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In the twenty-first century the world of work in which a manager operates is one of continuous change and the most important management skill is the management of change. The strategic importance of management to national economies has grown considerably over the last quarter of century (Cole.G.A, p.87) Organisations as well as Flower Power have to deal with the consequences of ever more rapid innovations in technology, which has revolutionised many of the processes by which goods and services are made available to customers and they have to face with increased expectations of customers for the quality and variety of goods and services (Hannagan, T., p.5) Since the second half of the 19th century, when the economy is the leading European countries (Britain, France , Germany) entered the stage of monopoly capitalism, the issues of organizational management acquire independent value, and interest has since consistently high. By that time, organizational management stands out as an independent science, where introduced the first theoretical works in this area of expertise.
The scientific management approach developed by Frederic Taylor, pioneered scientific management,is based on the concept of planning work to achieve efficiency, standardisation, specialization and simplification. Frederic Taylor, suggested that systematic investigation could indicate proper methods, standards and timings for each operation in an organisation's activities. The responsibility of management was to select, train and help workers to perform their jobs properly. The job of management was to plan and control the work. The responsibility of workers was simply to accept the new methods and perform accordingly. The practical application of this approach was to break each job down into its smallest and simplest component parts or "motions": each single motion in effect became a separate specialized "job" to be allocated to a separate worker. Workers were selected and trained to perform such jobs in the most efficient way possible, eliminating all wasted motions or unnecessary physical motion. The philosophical foundation of Taylor was the concept of so-called economic rights, received in the same period widespread. The basis of this concept laid the claim that the only motivation driving people are their needs. Taylor believed that with the help of a feasibility wage system can achieve maximal productivity.
Scientific management developed towards the end of the 19th century, concentrated on how was work organised on the factory floor, while administrative management considered the organisation as a whole. This developed into bureaucratic management where the emphasis has been on designing an impersonal, rational basis for managing an organisation with clearly defined structures and lines of authority and accountability and the uniform application of standards rules (Hannagan.T, p.273).
French engineer and manager Henri Fayol laid down the principles of management, which asked to be guided in solving administrative problems and carrying out the functions of management. Fayol formulated 14 principles of management to the activities of senior management such as authority and responsibility, discipline, equity, scalar chain necessary for effective management of the company. Principles Fayol divided into three groups: structural, procedural and effective. Fayol pointed out that their use should be flexible and take into account the situation in which control is exercised. Summing up his long-term observations, Fayol created a "theory of administration". The aim of the school administrative Fayol was the creation of universal principles of management, following which, the organization would undoubtedly succeed. Fayol believed that "with scientific forecasting and proper methods of management, satisfactory results were inevitable." Compared with Taylor,Fayol had a comprehensive view of management very similar to modern ideas(Hannagan,T.p714) By definition, A. Fayol "control means to anticipate, organize, manage, coordinate and supervise" Fayol suggested that control means to lead the organization to its goals, deriving the maximum possible from all available resources at its disposal. The control occupies a significant place in the activities of senior management personnel and a much smaller in the activities of personnel directly engaged in production, or junior management staff. Specifically emphasizes that managerial activity is universal for any organization. Fayol was first proposed to consider the proper management activities as an independent object of research. He identified five key elements which, in its opinion, consist of administration functions: forecasting, planning, organization, coordination and control. Fayol theory gives a clear overview of the tasks of the head: look to the future (someone in the organization must plan, make a prediction), organize, coordinate their offerings to the heads of other departments, manage a team, therefore, always maintain contact with his subordinates to know their needs and desire to help, to implement in their hopes and aspirations. For the effective functioning of the organization needed a plan that has the unity, continuity, flexibility and accuracy. Fayol was convinced that the administrative abilities cannot develop, receiving only special education. Not only knowledge but also the ability, individual characteristics contribute to the manager. A manager is a combination of intellectual power and emotional impact. Administrative School has had a major impact on management practices, as its representatives for the first time an extensive effort to develop and put into practice the principles that are suitable for all levels of management. Many management principles still have practical value. For example, the Japanese company. "Mitsusita Electric is guided by the following seven management principles: objectivity, fairness, solidarity, accomplishment, humility, harmony, score - they resonate with the principles developed by Fayol.
Max Weber developed a theory of authority structures and gave attention to the significance of large organisations.He described an ideal type of organisation that he called a bureaucracy,characterizide by division of labor,a clearly defined hierarchy,detailed rules and regulations,and impersonal relationships. Weber also believed that technical competence should be emphasized and that performance evaluations should be made entirely on the basis of merit.His theory became the design prototype for many of today's large organisations.
