This paper is on different motivational techniques used in organizations and how effectively the tools and techniques are supportive to employees performances. Before proceeding, it's important we have an analysis on what an organization is.
There are many definitions of an organization, Gareth, Morgan (1986) saw an organization as an establishment in eight metaphors- he defined it as organism, as a brain, as culture, political system, psychic prison, system of change and flux and as a machine, he is of the view that every organization must exhibit one or two of these metaphors. Henri Fayol (1841-1925) scientific theory argued that an organisation has fourteen administrative principles among who are remuneration, division of work, initiative, equity, scalar chain and so on. Another organisation theory would be of Griffin and Moorhead (2009) who hypothesized that irrespective of an organization size, location or calibre of people, they must all have a cardinal goal of utilizing their resources towards the success or failure of the organisation. An organisation is a systematic arrangement of processes which could be financial, environmental, genealogy or social; a system of dependability or co-operation that allows a group of people or organisms to have a structured way of achieving a unit goal. ((Linstead, Fulop, and Lilley, 2004))
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Fountain Trust Bank plc. is a moderately sized commercial bank with its head office at Adeola Hopewell, Victoria Island, in Lagos, Nigeria. Formerly known as Fountain Trust Merchant Bank Ltd. Fountain Trust Bank plc was incorporated as a commercial bank in the year 2000 as a limited liability company, due to its expansion and growth the bank listed its stock in the Nigerian stock exchange and introduced its shares initial public offering in March 2004 .The bank's affinity for the provision of world class customer service, investments, commercial and corporate banking has made the bank one of the fastest growing commercial banks in the country , Fountain Trust Bank plc has branches in all the commercial cities in Nigeria, (Fountain Trust Bank Plc 2005)
Fountain Trust Bank plc management team realizes that the bank's organizational structure is a contributing factor to a successful company, and to achieve this the bank resolved to employ the services of the best hands in the banking industry, the management team comprises of a former director of Barclay's bank, England, a former governor of Central Bank of Nigeria and diverse confident, brilliant, ambitious and articulate staff.
In all, the bank has a fourteen step organization structure as a standard for staff professional growth; they are Executive Assistant (EA), Assistant Banking Officer (ABO), Banking Officer (BO), Senior Banking Officer (SBO), Assistant Manager (AM), Deputy Manager (DM), Manager (MGR), Senior Manager (SM), Assistant General Manager (AGM), Deputy General Manager (DGM), General Manager (GM), Executive Director (ED), Deputy Managing Director (DMD) and a Managing Director (MD). (Fountain Trust Bank Plc 2006).
There are three main sections in the bank, the marketing department ( also known as the relationship section) which involves customers' services, advertising and sale of all banks' products.
The operation department, this department is responsible for all banks' transactions and the administrative department provides support to other departments of the bank
Fountain Trust Bank plc provides an extensive list of banking services, the list of products in their corporate and commercial banking services include, credit and loan schemes, insurance policies, domiciliary account, partnership account, individual account and various services of electronic banking to their corporate customers. The private banking services apart from the conventional banking products offer customized products, soft loans and credit facilities to enable its customers acquire property at discounted rates. (Fountain Trust Bank Plc 2006).
ANALYZING FTB ORGANISATION MOTIVATIONAL STRUCTURE
Globally, every organization aim is to be successful, for financial organizations, profit, for non-profit, non governmental and philanthropic organizations, the goal remains the same. Fountain Trust bank plc is no exception to this rule. To attain this goal the management realized that motivating its staff is an important task for the organizational growth. The organization analyzed the determinants in achieving their objectives.
All motivational theories are interdependent, for any successful organization, all the theories must be embedded in its organization culture to create a dedicated and goal oriented team.
At Fountain Trust bank plc all elements and modern theories of motivation are being practiced by the bank motivational techniques.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Goal setting theory by Locke et al (1981)
Motivators and hygiene factors of (Herzberg et al, 1959)
Employees' input (I) and Employers' outcomes (O) Adam's equity theory (1965)
Intrinsic and extrinsic (physiological and psychological) factors Maslow hierarchy of needs (1943)
One of the motivational designs of Fountain Trust Bank plc is one that employs the "goal-setting theory" of Locke et al (1981), a process that tends to increase staff productivity and effectiveness by designating tasks and targets to individuals, units and teams, this theory can be extracted from some of the elements of McGregor's Theory X which states that some employees will try as much as possible to avoid work and need to be driven for effectiveness. While this process is designed to increase an organization growth it also serves as an individual performance developmental and monitoring scheme.
With a performance based motivational structure, the staff are driven to delivering their tasks and targets at stipulated periods. On-time target delivery earns a good performance review and or a higher pay and promotion, so this serves as a drive to employees' responsibilities and job functions.
In all Nigerian banking environment goals are fixed and reviewed annually, quarterly or monthly as preferred by the management. The Fountain Trust Bank plc management sets goals quarterly based on employees departments and units. The line managers participate to ensure goals set are relevant to the banks strategic objectives, the goals if approved by the human resources department are then cascaded to staff, goal delivery then becomes time-bound.
Fountain Trust Bank plc motivation design is also supportive of Frederick Taylor's (1947) scientific approach which states that "individuals are primarily motivated by economic reward" (Linstead, Fulop, and Lilley 2004).
The two approaches to the modern organization motivational techniques are interdependent, developing individual performance monitoring process as a reward to staff and job redesigning to increase employees' performances (Linstead, Fulop, and Lilley 2004).
