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If any manager or company known the other country's culture, then it would become easy to anticipates potential threats. For example, when Mac Donald Company lunched their products in India, then Mac Donald had decided how they can manage their cultures. Because, hindu citizens does not to eat beef burger. Most of the Indians are fully vegetarian. So, Indian culture may become threats to them as their main products are beef. For this, they have vastly discussed the cultural differences in their organization. From the discussion Mac Donald formulate their strategies in India. This is why FPD management needs to discussed cultural differences among the employees.
Opportunities of cultural difference are given below ------------------------------------------
The nature of government intervention. For example it is build up type of linkages or network between company and government.
The Company in a particular region in to the network of relationships between suppliers, manufactures, and distributors.
Known the role government, the nature of ownership.
Known the people values, norms, perspective and ethical sense different country different culture.
Companies also need to analyze the potential for cultural clashes that can undermine good intentions. Managers involved in these cross-border adventures need to recognize the symptoms of cultural malaise and to find out what is causing the irritation.
To capture the potential benefits while limiting the potential misunderstanding, managers must be prepared to articulate how they see their own culture and to recognize how other may experience it.
Alternate views: If a multinational company does not know the cultural difference they may faced many problems. Because if company manager does not know the culture different countries, then it would become difficult for them to manage the employees.
Some discussions are given below------------------------------------------
Manager does not know different culture; obviously he/she cannot run the business different country.
If manger does not know different countries different values, norms, and perspective how can mange the employee.
If company does not know the different countries public choice, life style and what are their main culture. Then manager how adapt in this situation.
Suppose company does not know different countries people behavior, this moment manager how can handle different countries employee.
Conclusion: If we don't know the culture difference then it will difficult to manage team. If we want to run business in abroad we have to know cultural difference.
Task - 2: Describe the importance under the three exploring culture
Greeting rituals: Greeting rituals is an act of communication in which human beings intentionally make their presence known to each other, to show attention to, and to suggest a type of relationship or social status between individuals or groups of people coming in contact with each other. While greeting customs are highly culture- and situation-specific and may change within a culture depending on social status and relationship, they exist in all known human cultures. Greetings can be expressed both audibly and physically, and often involve a combination of the two. This topic excludes military and ceremonial salutes but includes rituals other than gestures. Greetings rituals are often, but not always, used just prior to a conversation. There is an example, when a man meets a friend; it is different rituals from colleague, Because of professional behavior.
Making contact: Making contact is very important in big business culture. Because, different countries are following different cultures in the world. So, we need to know the culture and making contact of different country. Like any businessman operate their business other country, they need to know the country's making contact style. Making contact is one of the most important forms of nonverbal communication. When communicate, whether for personal communication or business communication, the things we don't say are just as important as the things that we do say. In fact, in many cases, our nonverbal cues will be more important than our verbal ones. Making contact, especially, is very important for many reasons.
Dress code: Clothing is an aspect of human physical appearance, and like other aspects of human physical appearance it has social significance. All societies have dress codes, most of which are unwritten but understood by most members of the society.
If a Company's objective is to establishing a formal dress code is to enable our employees to project the professional image that is in keeping with the needs of our clients and customers. Because our industry requires the appearance of trusted business professionals and we serve clients at our site on a daily basis, a more formal dress code is necessary for our employees.
American Greeting rituals, Making contact and Dress code: Greetings are casual. A handshake, a smile, and a 'hello' are all that is needed. Smile! Use first names, and be sure to introduce everyone to each other. The hand shake is the common greeting.
Handshakes are firm, brief and confident. Maintain eye contact during the greeting.
In most situations, you can begin calling people by their first names. Most people will insist that you call them by their nickname, if they have one.
Dress code in America:
What is considered appropriate business attire varies by geographic region, day of the week and industry.
In general, people in the East dress more formally, while people in the West are known for being a bit more casual.
Executives usually dress formally regardless of which part of the country they are in.
Casual Friday is common in many companies. High technology companies often wear casual clothes every day.
For an initial meeting, dressing conservatively is always in good taste. Women can wear business suits, dresses or pantsuits. Men should wear a business suit unless you know the firm to be quite casual.
