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According to Mullins (2005), in terms of nature there are three types of organizations. They are public organization, private organization and not for profit organization.
Rainey (2009) says that, it is an organization created by legislation and funded from taxation from the general people. The aim of this type of organization is to reflect the expectation of the public. For instant, local authorities, National railways, NHS are public organizations.
Morgan (1998) stated that it is an organization which is created to make profit by legal or natural public without participation or representation of the government. This organization can be run privately both in ownership and partnership system. Example of this type of organization can be lawyers, accountants, Plumbers and doctors.
Hopkins (2009) has stated that this is an organization which is created for serving the people without making any profit. It's duration varies on contribution and donations. These organizations are usually registered to the charity commission. All the organizations which are run to nonprofit purposes are the charity. For example: the charlotte trust, National Cancer Alliance, Red cross, UNESCO, SOS children's villages and World Cancer Research Fund are the charity organizations.
theories relating to behavior of individuals and groups in organizations
Anon (n.d.) has described that the theories relating to behavior are motivation theory, content theory, process theory, Hertzberg "two factor" theory, expectancy theory, equity theory, goal theory, attribution theory etc. Motivation theory means a process that account for an individual's intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. It leads to good performance for the employees. There are two different categories of motivation theories like content theories, and process theories. The content theories attempt to identify what things motivate people the process theory provides an opportunity to understand the processes that influence behavior. But the most interesting thing is most of the different motivation theories are not universally accepted!
He further shows that, theory relating to behavior is Hertzberg "two factor" theory which is regarded as one of the great original thinkers in motivational theory. It aims at motivators and hygiene. According to him, the presence of motivators in workplaces cause motivation in employees but their absence does not lead to dissatisfaction. On the other hand hygiene produces an acceptable working environment but its absence causes job dissatisfaction. He further shows that recognition, achievement, responsibility, personal growth, advancement are included to motivators and policy, salary, status, job security, working condition, interpersonal skills, personal life etc. are considered to hygiene. It is also seen, according to Herzberg's motivator's theory, 'business growth' may be seen as an aspect of progress but not being confused with the different matter of 'possibility of growth'.
Differences among each organizational type structure
Huczynski & Buchanan (2007) and Martin (2005) have stated that, organizational structure may be centralized, decentralized or bureaucratic. Each structure is different from one another. Those are described below:
Bureaucratic organizational structure:
According to Anon (n.d) it is such an organization structure to manage activity of especially large organization, and government. Bureaucratic organizational structure has some important concepts. They are:
A well organized division of labor among offices and persons where duties are allocated to them.
A hierarchy among the offices. For instance, the authority and status are differentially divided among offices and employees' position.
a consistent patterns of recruitment and stable linear careers system
Informal and formal networks which connect organizational employees to each other through information flows.
It is an organizational structure mainly based on technical qualification and a lifelong career for the employees.
Officials can develop a dependence of bureaucratic symbols, rules and status.
Sometimes impersonal relationship may lead to stereotyped behaviour for this type of organizational structure. It can also lead responsiveness to individual.
Centralized organizational structure:
According to Mullins (2005) centralized organizational structure is described below:
These types of organizations have several layers of management which run the company by preserveing a high level of authority. Basically it is such type of organization where decision-making powers are preserved at the top of the hierarchy, and not delegated.
Line-and-staff employees don't have wider authority to carry out something without prior authorization.
These organizational structures are usually focused on top-down management system.
Employees of centralized organization have a little freedom.
Decisions can be made quickly for centralized organizational structure.
Decentralized organizational structure:
Research from Mullins (2005), decentralized organizational structure is described below:
Decentralized organizational structure is an organizational structure where decision making is free to a few top executives rather than throughout the organization.
It involves devolving power and authority to make decisions from the centre to local branches or the network of offices.
Decentralized organizational structure empowers the local managers, and encourages them to be more motivated and innovative.
Senior managers can concentrate on strategic matters in this type of organization structure.
