successful completion of a job required efforts from all employees related to the particular task/job.
Due to all these its called as a group activity.
Eg = While your employees are producing the clothes, they need to communicate with each other in order to finish the products. So its called as a group activity.
Management is an art because it involves:
1 Practical knowledge (theory vs. practical) = the knowledge of the people, work experience.
Eg = the knowledge of the employees, like on how to advertise or promote.
2 Personal skill (own style, talents, skills)
Eg = the employees can used their own talents or skills for marketing.
Eg = employees can use their creativity for designing the classic and vibrant clothes for
4 Perfection through practice (practice makes perfect)
Eg = When the employees produce products, they will be specialized in it and it will lead to
products being perfect.
Eg = the employees would be always trying to achieve their goals or objectives.
Integration of resources
Human beings work with non-human resources.
1 Financial resources
Eg = Money
2 Human resources
Eg = labor, productivity of employees
3 Physical resources
Eg = machinery and equipments
Functions of Management
Basically, there are 4 functions of management. They are:
Planning is the basic function of management, which is deciding in advance what is to be done, how to do, when to do and who to do it. It is also a decision making process of a special kind, its essence is futurity.
Importance of planning
1 - Make objectives clear and specific. When we plan, we make objectives clear and specific so that it would e easy to achieve for the employees and for the owners.
2 - Make activities meaningful. When the activities are well planed, we know why they are being held and makes it meaningful.
3 - Reduce the risk of uncertainty. When the activities are planned, we know what to do, so we will go according t the plan which would reduce the risk of uncertainties(wastage of resources)
4 Brings in stability and prosperity. Management could control the stable running of the business. And brings in prosperity, which means future developments and success.
5- Brings in unity of purpose. All the employees would be trying to achieve one goal or objective, which will lead the goal or objective to achieve easier.
6 Innovations and creativity. When there are many employees, there would be many ideas from all, which would make it easier to make creative decisions or activities.
7 Better co-ordination. When all the employees are trying to achieve one goal, they all will have to communicate within themselves, which would increase the co-ordination level.
8 Ensure commitment. Everyone would be giving their 100% on the project so productivity would increase.
Eg = Examples of planning will include anything which you are thinking of your new project. Like planning what kind of products you want to produce, what color/material and various sizes you want to produce. Also planning could include when you are taking ideas from others on how to promote the cloths and where youre going to.
Organizing is the first step of implementation because we are physically grouping and dividing workforce. It acts as a framework within which people can work together effectively.
Importance of organizing
1 Helps to achieve organizational goals
Organization is employed to achieve the overall objectives of business firms. Organization focuses attention of individuals objectives towards overall objectives.
2 Optimum use of resources
To make optimum use of resources such as men, material, money, machine and method, it is necessary to design an organization properly.
Work should be divided and right people should be given right jobs to reduce the wastage of resources in an organization.
3 To perform managerial function/clarifies authority
Planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling cannot be implemented without proper organization.
Organizational structure helps in clarifying the role position of every manager.
Classifying power, and how to exercise the power.
4 Facilitates growth and diversification
A good organization structure determines the input resources needed for expansion of a business activity similarly organization is essential for product diversification such as establishing a new product line.
5 Human treatment of employees
Organization has to operate for the betterment of employees and must not encourage monotony of work due to higher degree of specialization.
Now, organization has adapted the modern concept of systems approach based on human relations and it discards the traditional productivity and specialization approach.
Works are divided into units and departments.
Divisions of work/labor bring concentration to various activities of concern.
7 Well defined jobs
Right person to the right job.
Selecting people according to their qualifications, skills, and experience.
Creates co-ordination among departments.
Clear cut relationships among positions.
For smooth running of the company-formal relationships.
9 Effective Administration
Defining job positions and specialization through division of work.
Roles are easily performed by managers.
10 Sense of security
Job position clarifies-roles assigned are clear-leads to co-ordination.
Enable authority and responsibility.
Therefore sense of security-job satisfaction.
Eg =Examples of organizing can be when you are dividing the work into the workers employed. Like two people for cutting the cloths, two people for sewing, 3 people for putting buttons etc.
Moreover, organizing is even known as giving instructions or guidelines to the employees about what they are supposed to do and not to do.
Directing is known as instructing, guiding and seeing the performance to achieve pre-determined goals. Directing is the heart of management process. It is because directing makes sure we are going according to the plan, and would be successful. Leading involves leadership in teams, and teams means collectives working in order to achieve goals.
