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"Human resource management is responsible for how people are treated in organizations. It is responsible for bringing people into the organization, helping them perform their work, compensating them for their labors, and solving problems that arise" (Cherrington, 1995, p. 5).(http://www.answers.com/topic/human-resource-management)
SPAR was founded in Holland in 1932 by Mr Adriaan van Well, SPAR is now the world's largest international food retail chain, with 13,600 stores in 33 countries. SPAR is also the UK's leading convenience store group, with a turnover in excess of £2.7billion.
SPAR was set up in the UK in 1957 with five founding wholesale members. The business is now made up of six wholesale members servicing more than 2,600 stores. At SPAR, their philosophy is all about being 'Tuned In'. 'Tuned In' is what makes SPAR different and they deliver that difference every day. Spar are local, it's stores have local owners and our products are supplied by local and regional companies.
It really understands the local community because SPAR is part of it.
It develops its stores in line with the needs of our customers.
It works with local people, support local initiatives and support other local businesses
Human Resource Management
Describe three human resources management activities that occur within an organisation of your choice. What are objectives of each activity, and how are these are achieved?
There are seven management activities of a human resources (HR) department in an organization that will be specifically addressed: staffing, performance appraisals, compensation and benefits, training and development, employee and labour relations, safety and health, and human resource research.
Human Resource Management activities at SPAR:-
In SPAR there are also some Human resource management activities among which 3 are described in details:
Recruitment & Selection:
Recruitment, assessment and selection are the three key steps for hiring employees. Of these, recruitment and selection are the most challenging for employers. The keys to finding the right candidates at the right time and hiring them is being strategic and thinking about the organization's future.
Once the applicant pool has been narrowed and candidates have been assessed, it's time to
make a selection decision. Is the applicant qualified for the present job as well as future positions? Look for a candidate with solid experience and new ideas and a fresh perspective.
Recruitment and selection procedure at SPAR:
SPAR always makes relationships with guidance and career counsellors at colleges and universities, and asks for help in recruiting for open positions. This organization also makes contact with different professional organizations that are in line with the organization's mission, and ask to them to list open positions in their newsletters.
After applicant pool has been narrowed and candidates have been assessed, Spar makes a selection decision. Then it also considers whether the applicant qualified for the present job as well as future positions? It also emphasizes on experienced candidates when it recruits people for different departments.
Training and development:
Human Resource Development (HRD) encompasses activities and processes which are intended to have impact on organisational and individual learning. The term assumes that organisations can be constructively conceived of as learning entities, and that the processes of both organisations and individuals are capable of influence and direction through deliberate and planned interventions. Thus, HRD is constituted by planned interventions in organisational and individual processes. Stewart, J and McGoldrick, J (1996)
Employers have not only to acquire appropriate people to resource it, but they also need to train and develop them, for the following reasons as illustrated by Dessler, G (2003):-
New employees are like the organisation's raw materials. They have to be processed to enable them to perform tasks of their job adequately, to fit into their workgroup and into the organisation as a whole, but in a manner that respects their human qualities.
Companies recognize that human resources play an important role in developing and sustaning a competetive global business environment. (Brewster C, 2000).
There are different types of trainings which involves people of different cultures, based on the performance goals for the organisation, describes a classification into four categories and they are technical, functional ,strategic and executive developmental .(Caligiuri, P.M ,2001 p. 357 )
Training and development at SPAR:-
SPAR is not just a great place to work on a day-to-day basis; it's also somewhere that offers long-term benefits. Every employees will receive the kind of training and a flexible approach that are, quite simply, second to none. whether employees are looking for a few hours a week to fit around your current lifestyle or a full-time career to match your ambitious approach, employees will soon realise that SPAR has the perfect environment for you
SPAR is a very flexible bunch. So applicants find that SPAR can easily adapt around applicant changing needs.SPAR plays a great role to accomplish training and development for students along with all people. They say- perhaps you're a student looking for a little extra cash - that's fine, we've got plenty of part-time roles on offer. After finishing studies Spar offers a bigger challenges with management training path right up to Managing Director if that's what you want!
Learning to Sparkle
As SPAR's main focus is on customers it develops a training and induction package that teaches our team to understand our customers. It works on team and management basis
Once a talented individual is brought into an organization, another function of HRM comes into play-creating an environment that will motivate and reward exemplary performance. One way to assess performance is through a formal review on a periodic basis, generally annually, known as a performance appraisal or performance evaluation. Because line managers are in daily contact with the employees and can best measure performance, they are usually the ones who conduct the appraisals. (Mondy and Noe, 1996).
Cherrington (1995) illustrates how performance appraisals serve several purposes, including:(1) guiding human resource actions such as hiring, firing, and promoting; (2) rewarding employees through bonuses, promotions, and so on;(3) providing feedback and noting areas of improvement; (4) identifying training and development needs in order to improve the individual's performance on the job; and (5) providing job related data useful in human resource planning.