A Goal setting based system is a factor of how many bank deposits and customers employees bring to the bank, how many strategic branches were opened, how many good credit facilities were packaged by a unit; for human resources department, how many staff were sacked or employed as the case may be.
At Fountain Trust Bank Plc, there is an effective process of monitoring and ascertaining that tasks and targets are achieved. This process involves weekly review and discussion which is conducted by the branch managers, unit and group heads bankwide, this is to assess progression towards customers and market driven targets.
The target setting system makes staff and units competitive, staff performances are measures of the number of accounts opened and operated, the competition serves as a motivational factor for its employees. When an individual or unit has accomplished its set target, at the individual performance review panel, the staff is recommended for an increase in salary.
Fountain Trust Bank is a compensation driven organisation. The progress or promotion of a staff is an integral part of the bank's organisational goal. The bank's policy on promotion is that an employee must excel at an assigned task. When an employee has "met" his or her target, the supervisor recommends a form of incentive whether in cash or promotion, if the unit head concurs, then the Human resources department agrees to the staff remuneration
Locke et al (1981) goal setting theories are characterized by four motivational mechanisms. He defined goal as an accomplishment; the object or aim of an action. Of the first mechanism- goals setting directs focus to one's target, secondly it helps in directing employees' prioritization, increases employees doggedness and lastly it fosters task and target delivery (Linstead, Fulop, and Lilley 2004).
The individual performance factor is a measurement of employees' capabilities during this period he or she is being assessed with respect to the set goals.
Another motivational technique at Fountain Trust Bank Plc is training. This best describes (Herzberg et al, 1959) Hygiene factor of motivation which cites training, good work environment/condition, wages and company's policies/processes as factors when not present can lead to job dissatisfaction and Motivator factors as promotion, work design and incentives that can lead to job satisfaction. The hygiene factors are not motivators but when absent can create dissatisfaction in work environment, (Linstead, Fulop, and Lilley 2004).
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At Fountain Trust Bank there is a commitment towards enabling staff growth and improving performance through training and skill development. Employees are periodically scheduled for internal (trainings conducted at branch level, whether by a team lead or supervisor) or external (hiring a human resource company) training programs. To determine a suitable training program, the human resources unit distributes training programs scheduled for the year to each employee to select an empowering training exercise, the human resources unit collates this and nominates staff. It is mandatory for appointed staff to attend training programs.
Training is also done by units and departments, especially when there's a new product or decrease in a unit's performance.
Job redesigning is also used as a training program in the bank. This requires staff redeployment from one division, unit or branch. A marketing staff can be transferred to the operations department of the branch which is an opportunity to acquire knowledge; it also generates an increase in staff productivity and reduces monotony of job functions. On acquisition of a new bank software or technology, staff are sent on training to improve performance and or as a learning program.
One of the factors affecting organizational development is the environment, in the banking system, branch expansion most times is a derivative of this, the scientific and modern theories of organization state that to achieve harmonization, a good organization must be fluid in its operation and must interact and respond to its environmental needs (Linstead, Fulop, and Lilley 2004). For Fountain Trust bank to achieve this, motivating its community is very important to its operations.
A good analysis would be when the bank was proposing on opening a branch in a community that had one of the largest markets in the country as a sort of motivation for the community's patronage, the major road was asphalted and pipe borne water was installed in the strategic areas of the community. This inspired the community chief into marketing the bank's product to the community and prevented other banks from opening a branch in that community till date. This motivational technique serves as a marketing strategy, it also created a good working environment for the employees in that branch and assisted the staff in target delivery.
Though it's been established that there is no standard technique or approach to motivation, Roethlisberger and Dickson, 1939) were of the school of thought that human beings have more diverse needs and too complex to have a definite approach to motivation, Fountain Trust Bank does not employ polytechnic graduates as its permanent staff, most of its administrative staff and cash and teller staff are contract staff. The staff work as much as the permanent staff, though not as well remunerated as the latter but just as much delivery and impact to the bank's operations and growth. The contract staff have salaries as the outstanding factor motivating their delivery.
Mayo and the Hawthorne theory of motivation is a key instrument on employees drive to delivery in organizations, they discovered that employees are not only motivated by economic reward but would like their social needs fulfilled in the workplace, (Linstead, Fulop, and Lilley 2004). At fountain Trust Bank, staff are encouraged to "dress down" on Fridays for TGIF (Thank God Is Friday); a social meeting that involves all staff attendance at the bank's club house or at any designated venue at the close of business on Fridays. At the event, employees' interactions pave ways for departmental trouble shooting, recommendations, meetings and trainings in a relaxed environment.
Humans are irrationally beings, unpredictable, with insatiable wants and needs. Fountain Trust bank plc adopts both the traditional and modern techniques of motivation but its effects on its employees vary.
Every organization is made of different players who perform diverse roles in ensuring its growth. Power is often measure in terms of authority and wages. According to Weber scientific management theory ((Linstead, Fulop, and Lilley 2004) some organizations would operate more rationally by defining job specialization and setting clear tasks and targets and ensure participation in performance management process. For any organization to be successful, there must be a change in its culture and processes, a support from its top management, a need to overhaul its remuneration process and motivation of all its staff, (Fitzgerald (1988). Though the advancement of employees' career path is tied to performance in assigned responsibilities, when a staff exceeds the performance expectation at his current level and possesses the essential skill for the next level, the employees expectation for the next level of power increases, if this is delayed, the employee feels there is lack of equity in the bank's remuneration and the commitment to his job decreases