Making contact in America: Offer a firm handshake, lasting 3-5 seconds, upon greeting and leaving. Keep up good eye contact during your handshake. If you are meeting several people at once, maintain eye contact with the person you are shaking hands with, until you are moving on the next person. Good eye contact during business and social conversations shows interest, honesty and confidence. Good friends may briefly embrace, although the larger the city, usually the more formal the behavior. Introductions include one's title if appropriate, or Mr., Ms, Mrs. and the full name.
Greeting Rituals, Making contact and Dress code in France: Greeting rituals in France Always shake hands when being introduced or when meeting someone, as well as leaving. In general, the woman offers her hand first. In social settings, with friends, expect to the les bases: this being the touching of cheeks and kissing in the air.
Making contact in France is behavior emphasizes courtesy and a degree of formality.
Mutual trust and respect is required to get things done.
Trust is earned through proper behavior. If you do not speak French, an apology for not knowing their language may aid in developing a relationship. Appointments are necessary and should be made at least 2 weeks in advance.
.Â Appointments may be made in writing or by telephone and, depending upon the level of the person you are meeting, are often handled by the secretary.
Dress Code France is varying with position within the company, industrial sector and region in France. The higher the position within a larger organization, the more formal will be the dress code with formal suit and tie being worn.
France dress codes are fast disappearing all over the country but very few French people will wear white sneakers, baseball caps, tracksuit pants and flip-flops (except at the beach). Nobody will tell you anything, but you will just be labeled as a tourist. Generally speaking, business casual dress code is sufficient in cities and in all but the most formal occasions.
People won't be offended (although they may be surprised, especially in rural areas) if you wear clothing that is unusual in France, such as a sari, a Scottish kilt, or a djelaba.
Usual courtesy apply when entering churches, and although you may not be asked to leave, it is better to avoid short pants and halter tops.
Greeting rituals, Making contact & Dress code in South Africa: The most common greeting is a handshake with a warm, welcoming smile. Men may place their left hand on the other person's shoulder while shaking hands. Smiling and showing sincere pleasure at meeting the person is important. As in the rest of Africa, it is rude to rush the greeting process. You must take the time to ask about the person's health, the health of their family, or other social niceties. Close friends and family members often kiss and hug when meeting. A Nigerian generally waits for the woman to extend her hand. Observant Muslims will not generally shake hands with members of the opposite sex.
Making contact is South Africa the handshake is the most common greeting. There are a variety of handshakes between ethnic groups. Use titles and surnames to address people.
Appointments should be made starting at 9 a.m. Do not rush deals. South Africans are very casual in their business dealings. South Africans prefer a "win-win" situation.
In South Africa the dress code is generally casual (denims, t-shirts, skirts etc.) when you are not working as the weather is mostly hot. When at work the dress code is more formal e.g. knee length skirt, blouse and on cool days a matching jacket. Except for the upper-class restaurants, your casual wear will be just fine in most restaurants. If you intend on going to a club, you should dress hip as the youth are pretty fashion conscious. Men are required to wear a shirt (can be casual) with a collar to clubs and for some silly reason many clubs don't allow 'talkies' (running shoes).
Power distance: Hofstede's Power distance Index measures the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. This represents inequality (more versus less), but defined from below, not from above. It suggests that a society's level of inequality is endorsed by the followers as much as by the leaders.
Uncertainty avoidance: Uncertainty avoidance deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity; it ultimately refers to man's search for Truth. It indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. Unstructured situations are novel, unknown, surprising, and different from usual. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules, safety and security measures, and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth; 'there can only be one Truth and we have it'.
Figure 1: Hofstede's Map.
Figure 2: Emerging cultural profiles.
USA: USA power distance (small power distance) score is 47. Uncertainty avoidance is (weak uncertainty avoidance) position score is 47. Now USA is stay is village market position.
Village market (Anglo/Nordic) characteristics are: Decentralized, Generalist, People as free agents, Entrepreneurial, Flexibility, More delegation, Coordination through informal,
Personal communication and Output control.