Performance appraisal at SPAR:
SPAR tries to guide human resource through Critical incident method where HR manager writes down positive and negative performance behaviour of employees throughout the performance period, weighted checklist method, performance ranking method that is used to evaluate employees from best to worst. This company also follows another methods for performance appraisal such as paired comparison analysis, graphic rating scales, Easy evaluation method, forced rankings, management by objectives, behavoiral observation scales. SPAR accomplishes these method regarding performance appraisal to guide human resource actions, to reward employees, to identify training and development needs etc to reach its goal.
Objectives of HR activities
Objectives of Recruitment and selection at SPAR:
The Recruitment and Selection Policy is to ensure all recruitment and selection procedures comply with the Equal Opportunity Policy.This company makes sure that all appointments are made on merit and attracts sufficient applications from potential candidates for appointment with the skills, qualities, abilities, experience and competencies deemed as beings necessary to the job.
Objectives of training and development at SPAR:
The SPAR aims to deliver T&D to-
to improve the performance of employees and reinforce the basic principles and core values of the store service
facilitating a self-learning and continuous improvement culture in the retailing service; and
Objectives of Performance appraisal at SPAR:
SPAR's objectives of performance appraisal are to review the performance of the employeesover a given period of time and to make judgement of the gap between the actual and the desired performance of SPAR's employees. It also helps to strengthen the relationship and communication between superior - subordinates and management - employees. This company diagnoses the strengths and weaknesses of the individuals.
Describe the two theoretical models of human resource management.
Theoretical Models of Human Resource Management
Guest's model of HRM
David Guest's (1989, 1997) model of HRM has 6 dimensions of analysis:
The model is prescriptive in the sense that it is based on the assumption that HRM is distinctively different from traditional personnel management (rooted in strategic management, etc).
It is idealistic, implicitly embodying the belief that fundamental elements of the HRM approach (essentially those of the Harvard map) such as commitment have a direct relationship with valued business consequences.
However, Guest has acknowledged that the concept of commitment is 'messy' and that the relationship between commitment and high performance is (or, perhaps, was - given the age of this material) difficult to establish. It also employs a 'flow' approach, seeing strategy underpinning practice, leading to a variety of desired outcomes.
Like its American predecessors, this UK model is unitarist (tying employee behaviour and commitment into the goals of strategic management) and lukewarm on the value of trade unions. The employee relationship is viewed as one between the individual and the organization.
Guest model at SPAR:- Following Guest model SPAR takes some HRM strategies and practices to achieve some outcomes .It also tries its best to encourage employees through different activities for obtaining behaviour outcomes. Through doing managerial activities and arranging reward system Spar achieve its performance from employees. After accomplishing this SPAR reaches its financial goal ultimately.
The Harvard Model of HRM
The Harvard Model of HRM
A large part of this section is devoted to the Harvard 'map' of HRM. This is probably the most seminal model of HRM and has had a major influence on academic debate on the subject.
Harvard Business School generated one of the most influential models of HRM. The Harvard interpretation sees employees as resources. However, they are viewed as being fundamentally different from other resources - they cannot be managed in the same way. The stress is on people as human resources. The Harvard approach recognizes an element of mutuality in all businesses, a concept with parallels in Japanese people management, as we observed earlier. Employees are significant stakeholders in an organization. They have their own needs and concerns along with other groups such as shareholders and customers.'
The Harvard model outlines four HR policy areas:
1 Human resource flows - recruitment, selection, placement, promotion, appraisal and assessment, promtion, termination, etc.
2 Reward systems - pay systems, motivation, etc.
3 Employee influence - delegated levels of authority, responsibility, power
4 Work systems - definition/design of work and alignment of people.
Which in turn lead to the 'four C's' or HR policies that have to be achieved:
Harvard model at SPAR: Spar is a superstore that does its recruitment through developing relationships with guidance and career counsellors at colleges and universities, and ask for help in recruiting for open positions, selection process applying Once the applicant pool has been narrowed and candidates have been assessed, it's time to make a selection decision. Remember to think long-term. Is the applicant qualified for the present job as well as future positions?It also does ,placement, promotion gradually as per its organizational managerial rules.
HR Planning and Development
Using an organization of your choice, describe three HR planning and/or development models.
For each one, evaluate its effectiveness in achieving organizational objectives.
Human resource planning means ensuring that the right number and types of people are available to apply the right skills needed to realize a strategic business plan.It is concerned with the demand and supply of labour, and problems arising from the process of reconciling these factors.
The planning of human resources becomes a search for those individuals who now and in the future will contribute most to the success of the organization.
(A)Attwood's Human Resource planning model its effectiveness in achieving SPAR's objectives:-
'Human resource planning attempts to analyse likely influences on the supply of and demand for people, with a view to maximising the organization's future performance,' Attwood(1989)
Planning for people in organizations is also highlighted by Attwood involves to trying to obtain the right people, in the right numbers, with the right knowledge, skills and experience, in the right jobs, in the right place, at the right time, at the right cost. Following the Attwood's Human Resource Planning model, SPAR tries to do activities of supplying and making demand for the people to maximizing it's future performance. SPAR does analysing of current staff in organization and personal trends from personal records.