The chain of command is the communication procedure in decentralized organizations.
This type of organizational structure empowers employees. It also allows them to improve their performance by being able to act to improve deficient areas quickly without authorization from the top of the organization.
the concepts of organizational culture
Triplett (2007) and Anon (n.d.) have shown that organizational culture is a concept in the field of organizational management and studies that explains the attitudes, psychology, experiences, traditions, and beliefs, personal and cultural values of an organization. It can help to cut down the uncertainly and complexity of an organization. It is a pattern of shared primary assumptions which the group learned. It is a system of management authority. According to him organizational culture clears consistency in values and outlook. It also makes possible the processes of the decision making, control and co-ordination. There are four concepts of organizational culture and they are role culture, power culture, person culture and task culture.
Role culture: this culture is often stereotyped like a bureaucracy and works by rationality and logic. It rests on the strengths of strong organizational pillars. Job description or role is often very important and it may not consider the individual.
Power culture: it depends on central power source from the central figure through the organization. It is usually found on small entrepreneurial organization which effectiveness especially relies on trust, personal communication and empathy. In power culture the rules and procedures may be a little bureaucratic.
Person culture: the culture of an organization is often related to the personality of an individual. It is a culture where individuals are focused centrally. An organization would have a person culture when a group of employees decide that is their own interest to band together to accomplish their own thing. Person culture is found only in a little number of organizations. Group of doctors, barristers, consultants, architects are the example of person culture.
Task culture: this culture is especially project oriented and job oriented. The task culture may be connected to a net, some strands of which are stronger than other and with much of the power and influence the interstices in terms of structure. These types of culture try to bring together the right resources and people. It also utilizes the unifying power in a group. Matrix organizations are the example of task culture.
The way in which communication can influence organizational culture.
Robbins (2005) defines that effective communication is the key element of any organizational issue. For example, effective communication skill is useful to increase commitment to choices and improve responsiveness to quickly changing organizational environments. In addition, it can reduce employee turnover, reduce absenteeism, and increase satisfaction to the customer where ineffective communication skills cause lack of focus on business objectives, increase absenteeism, increase employee turnover and stifled innovation.
He further shows that it has a strong effect on organizational culture so effective communication should be ensured at every stage in an organization. The most technological up-to-date tools and systems for communicating, body language, speaking, sign language, third party interpretation, written communication, giving feedback style etc. have a significant influence of organizational culture and it involves all employees in network. Thus communication can influence organizational culture.
An example of a health and social care organization and analyze how the structure and culture of that organization impacts on its effectiveness.
Culture impacts the views, way of life, and norms of people. So, it should be honored within the responsibilities, role, and limitations with the purposes to encourage the values of care, beliefs to get the best outcome. In addition, the structure and culture help to develop the professional life of an employee. Sometimes, cultural and structural changes cause a negative effect to the employees' mentality. So, in that time they can be re-educated and told clearly to the necessity of changing.
For instant, the culture type of an elderly care home is characterized by high levels cultural type of formality and bureaucracy. There the co-ordination between the functional areas and specialists are controlled by the senior managers. The rules, regulations, job descriptions and procedures are the norms. Work and responsibilities are allocated to employees rationally. If, all the structures and cultures are designed properly and effectively, then that particular health and social care organization can achieve their goals. A model of healthcare structure is shown below:
Organization structure of a care home
Assistant Manager/Deputy Manager
Plumber and equipment expert
Carer/ Care assistant
Hair dresser and Beautician
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2.1 The link between leadership and organizational effectiveness
Vigoda-Gadot & Drory (2006) and Lussier & Achua (2009) have found that organizational effectiveness and success depends on good leadership. There is a common-sense with research link between manager- leadership behavior & subordinate performance. The increasing emphasis on the links between organizational effectiveness and leadership has led to a growing recognition. Organizational effectiveness and management development program emphasizes leadership style. The leaders motivate followers to contribute beyond expectation. Organizational effectiveness widely rely on good leadership skills as they can assess the centre point, make innovation and originality, focus on people, inspire trust and so on. The organizational effectiveness can ne improved by good leadership within which he or she works and to raise standards of performance within it. In addition, the leadership theories carry out various suggestions which are often viewed same as with other, equally complex concepts like power, authority, management, supervision and administration and these have a strong effect of any organizational effectiveness'. Sometimes, a number of aspects of leadership appear to provide a basis for transforming an organization which include acceptance of the view. He has also shown that ineffective leadership in an organization diminishes the organization's productivity significantly. It also causes organizational downward positioning. From the above discussion, we can see that in order to have organizational effectiveness in any organizations, it is necessary to have good leaders and leadership skills. The leaders bring effectiveness in an organization by using their good leadership skills like long range vision, endurance, initiative, respect, perseverance, faith and courage.