France: France power distance (Large power distance) score is 88. This is strong uncertainty avoidance. France is stay in Traditional bureaucracy 'pyramid of people' (Latin). Traditional bureaucracy 'pyramid of people' (Latin) characteristics are: Centralized decision-making, Coordination at the top, 'Cloisonné' highly specialized, Strong role of staff, Analytic ability, Pyramid of people, Informal relationship, 'Systemic D', Elitist (power and authority) and Input control.
South Africa: South Africa power distance (large power distance) score is 50. South Africa stays in Family or tribe (Asian).
Family or tribe (Asian) characteristics are: Centralized, Paternalistic, Loyalty and Generalist, Strong social versus task roles, Personal relationship and Social control.
Creating scene of purpose: The purpose for creating teams is to provide a structure that will increase the ability of employees to participate in planning, problem solving and decision making to better serve customers. Increased participation promotes:
Better understanding of decisions,
More support for and participation in implementation plans,
Increased contribution to problem solving and decision making, and
More ownership of decisions, processes, and changes.
In order for teams to fulfill their intended role of improving organizational effectiveness, it is critical that teams develop into working units that are focused on their goal, mission, or reason for existing.
USA: USA is one of the largest business countries. USA has a many multinational or national offices. But US peoples not like to set agendas before the meeting. If they realized that they need to discuss something then they direct call meetings.
France: France some time follow to meeting in any purpose, some time are not. For example France government very much importance to natural climates in this section they are faces some problem, when the forest and environmental department call meeting in specific agenda. But the non-government organization they are not to importance in meeting or agenda. France has many multi-national companies, this company follows to hierarchic policy, and so, they are not to need to meeting.
South Africa: South Africa fully follows to meeting policy. Government/Non-government and Multi national company has discus their problem in meeting and step to their action. For example South African software firm "Clyral" they are face to some product problem like quality full software provides to customer but they are not success to few months. In this time company managing director call meeting with agenda in all software engineer. Finally they are goes to decision. So, that example proved they are maintaining meeting rules policy.
Assigning roles and responsibilities of team member: Roles and responsibilities assigning the team member are very important. Because if any member does not know what are the roles & responsibilities he\she may perform, then It will become difficult for the team to achieve their goals. Team members must agree to:
Be enthusiastic and committed to the team's purpose.
Be honest and keep any confidential information behind closed doors.
He/She must know their roles and responsibilities in team.
Share responsibility to rotate through other team roles like facilitator, recorder, and timekeeper.
Share knowledge and expertise and not withhold information.
Fulfill duties in between meetings.
Respect the opinions and positions of others on the team, even if the person has an opposing view or different opinion.
Corruption: Corruption is the fully illegal and crime. A simple definition of corruption is the misuse of public office for private gain for the benefit of the holder of the office or some third party.
The Corruption (Prevention) Act 2000 was established to eliminate bribery and corruption within the government services. The act requires that certain categories of public servants make statutory declarations of their assets, liabilities and income. It makes provisions for the investigation of those government employees whose declared assets are not in keeping with their total emoluments. The Act is administered and enforced by the Commission for the Prevention of Corruption.
Motivation for the employee ethical behavior and social responsibilities: Employee social responsibility and ethical behavior is very important in business culture. If employees do not have ethical knowledge and responsibilities then it is not possible for him\her to perform accordingly. Social responsibilities are duties that a business owes to those affected by its activities. Business ethics is the influence of values and beliefs upon the conduct and operation of businesses, i.e. about morality and doing 'what is right' and not 'what is wrong'. So, FPD needs to motivate their employees for ethical behavior.
Why organizations should be concerned about their employees' views
On ethical and social responsibility issues? There are three compelling reasons:
First, it is observed, illustrates that employee's loyalty is higher in organizations that are perceived to be better corporate citizens by their own workers. Two factors are driving this. Employees have their own ethical beliefs and values that they would like the organization they work for to reflect. At the same time, employees have their own personal needs and demands - for example, more flexible working
Second, consumers' perception of a company or organization and hence their loyalty to it is, in part, determined by a view about how it treats its employees and how happy its workers are. Being a better, more ethical employer is one aspect likely to generate general consumer trust in an organization and hence brand equity. (For a fuller discussion of the relationship between corporate citizenship and branding, including enlightened employment practices.
