Study and Analysis of Human Resource Management and Development

Published: Last Edited:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

It has been cleared by above points that HRM practice is best suited for excellent process management of human talents and to achieve the organizations goals.

The involvement of organizations in process management of human talents is included as:

Recruitment process and selection

Compensation and benefits

Labor and industrial relations

Employees management and finally

Safety and strong

The next HRD also have many definitions which is same as that of HRM and taken from many authors and writers. It is illustrated that different authors given different definitions about HRD according to his view point and thought analysis and is varying in global from country wise. In extent, the philosophers have tried to provide a meaningful definition of HRD for individual countries and in international base. The definitions of HRD have been suggesting from 1970 onwards and up to now. By reviewing the past author, in 1970 Nadler has given a good definition of HRD as "A series of organized activities conducted within a specified time and designed to produce behavioral change" during training activities. The next in recent year Desimone, Werner & Harris authors in 2002 has given the definition of HRD which became latest as "a set of systematic and planned activities designed by an organization to provide its members with the opportunities to learn necessary skills to meet current and future job demands".

These systematic and planned activities are said to be listed below:

Instructional development

profession arrangement and enlargement

performance management and

Management change in organizational development

In reading, these activities professionals are willing to continue the study of education and its development. By this scenario the functions and requirements for continuing the learning has been grown in progress which is similar in training and expansion, but it scale in another way which is directed to professional's education and development.

In present world economic orders and evolutionary changes are been rapidly taken up at:

Revolutionary speed

Strong push of external forces

Arising out of desire will increase in competitiveness and efficiency (Geringer et al., 2002).

The recent liberalizations and bold economic reforms are pronounced by the government has thrown up many challenges and opportunities towards industry which is taken some of them are:

Information technology has exploited

Global competition is increased

Rapid change in market deregulation etc

In real situation, it has been noticed that a clear surprise in the HRM concepts and practices is being carry out a new stage today which increases different from those of past. By the formation of many other themes, HRM is also a resource management practices and organizational assurance in different stage mark. M.G. Shahnawaz and Rakesh C.Juyal American concept but is no longer confined to American society.

Human resource management (HRM) is a basic principle in

All management association

Decision making and

Practices the people or human resources, who work for the organization.

The contribution of human resources when checked in graph analysis scale that the levels and sources are significant in strategic and sources of sustained aggressive gain.

As a result HRM practices should be an ongoing to the organizational tactic (Barney, 1991, 1995).

Lado and Wilson(1994) has given the best idea for HRM practices is showing a various competitive advantage by facilitating the development of competencies which are specific to firm and some other professions Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi centre of micro-nutrients research, describe HRM involvement in all organization and practices has directly affected the people who work for the organization. By the recent studies of HRM practices has explored and compared the various practical issues in two different ways in an organizations with research base and industrial fashion.

The two organizations commitment process has reviewed and by the study of its present status is being aimed to know how much power in two industries of HRM practices and then selects 45 contributors each were randomly from two organizations.

Geringer, Frayne and Milliman authors are scale were calculated HRM practices, while Meyer and Allen scale are measured the organizational commitment. Analysis of data is carried by t-test and plentiful regressions. The HRM practices create a significant change in two organizations while mean scores of it is set up more in mode organization. HRM department has carried a significant approach in both the organizational commitment by the performance of its review and attitude. To generate organizational knowledge keenoy (1999) has compared the HRM with a hologram by changing and moving its view around an image. Each position of HRM reveals another aspect, mysterious depth and different shape. The fluid entity makes an apparent change in the multiple identities and forms, as it was not look surprise in every time, but we see it looks slightly different. It has been given multiple forms of HRM interpretations, for modeling the formal shapes. In 1980s Harvard and Michigan has stated two most essential models. In resentful age the best practice approaches has featured by significant authors Pfeffer (1998), Ulrich (1997) and newly Geringer et al (2002). There are clear series of books of competitive advantage, which can be obtained from people other technology. A researcher has given statement to invest the technology is not sufficient, because technology will be available soon to competitors. When the technology became more composite, a person needs to be more skills in training. As a substitute for various needs of HRM has described as "high act of executive" in US or "high commitment of executive" elsewhere. It has come a long way of function management.