In early twentieth century writers such as Mary Parker Follett and Elton Mayo recognised the limitations of the scientific management perspectives(Boddy.D,p.54)Classical management thought took the organisation to be a machine and the formal, designed organization as the only thing of importance. It took human behaviour within the organisation to be "rational" in the sense of the economist and it took hierarchy and rules at their face value (Puxty.A, p.29).Follet was the first who defined management as "enforcing work with others." Follett introduced many new elements to the classical management approach especially in the areas of human relations and organizational structure. Follett recognized that organizations could be viewed from the perspective of individual and group behaviour. She was convinced that no one could become a whole person except as a member of a group; human beings grew through their relationships with others in organizations. The manager's job was to harmonize and coordinate group efforts. Follett asserted that managers and workers should view themselves as partners as part of a common group. She proposed that managers should rely more on their expertise and knowledge to lead subordinates rather than on the formal authority of their position. Follett addressed issues that are timely today, such as ethics, power, and how to lead in a way that encourages employees to give their best. The school's "human relations",focuses on the psychology of attitudes, behaviors and needs of individuals, social interaction and group interests. There are three field areas: human relations, human resources, and behaviorism. E. Mayo's impact on the replacement of the concept of "rational worker" concept "social worker". Mayo concluded that behaviour and sentiments are closely related, that group influences significantly affect individual behaviour that group standards establish individual worker output and that money is less a factor in determining output than are group standards, group sentiments, and security.Elton Mayo stated that employees would work harder if they believed management was concerned about their welfare and supervisors paid special attention to them. This phenomenon was subsequently labelled the Hawthorne effect. These conclusions led to a new emphasis on the human factor in the functioning of organizations and the attainment of their goals. The Hawthorne studies stimulated an interest in human factors. Current organizational practices that owe their roots to the Hawthorne studies include attitude surveys, employee counselling, management training, participative decision making, and team based compensation systems.
The behavioural approach is also known as the neo-human relations perspective. The human resources perspective combines prescriptions for design of job tasks with theories of motivation. In the human resources view, jobs should be designed so that tasks are not perceived as dehumanizing or demeaning but instead allows workers to use their full potential.The best-known contributors to the human resources perspective are Abraham Maslow, Douglas McGregor, and Frederick Herzberg.
Abraham Maslow , a practicing psychologist, proposed a hierarchy of five needs: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization. In terms of motivation, Maslow argued that each step in the hierarchy must be satisfied before the next level can be activated and that once a need was substantially satisfied, it no longer motivated behaviour. Douglas McGregor formulated two sets of assumptions - Theory X and Theory Y - about human nature.Theory X presents an essentially negative view of people. It assumes that they have little ambition dislike work, want to avoid responsibility, and need to be closely supervised to work effectively.Theory "X" formulates the philosophy of management and control of traditional management. Manager tells people what to do, and often resorted to incentives or penalties in the course of work.Theory "Y" is a new approach to management. Theory Y offers a positive view, assuming that people can exercise self-direction, accept responsibility, and consider work to be as natural as rest or play.The point of theory Y is that organizations can take advantage of the imagination and intellect of all their employees. Employees will exercise self-control and will contribute to organizational goals when given the opportunity. Frederick Herzberg suggested that only higher psychological needs for growth, challenge, responsibility, and self-fulfillment can positively motivate employees to improved performance.Another category within the behavioral approach encompasses the behavioral science approach, which relies on the scientific method for the study of organizational behaviour.Behavioral science draws from sociology, psychology, anthropology, economics, and other disciplines to understand employee behavior and interaction in an organizational setting. This approach can be seen in organizations even today when, for example, a firm conducts research to determine the best set of tests, interviews, and employee profiles to use when selecting new employees. The behavioral approaches contributed an important awareness of the influence of the human factor at work on organizational performance and the need to offer job
Modern management practices are based on consulting people and giving them responsibility for their work,while scientific management was based on telling people how to increase their earnings,training them and then expecting them to go ahead and do it(Hannagan.T,p.713) In the present time there is no single approach to management. In various companies have different approaches, directions, concepts of business management.