2.2 Discussing leadership and management influence for the effectiveness of organizations
Caroselli (2000) has defined that leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal and management is an act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals. Both of them are necessary to create an effective organization. Leadership and management influence the effectiveness way of an organization in different way but they do it with distinct and separate processes, serving different purposes. The responsibility of management is to provide steadiness, reliability, and competence while the aim of leadership is to get about movement and necessary alteration. Managers create orderly, usual results; keep things on track and within budget; and implement ideas effectively. Management is an authority relationship. It establishes structure and delegates' authority and responsibility. It also monitors results, adjusts plans and solves problems. So, organizations are benefitted from good management.
On the other hand, leaders generate important and encouraging change by providing vision, supporting people's attempts with the organization's direction, and keeping people focused towards their vision and mission by motivating and inducing them. Leadership is an influence relationship and establishes direction by developing a vision for the future. It also communicates vision and aligns people's energy with that vision. In addition, it energizes people and inspires them to overcome obstacles to change. Their role is different but they are not different people. An effective leadership and good management help an organization to be successful. Thus leadership and management influence the effectiveness of organizations.
2.3 Describing own leadership style and role working in health and social care
My leadership style is both autocratic, democratic because different styles are necessary in different situation. I usually apply autocratic leadership style in the time of emergency and in other times I am democrat.
Having both types of leadership style are essential to work in health and social care settings. If I am a manager of a health care organization then I will follow autocratic leadership style to mobilize people toward a vision and provide a clear direction and democratic style to forge consensus through participation, collaboration and communication with my team members.
Having authoritative leadership style, I can provide a clear vision to the employees that motivate them to be creative in their pursuit of the organization's mission while providing a supportive structure.
When I am democrat leader, then I use this style to develop buy-in and build trust among workers and peers. I ask my employees to participate in the decision-making and allow them to give them their free opinion to improve their thinking. this style helps to generate a new vision for my organization. However, I always try to involve myself on democratic leadership style.
2.4 Using own leadership role to manage change
Managing change in any environment is normally a complicated issue but it can be made easier by following some rules. Usually when anything is supposed to be changed then I try to realize that clearly. The reason of that is if I want to manage a change I have to have a clear idea about that. The key steps to manage changes that I follow are:
Take preparation, assessment and develop strategy
Plan widely and change management implementation
Gather data, take corrective action and recognition
As a leader I define the people about the change and the reason of change. Because if I do not tell them why the changes are, then something can go wrong. I will think how significant and what type of the change it is, who are going to be affected. After that I will prepare and develop my management team. Then I will take action to implement those. Sometimes, I may need to take some risks as well. For example, if I want to take a new employee for emergency situation and if that person is not known well then it is a risk. In the next step, I will collect and analyze feedback, diagnose gaps and celebrate successes. Thus I will use my leadership role to manage change.