The conventional versions of HRM are:

People management (PM) is a concept that suitably related to old model of organization.

scientific in nature

a smaller amount of flexibility

High degree of centralization and formalization which can be obedience to rules and regulation

The compatibility designs can see in other organic functions of new organization. By this team the organization has cross-functional and cross-hierarchical. There focus and supply of formalization is less and some extent the control is low. The new organization of HRM is focusing on commitment rather than compliance. As recruiting the costs are very high and most of companies are focusing to continue with the previous employees. Gaining of employee's opportunity is an important contemplation for large and small organizations. HRM is having a high growth in commitment of factors for an effective organization. The commitment theory and research has been reviewed which are available (Mathieu & Zajac, 1990; Meyer & Allen, 1991, Meyer & Herscovitch, 2001). Meyer and Allen (1991, 1997) have reviewed the list of content definitions and discover the similarities and differences of its study. Due to the similarities in definition the author has a well thought of taking up the fundamental dedication. It is a challenging effort of force for each person can be able to form in course of action with related to its particular target. The unexpected explode in IT industry was unforgettable. While opening up the economy, increase of speed and intellect expansion of industry was powered in many difficult challenges ahead of enterprise. Human resource department was well developed in character in charge of common task like recruitment is handed over the function in challenging the problems.

The first challenge placed before them is recruitment. The rise of dotcoms drew many people to the field of information technology. Identifying the right candidate suitable to the job in hand has become a challenge to the HR staff. Severe competition demands ensuring continuous flow of quality goods and services for customer satisfaction. This calls for the recruitment of the right person to the right job. Companies now identify many innovative ways of recruitment for recognizing the right people. Many stages of tests, interviews and group discussions assist in appointing the ideal candidates. Another addition to their role is providing the right training to the interviewers to ensure that they draw the right answers from the candidate.

Forecasting is the biggest challenge faced by the HR. The HR is to anticipate the number of employees and their specific skill requirements even before the actual situation arises. There are many instances where the companies have lost business due to the inefficiency of the HR in supplying the required quantity of people with the required skills at the required time. A loss of business has a direct impact on the profitability of the business. IT industry is one of the highly paid business areas. The benefits offered by the competition are one of the major causes for the high rates of attrition. To forestall the movement of the employees to another organization, the HR has to come up with new benefits which coax the employees to remain within the organization producing excellent performance.

Money is not the single factor that attracts an employee. With customers spread world wide, interaction with different nations increased the yearning for better working culture by mixing the best of the two worlds. What constitutes a good working environment differs amongst the people. People spend a major part of a day in offices. So the HR is continuously on the look out for better ways for creating a pleasurable environment to work with. Aiding in the maintenance of a balance in the personal life and work life of its employees is of a major worry to the HR. A dissatisfied workforce is a major threat to the very existence of an organization.

Employees expect the company to give excellent opportunities for their personal growth through job rotation and promotions. A good appraisal system provides the backbone for ensuring career growth to the employees. This should however be backed by an excellent training system to meet the immediate requirements and futuristic needs on the basis of a good forecast of the key skills needed for meeting the future. The movement of work to the low cost countries like China has imposed a great threat to the Indian companies. To survive and grow, the companies have to ensure excellent results at competitive prices. Maintenance of quality, reduced cost of production, and timely delivery of the service and goods for ensuring customer satisfaction and a better customer relationship needs the support of the intelligent, innovative, driving energy of the employees. Providing the urge to the employees to induce them for better performance by providing a good working environment backed by opportunities for personal and professional growth is the task of the HR. The company expects the HR to forecast its personnel requirement well in advance to assure a smooth flow of work without interruptions. Thus the challenge faced by the HR is wide and varied.