Management is a fundamental discipline, who need to know any entrepreneur. The process of strategic planning involves a number of important operations: planning, costs, production planning, sales planning, and finally, the Finance plan. Preparing today's managers-professionals is impossible without knowing the history of management development. Main role of management is to unite people together in order to accomplish achievable goals. Management mobilize or allocate resources to different department like Human resource, Finance, IT department and organize these resources in such a way that organizational strategic goals are accomplished easily in the long run. Management also takes vital part in planning,leading and controlling. In short, it takes part in each and every step of the organization. It gives direction, aligns and achieve organization goals with available resources.Every organization requires planning, direction, organization and control for it to set off and continue to grow. It is the role of management to perform such duties for the perpetual existence and increased productivity of the organization.Management plays a crucial role in business by doing planning. A business must have goals and objectives, as well as the course of action that must be taken to achieve them. Management make this happen. They set goals and objectives for the business. At the same time, they plan on how they will achieve them, and offer guidelines to the rest of the team members.Management also has important role in organizing.Management determines the internal structure of the organization, such as assigning roles to different people in different departments. After determining the course action, management must determine what kind of management structure they need to follow. This is where they design organizational charts and assign roles to different titles or people.Also management play role in staffing. Managers are tasked to recruit, hire and train people to perform various functions in the business, as laid out in the organizational structure. They also make decisions regarding how much they should pay the employees as well as their benefits, if any.
Control is one of the major roles of management. It is necessary to set performance standards based on the established goals and objectives of the organization. This is to be used as a yard stick to measure the performance and compare it with the projected outcome. And if deviations should occur, it is management's responsibility to take necessary action. A business cannot perform without some form of control and this is where management comes in.
An important role management must play is the decision maker. This applies to financial, budgetary, personnel, policy and security judgments. These are not always easy decisions, but they must be made and management takes on that dutGood manager realizes the value of a company's employees and leads with the intent to motivate their staff. Manager understands how to properly delegate and empower employees, and also recognizes and acknowledges good performance by offering regular feedback and praise.
Over the years the role of management has evolved. In years past managers were frequently controlling, privileged, authoritative, and aloof; for the most part out of touch with their employees working "on the floor".
Today's managers recognize the value of a team-oriented environment and as a result act more as a facilitator and a mentor. In this approach they offer guidance and leadership to staff instead of working behind closed doors. Nowadays managers are moving towards participating as hands-on team members themselves rather than putting their focus solely on supervision and directives.
Most businesses still work on a hierarchal structure, but many are navigating towards "flattened", or horizontal structures. This structure is becoming more popular among smaller businesses and within singular divisions in larger companies because it allows employees to have a level of involvement in decision making processes. This is done with the anticipation of productivity increasing. In larger companies management cannot effectively function in this way simply because of their size, but within individual divisions, this way of thinking often yields success.
In today's business atmosphere managers are learning how to successfully integrate the traditional key functions with new organizational concepts to achieve a good balance which works within their company.
As a part of the managerial toolbox, successful managers possess the technical and administrative knowledge necessary to execute company objectives and use this to evaluate strengths and weaknesses, liabilities and monitor quality management and control.
To stay competitive manager today illuminate goals, generate innovation and creativity. They also know how to maintain strong communication both externally and internally in their organization and how to integrate these skills within the decision making process. Management plays a central role in business.
The Keith's approach mainly based on instruction and observation of employees.Many managers have been promoted internally without any training or support to help them understand role and activities of management. There is an on-going search for alternative approaches to Flower Power management. The human relation approach, which seeks the human relations pertains to motivating people in organisations in order to develop teamwork which effectively fulfils their needs and leads to achieving oganisational goals could be a suitable option in Flower Power situation. In co-operation with training company Flower Power management could organise a training course 'Alternative approaches to management' . This course would be aimed at staff of Flower Power departments working in management . The course would give participants the chance to reflect on current and traditional Flower Power management approaches, and learn about new approaches to management. Special attention would be given to advantages and disadvantages, to social and science aspects of Flower Power management. Management should reflect new thinking if the available resource is to be well maximized. Of the 6,700 businesses, around 80% of these belong to a relay organisation such as InterFlora, Teleflower or Flowergram. The benefit of belonging to such an organisation is that by providing support in marketing and sales, and product and design, and as a result of their international links, they allow the business to compete with multi-national firms, and respond to a changing market. (For example, approximately 80% of Dutch-imported flowers in the UK now go to supermarkets.)A relay organisation allows a person in one part of the country to 'send' flowers to a person in another part of the country by using a network of florists. The operation is relatively straightforward. There is always competition, and the floristry industry is no exception. Management should handle all aspects of planning, purchasing, sales, personnel, promotion, and production. As the company grows, a more formal management hierarchy should be developed. Manager should be able to select a management approach that is most appropriate to the desired need or goal.
Managing and leading are two different ways of organising people. The manager uses a formal, rational method whilst the leader uses passion and stirs emotions. William Wallace is one excellent example of a brilliant leader but could never be thought of as the manager of the Scots!
The Washington Post Company operates in a decentralized manner. While sharing common goals and values, each of the Company's divisions has its own identity, workplace culture and way of doing business. Division management is responsible for its operations.