Then SPAR also make projects of future availability of key staff. It adjusts the matches and miss matches between current staff and future plan for its staffing terms. Then it makes evaluation of alternative approaches of dealing with these. Then SPAR select the best alternative to reach it's better HR planning.
(B)Model of Human resource planning and its effectiveness in achieving SPAR's objectives:-
There is another model of human resource planning that is known as basic human resource planning for an organization. Organizational objectives mean long-term objectives. They serve as the goals for management in achieving the Â Â mission for organization. SPAR does it to set/ to fulfil human resource requirements.
After doing this planning the need and use of human resource, staffing, performance appraisal then staff training and development etc are done by SPAR to perform the human resource palnning in third stage.Then this organization also does feasibility analysis and goes back to human resource program and human resource objectives gradually.
(C)Model of Human resource planning and its effectiveness in achieving SPAR's objectives:-
A simplified model: Human resource planning is a process in which decision makers:
Link the purpose, goals and objectives of Human resource plan to the purpose, goals, objectives and competitive strategy of the organization.
Assess the present status of human resource in the organization by analyzing the work performed, the competencies of the people who perform it, and the human resource department.
Scan the environment to assess how work will probably change over time, how the talent requirements of the people will probably should change over time to keep up with work changes and competitive requirements, and how the HR department will probably be affected over time by changes inside and outside the organization.
It's effectiveness in achieving SPAR's objectives:-
By the above model spar will become capable to take actual long term activities which are intented to identify an organization's future talent needs, and to change jobs, people, and departments so that they will support the implementation of strategic business plans.
Question: For the organisation chosen in the previous activity, explain how HR performance is monitored.
How effective is this? Can you suggest ways to make improvements in this area?
Human recourse management (HRM) is an essential part of the overall organization management in business.For this reason it is imperative to evaluate performance of department with the help of special system called Balanced Scorecard System. Such systems are widely used in all business spheres, including HR management.
Performance of Human resource at SPAR is monitored by the below ways:-
There are certain aspects to monitor the performance of HR departments and their effectiveness at SPAR:-
These aspects are also known as indicators. One of these is workforce productivity. Different companies have different visions, operations, and goals, to begin with. But when employees are very productive, then SPAR's HR department is indeed performing well in this aspect.
Another aspect that SPAR does employee engagement. This actually refers to the professional relationships with employees have amongst themselves, as well as with the different levels of management. If the score for this aspect is high, then this is a strong indicator that SPAR's employees do hold their jobs as very important. Employee satisfaction is the key concept here.
Recruitment is also an important thing to consider. To monitor this, SPAR checks out the performance appraisal scores of the employees that have been hired. It would be so much better if you see that a lot of your employees have been promoted to higher positions at a reasonable timeframe. This way, SPAR is sure that its HR department is recruiting the right people for the job.
Employee retention is the last aspect to appraise. SPAR always try to determine the turnover rate that your company experiences on the average.
SPAR is the world's largest international food retail chain that always makes relationships with guidance and career counsellors at colleges and universities, and asks for help in recruiting for open positions. This organization also makes contact with different professional organizations that are in line with the organization's mission, and ask to them to list open positions in their newsletters. After applicant pool has been narrowed and candidates have been assessed, Spar makes a selection decision. Then it also considers whether the applicant qualified for the present job as well as future positions? It also emphasizes on experienced candidates when it recruits people for different departments.
SPAR is a company that plays a great role for training and development. Each and every employee receives here the kind of training and a flexible approach that are, quite simply, second to none. Here employees feel happy to cater for their preferences and needs for better training and development. So, employees also realise that they have the perfect environment for them. If students finish their studies and want a bigger challenge Spar can offer that too; with management training and targeted development programmes.
HR manager at SPAR writes down positive and negative performance behavior of employees throughout the performance period, performance ranking method that is used to evaluate employees from best to worst. This company also follows another methods for performance appraisal such as paired comparison analysis, graphic rating scales, Easy evaluation method, forced rankings, management by objectives,behavoiral observation scales. SPAR accomplishes these method regarding performance appraisal to guide human resource actions, to reward employees, to identify training and development needs etc to reach its goal.
As a well-known international food retail chain SPAR is accomplishing its recruiting function through different career counsellors, professional organizations and after doing these it does selection through taking qualified applicant or qualified/experienced candidates. SPAR also offers flexible approaches regarding training and development for new and experienced candidates even for students who are recruited. HR mangers of SPAR performs their employees performance appraisal through keeping record of positive and negative performance behaviour along with other methods and they also solve these through organizational rules and regulation.
It is recommended that SPAR has to carry on their overall human resource activities what they are doing through using HR planning and development models along with others that are being used.