2.5 What contributions do you think you and others would make to the effectiveness of the organization?
It is not usually easy to make an organization effective. There are many things to do to implement it. For example, to ensure core operating principles, authorize organisational structure, culture and job accountabilities are necessary. It is also required to work in close partnership with teams, to develop both the team and individual capability to implement strategy effectively in both healthcare and other organizations. I will also suggest establishing clarity and gaining commitment to goals and then manage communication and implementation organization-wide. Another thing is organizational budgeting. If there is a proper budgeting and implementation of that organization can be more effective. Effective leadership style, punctuality, honesty in duty can also help to the effectiveness of the organization.
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3.1 Outside environmental factors that affect the organization.
Paliwoda & Ryans (2008) have said that the outside environmental factors are those kinds of things, situation, or events that happen outside of the organization but those are large beyond the control of the company. Examples of outside factors might be, the economy, competition, the industry itself, demographics, legal, cultural, technological elements, competitions, political and social interference, etc. Some of these factors affect directly and some of these affect indirectly. For example, economic environment factors like inflation, unemployment problem, interest rate affect organization a lot. Usually the price rises during the time of inflation. So they have to pay high price for the necessary resources to produce services or goods. As a result, the price of goods or services goes high and the company has to increase the price of services or goods so that they can recover the investment.
Interest rest can also affect any organization. If interest rate goes high, organizations may need to borrow money and pay high interest. As a result, they have to increase the price of products and their sells or profit falls down.
Unemployment situation can also affect the demand of products and services. If there are many unemployment people in a society, they may not afford to purchase the services those are provided by organizations. So the organization may not reach on their goal. Thus these external factors affect the organizations.
3.2 The way of which external factors potentially affect the structure of the organization.
According to Heijden et al (2008), external factors like economic, political, social culture have a strong effect to the organizational structure. Among them the economy affects the organizational structure most. For example, if the economic condition becomes smoother then usually organizational profit increases. As a result, organizations start setting new branches to achieve their maximum goals. If they want to start a new branch then they have to restructure of their organization. They may need to increase the wages of the employees, change the policy and procedures, employment laws, immigration laws, tax paying system etc. In addition, they may need to change the contact with the employees. In reverse, due to economical crisis they may need to reduce the facility for the employees, bring changes to the policy, shortening the number of organizational staff etc.
Political views can bring a significant change to the organizational structure. For instant, in democratic countries organizations are more likely to be private and they can play a significant role. So in those countries, organizational structures are more complicated because those are usually big organizations. Moreover, political stability affects organization structure too. In political stable countries, organizations can operate their activity in well manner where in political unstable countries organizations operate their activity in a limited boundary which makes organizational structure simple. This is why he has said that the bigger organization, the more complicated structure and the smaller organization, the simpler structure.
3.3 Factors might cause restructuring and the way to manage this.
Heijden et al (2008) has stated that organizational restructuring simply means the changes of the organization. Now-a-days it has become a common matter among the organizations. There are some factors for which restructuring occur. Among them the main factors are:
The continuous inventions or originations of products, materials, technology, work processes, organizational culture and organizational structure.
Newly and changing nature of the markets.
Increasing the number of global competitors, work force demands, values, and diversity.
Ethical and regulatory constraints from the environment.
Individual transition and growth.
New government policy and decisions.
Managing organizational restructuring:
According to Martin (2003), the most common features of managing restructuring are having enough resources, well-planned activities like downsizing, decentralizations, outsourcing, total quality management, changing organizational culture, regrouping of the business etc. For example, regrouping of business is an important concept to manage it. Because it handles the business in a better and an easier way that ensures the business to earn profit. Downsizing is another important thing to manage organizational restructuring. Often organizations need to surplus their manpower for the sake of restructuring. So they send their employees voluntary retirement schemes (VRS) to deal with that. Besides this, outsourcing is also used to manage this. It reduces the manpower and shifts the fixed costs of the organization to changeable costs. By following these procedures, I will manage organizational restructuring.