Importance of leading/directing
1 Initiates actions to get the desired results in an organization.
2 Attempts to get maximum out of employees by identifying their capabilities or abilities
3 Is essential to keep the elements like supervision, motivation, leadership and communication.
4 Directing ensures that every employee works towards the organizational goals or objectives.
5 Through effective directing, coping up with the changes of the business is possible and easy.
6 Through directing, balance and stability of the business can be maintained.
7 Directing is a part of motivation, from which employees performance would be increased.
8 It form co-ordination within the organization, since the managers would be supervising and giving directions on how to do tasks,
Eg = Directing is when you are giving directions to your employees. Like telling what is to be done and not done, and telling them the best manner to complete their tasks.
Controlling is checking the current performance or the standard performance, to make sure goals are met or satisfied or going to be satisfied.
Current performance could be like the performance of the current employees, staffs, or how they are performing.
Controlling is very essential like other functions.
Importance of controlling
1 Critical link back to planning.
2 Facilitates goal achievement.
3 Makes delegation easier/better.
4 Provides feedback on performance of delegated authority.
5 It checks the deviations.
6 It also finds out the reasons behind such deviations and take corrective measures too.
7 It reduces risks, because it helps to put the performances on the right track, which helps in achieving the organizations goals.
8 Controlling provides informations to the management for planning and organizing when the work is done and results are evaluated. So the evaluation helps the management to punish or discipline the employees.
9 In organizations there will be many problems which are unknown. But in this process all these can be traced out and will be able to know because of whom the weaknesses are created, and solutions can be found.
10 It facilitates co-ordination which would increase motivation and performance of the employees.
11 Controlling helps to find out deviations and to supervise employees.
Eg = Controlling is checking what the employees are doing. Like checking whether they are performing their tasks, whether the objectives are met, whether the cloths are being made in the quality that you want etc.
1 Classifying problems.
The first step of planning is classifying the problem/s. It means to identify the problem or studying the problem carefully, which will help you in the other coming up steps.
Eg = In your case, you have to identify how you are going to produce and promote the cloths. You have to plan well with the help of your employees so that it would success.
2 Establishment of objectives
Then we have to establish the objectives. You have to set goals and objectives, which would guide you in future. And objectives could be made for the entire organization, each department or unit within the organization. Usually planning starts with the setting of objectives goals which the business aims to achieve.
Furthermore, objectives should be stated in quantitative terms. Like wages given, units produced etc. But performance quality control or effectiveness of managers cannot e stated in quantitative terms.
Eg = You will have to decide how many cloths youre going to produce in each batch, how many batches per day/week etc.
3 Establishment of planning premises
Since planning is concerned with future which is uncertain, we should keep other alternatives too. Also it is concerned with determining where one tends to deviate from actual plans and causes of such deviations. Planning premises include both internal and external. Internal include management labor relations, capital investment policies which are controllable, while external include political and economical changes which are uncontrollable.
Eg = If you are deciding to have a promotion campaign next month at artificial beach, you wont know whether it will rain or not. So u need to arrange another place and keep it for that day to use if the weather is not good, like dharubaaruge.
4 Choice of alternative course of action
When we find premises and establish premises, there would be a number of course of actions which have to be considered. And for this, every alternative have to be evaluates by seeing its pros and cons in the case of resources such as money and many more which is available and requirements of the business. Before making a choice, we have to examine all the advantages, disadvantages and consequences of all the alternatives, and chose the best one.
Eg = For example there are many colors. And you need to decide what color you are going to use in the particular batch. Like black might be dark for the age group, white might be a color people wont buy since it will get dirty easily due to the age, etc. So you will have to choose the best color which have more advantages and less disadvantages.
5 Formulation of derived plans
Derived plans are secondary plans which we make since it might help in the achievement of the main plan. These usually support the main plan, which usually includes sales maximization, production maximization, and cost minimization.
Eg = You need to make secondary plans.
6 Arranging timing and sequence of operations
It is just as simple it is. It is arranging the time of the event, and other sequences of the event. Like how minutes for this and that.
Eg = What time we are going to hold the event.
7 Securing co-operations
We have to create confidence of people who are going to implement them. Its because then only they will be motivated, it would increase their interest towards working, and the business will be able to get valuable opinions and improvement in formulation as well as implementation of plans.
Eg = If you dont motivate the employees they wont have any interest towards working.
8 Follow up/ Appraisal of plans
It is putting up the chosen one into action. After the plan is implemented its important to appraise its effectiveness through feedback or information received from the people concerned.
This step enables the management to correct deviations or to modify the plan if necessary and is a link between planning and the function controlling. And this step should go carefully and side by side the implementation so that future plans can be mo realistic.
Eg = After you plan, you need to produce the products. And after producing, u need to promote the products.