Culture difference need to discuss with in the team ------------------------
Role of government: Role of government is very important in understanding culture differences. If government has broad mentality between other culture when the suitable condition create then employee are work smoothly.
Emphasis on private ownership jibes with U.S. beliefs about personal freedom. Since independence, Americans have most often sought to limit government's authority over individuals, including its role in the economic realm. And most Americans have believed that private ownership of business is more likely than government ownership to achieve the best economic outcomes.
Legal Context: Legal context is an agreement, rules and policy. When a company starts a business legal context is essential. Another side it's a one kind of dead or agreement between two companies. It's very important and essential for business because it is a commitment for business. When, there is any obscurity in the words of an agreement or law, the context must be considered in its construction, for it must be performed according to the intention of its framers.
Media: Media means of communication, as radio and television, newspapers, and magazines that reach or influence people widely. Normally any news published print or electronic media then we say that is media. Media is very important for culture difference. Media whose mission is to serve or engage a public. Any company operate their business other country, then must know the company how was the condition which country media. The team members carefully learn about those country media. Because, accidentally create any bad situation then how come the tackle those media. Team member also think about Media influence, Types of media, Effects of the media, Media influence society. Other wise team member cannot run their goals of business objectives.
Stake holders: Stake holders meanÂ person, group, or organization that has direct or indirect stake in an organization because it can affect or be affected by the organization's actions, objectives, and policies. Key stakeholders in a business organization include creditors, customers, directors, employees, government (and its agencies), owners (shareholders), suppliers, unions, and the community from which the business draws its resources. So, this is important for the team members to know the cultural differences within the team.
Code of conduct: Code of conduct mean employee agreement, which was based on rules and regulation. Open communication, Teamwork and cooperation, Mutual Respect, Integrity, Innovation and risk taking, Fostering Corporate and Personal Wellness that was make is code of conduct. Company rules and regulation should be following by every employee. Finally the new employee joined any multinational company, and then he/she follow company rules and regulation. This is a code of conduct. That was published by code of conduct from. If the employee agree to the company rules and regulation then he/she signature the code of conduct from.
Cultural Strategy: Cultural Strategy is closely connected to its mission and vision statements which take in the goal 'to realize the original potential and fire the mind of all its members'. They also hold the aim to 'take up a key role in the production of wealth of all kinds - social, cultural and economic'. There are two types cultural strategy is;
Rational view: Rational view is the traditional view. But this is run fully logical and calculative way. Rational view makes the Define the problem, Identify decision criteria, Weight the criteria, Generate alternatives, Rate each alternative on each criterion and Compute the optimal decision.
Dynamic view: Something different perspective and not traditional that is Dynamic view. Strategy is a dynamic process, not a static perception, which is energized through feelings. It is not a bundle of facts, figure, and ideas assembled in order by the logical mind. Planning is the reflection of the flow of collective psyche synthesized with purpose. Dynamic view is three option that was gain, loss, or breakeven. Whose implementation and outcome is largely or significantly out of the control of the decision maker.
Most appropriate for FPD at this moment Dynamic view: Florida property developers (FPD) current situation is not so good. The American states of Arizona and Florida have been two of the worst hit by the financial crisis. This is due to the large amount of second home owners in these states, who have been forced to either sell their properties at hugely reduced prices thereby taking big losses, or to walk away from the mortgage, and consequently turning the property over to the bank. So, there is a reason choose a dynamic view to-------
There is three expertise come soon different culture, a diversification team. So, they can formulate some dynamic strategies for their organization.
Different cultural assumption is clearly evident of dynamic view.
The future is too uncertain to be captured in a cash flow projection. So the FPD should follow the dynamic view.
In this situation FPD fall in recession, so they may apply the dynamic view.
Managing across cultures (Susan C.Schneider and lean-louis Barsoux).