3.4 Approaches to minimize the adverse impact of change in the organization.
I would create a positive thinking about the restructuring to the employees and answer to their questions effectively. I should assess and let the employees know about the effect of external and internal factors causing restructuring. Usually in the time of restructuring so many misunderstanding occurs. Employees may think restructuring is harmful. Some of them may have to give up their jobs. So, roles to support the changes or restructuring must be designed in the business. In addition, I have to tell them about the cost and usefulness of restructuring. Besides this, having enough resources, well-planned activities like downsizing, decentralizations, outsourcing, total quality management are also essential to minimize the adverse effect organizational restructuring.
3.5 Using examples from own experience.
I saw a healthcare organization where employees were leaving their jobs because of changing economic condition. Though the economic condition was becoming better than before, the organization did not increase the wages of the employees or in some cases whatever they did was a little. They also did not recruit any new employees though the number of residents was increased. As a result, they had to take more work pressure. Another reason of their turnover was to be given more opportunity by another organization in the same role. In addition, some of them were not happy with the restructuring of the organization. The organization bought some new equipment for which they recruit new employees who were not enough efficient. But the organization could train their existing employees. The management also could not minimize any of the negative effects of their organizational change.
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4.1 Analyzing how different organizational structures in distinct cultures influence the effectiveness of partnerships between organizations in health and social care settings.
According to Glasby and Littlechild (2004) and Mullins (2007), partnership working in health and social care depends on organizational culture and structure. Again, it varies from culture to culture. There are three types of cultures based on organizational structure and they are role cultures, task cultures and power cultures. Role culture is related to pyramid organizational structure where task culture is related with flexible matrix structures. Role culture has a positive impact of partnership working because it exists to accomplish targeted aims, concentrates on individual performance, and works effectively while norms are prevailed. Sometimes, it results bad partnership working as it is highly formalized, bound with regulations and has excessive paper works.
They have also shown that, partnership working is also influenced by task cultures. Task culture in matrix structures can develop team working significantly because it is designed to achieve the basic target. In addition, in task cultures job is designed and planned based on partnership working. Another one is the power culture which is linked to communication structure. It has a single power source and it can be both individual and group source. Partnership working can be influenced by this as it affects each member's thinking and feelings. Then they can share their views with each other and make a collaboration of their views. Thus, different organizational structures in distinct cultures can affect partnership working.
4.2 Evaluating and using organizational theory based on own experience about interactions with other organizations in context to the organizational theory.
I experienced many organizational theories like Contingency theory, equilibrium theory, network theories, management theories, resources dependency theory, socialization, organizational learning, institutional theories etc. Among them contingency theory, management theory, institutional theory were used for interacting in most of the cases with other organization. According to Galbraith (1974), it was used to interact because this theory has less strictness but a balance of integration and differentiation with simpler tasks. Also it is more formal, self contained, lateral, and vertical and function of exposure to environment.
Adler (1993) has also shown that management theory has a significant effect to interact among the organizations as well. It points the desire for excellence, a positive response to trust and respect, and a mature sense of realism. Another theory is equilibrium theory. It is used for interpreting because it has a balance among interests, equity, stability and unity of personnel.
4.3 Describing the way to enhance the effectiveness of partnership working in health and social care.
According to Balloch and Taylor (2001), the ways of enhancing the effectiveness of partnership working are given below:
Coming together at the field and grass root level to get ways to work better together is the main theme to develop partnership working.
Making a very good understanding among the team members.
Sharing the ideas with each other regarding any job related issues.
Discussing and make the employees understand clearly about any changes if necessary.
Fixing the goal to achieve before starting a work.
Being innovative towards the goal and vision.
Having a good leader in a team.
Making agendum effectively with the co-operation of team members.
Refining the work objectives and focus.
To identify pinpoint about the team members weakness and strengths.
To assess before starting whether partnership is better to achieve goals.
Having belief to each team members and being helpful to colleagues.
To develop a vision for long term change.
Thus I can enhance the effectiveness of partnership working in health and social care organization.
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