Difference between managers and leaders
The leaders job is to plan, organize and co-ordinate their followers.
The managers job is to inspire and motivate their employees/staffs.
Reacts to changes
Navigates roads to get there
Create shared focus
Develop power with people
Exercise power over the people
Relies on control
Appeals to the heart
Appeals to the head
Set plans with details
Focus on people
Focus on system
Focus on reaching goals
Sets examples of performance
Talks about performance
Do the right things
Do things right
Now I am going to explain some of these differences in details.
Effectiveness and efficiency, both is getting the job done. The difference is in effectiveness, time and money is not an important factor. But in efficiency it is a huge factor. In effectiveness, we want to just finish the task, without caring about the time and money factors. But in efficiency we want to finish the task in the least possible time with the least amount of money.
Leaders have followers who take instructions from them and work.
But managers have employees who receive orders from them and are paid for that.
Leaders persuade their followers to work through motivation or such other.
But mangers gives orders for their employees by communicating.
Leaders are people who are chosen with in a group to initiate ideas for a task or for a short period of time, hence its temporary. But managers are called as it since they are given the job for managing, hence its more stable.
Leaders earn respect from their followers co guiding them motivating them, giving them hopes etc. But managers should be respected by their employees.
Leaders also will have to follow the rules. So they might break the rules when doing an activity.
And managers are the people who make rules for the leaders and other employees of the business.
Managers are the ones who create ideas about the activities held in the business. And leaders usually implement them or give suggestions or ideas to improve them.
Managers talk to the leaders or other subordinates and give instructions or orders to them. Leaders will have to listen to that instructions or orders and follow them.
Managers direct or control groups. And the leaders create teams to work with in.
Motivation = Motivation is a psychological process conducted internally.
= Motivation is the driving force by which humans achieve their goals.
Herzberg Motivation Theory
Herzberg proposed the Motivation-Hygiene Theory, which is also known as the two factor theory(1959) of job satisfaction. According to the theory, people are influenced two of factors :
= Work itself
= Pay and Benefits
= Company Policy and Administration
= Relationships with Co-workers
= Job Security
According to Herzberg, there are two set of factors that influence people towards their work or job. That is :
1 Motivational factors = These factors include things related to the work. He says that people will be motivated when they get more achievements. And if they are recognized for doing good work in front of others, and if the person does good works praising that person by giving promotions to them. And if giving promotions, the person who are getting the promotion, and as well others, will get motivated too. Its because then only they will want to work hard to gain that promotion themselves. Also he says that giving responsibility to them will make them motivate. Its because when we give more responsibilities to them, they will feel that they are better than other and will get motivated. Furthermore the job itself is a motivational factor. It is because if the job is interesting, people would e motivated towards the job and its job.
2 Hygiene Factors = Basically these are related to the business. He says that people would e motivated if they are getting a higher pay and benefits. Like the higher they are paid, the higher motivated they will be. Next is company policies and administration. The people will want to work in a business where there are good company policies and administration since they are the people who would be benefited from them. Then if there is good relationships with so-workers and if good supervision is in the business, the employees would be motivated to work in the business. Nest is the status and the job security. Everyone will want a good status and a job security. If they get all these factors, the employees would be well motivated towards the business.
How you can motivate and improve the performance lever of your subordinates!!!!!
1 Reduce the time spend at work
2 Give high wages as possible
3 Give fringe benefit as much as you can.
Eg = Free healthcare for them and their family
= Free education for their children
= Company vehicle to come and go form work
4 Give them more training
5 Job rotation = Rotate their jobs within time with others so that they wont be bored of the job.
6 Job enrichment/enlargement = Give them more responsibilities to make them prove
7 Give them counseling
And if you want to follow Herzbergs theory to increase motivation of your subordinates:
1 Give them more achievements
2 Give them recognition
3 Give them a good job Motivational Factors
4 Give them responsibility to prove themselves
5 Give them more promotion
6 Give them more pay and benefits
7 Have good company policies and administrations
in your business
8 Try to create good relations with their co-workers Hygiene Factors
9 Supervise them well so that they will know that
you are expecting something from them.
10 Give them a high status
11 Give them a good job security
In conclusion, I would like to say that if you follow these for your management, you will be able to carry out the business without any difficulty.
And as I told you before, If you have any questions regarding anything, contact me and you will be able to get more explanations from me.
Moreover, I hope that you will be happy with my explanations and that you will be able to understand the things which I have mentioned.
Furthermore, I wish the best of luck for your big project. And I assure you that I will surely visit your shop and buy your classic and vibrant cloths for me for this coming up winter, and ill tell my relatives and friends too.
Once again good luck
Take very good care