Literature Review :

One of the fundamental principles of strategic human resource management (HRM) research is that the impact of human resource (HR) practices on individuals as well as organizations is best understood by examining the bundle, configuration, or system of HR practices in place. The rationale for this perspective is fairly straightforward. Considering that HR practices are rarely, if ever, used in isolation, failure to consider all of the HR practices that are in use neglects potential important explanatory value of unmeasured HR practices. As a result, while some studies have documented the organizational benefits that are associated with specific HR practices, the general perspective in this area of research is that a systems view is more appropriate. Indeed, Wright and McMahan (1992) noted that strategic HRM is primarily focused on ''the pattern of planned HR deployments and activities'' that are intended to help organizations to achieve their objectives (p. 298). Similarly, Delery (1998, p. 291) noted, ''The basic assumption is that the effectiveness of any practice depends on the other practices in place. If all of the practices fit into a coherent system, the effect of that system on performance should be greater than the sum of the individual effects from each practice alone.''

While researchers may agree that a systems perspective is more appropriate than a perspective that focuses on the role of individual HR practices in isolation, adopting a systems perspective introduces a host of issues and problems that remain to be addressed in the literature. For instance, inconsistencies abound regarding what constitutes a system and multiple conceptualizations of HR systems proliferate the literature (e.g., high performance work systems (HPWS), human capital enhancing HR systems, commitment HR systems, high-involvement HR systems, etc.). A lack of consistency regarding these systems limits our ability to truly understand the form and function of these systems in organizations. Unfortunately, existing conceptualizations offer little agreement regarding the underlying policies that comprise these systems as well as the practices that should be measured to capture these policies and systems. Without a clear understanding of their conceptual logic, we are not able to assess proposed HR systems regarding the extent to which they are potentially deficient in terms of missing key HR policies and practices that inform the system or the extent to which they In addition, adopting a systems perspective raises the issue of how different components of HR systems are related. Unfortunately, most discussions of these systems read like a laundry list of which practices are included without much discussion regarding why specific HR practices are included r excluded and how these different HR practices are related. For instance,is there a multiplicative effect or an additive effect when we consider HR practices simultaneously? While this is certainly an empirical question; there are also conceptual issues associated with the theoretical rationale underlying the relationships among HR practices. Are some HR practices redundant with others or complementary to others? Without conceptually addressing these issues, our understanding of the use and effectiveness of HR systems is unnecessarily constrained due to failure to understand the mechanisms by which these work and, ultimately, influence performance. Recently, several researchers have attempted to push the field forward by highlighting a number of limitations and concerns regarding the manner by which, existing studies in strategic HRM have been carried out to improve our understanding of the impact of HR systems. For instance, in a recent exchange, Gerhart,Wright,McMahan, and Snell (2000) and Huselid and Becker (2000) engaged in a debate regarding the relative merits of single source versus multiple sources for data; the manner by which survey data are aggregated and the statistics used to assess their aggregation (rwg versus ICC), the merits of single industry versus multiple industry samples, as well as the level of analysis that is (or should be) emphasized in data collection procedures.

While researchers tend to agree on what HR systems are in the abstract (a bundle of HR practices or HR policies oriented toward some overarching goal), there is a noticeable lack of agreement regarding the nature or composition of HR systems. Nearly 10 years ago, Becker and Gerhart (1996) and Youndt, Snell, Dean, and Lepak (1996) highlighted the considerable lack of consensus in literature regarding what exactly these types of HR systems are as well as the HR policies and practices that comprise them. Unfortunately, this issue remains prominent in literature. As shown in Appendix A, there are many variations of HR systems in literature such as HPWS (Huselid, 1995), human capital enhancing HR systems (Youndt et al., 1996), high involvement HR (Lawler, 1992), sophisticated HR practices (Koch & McGrath, 1996), and commitment oriented HR systems (Arthur, 1992; Lepak & Snell, 2002), to name a few. Looking over this list of studies examining HR systems, several important questions emerge. Conceptually, an important question is why there are so many differences in how we conceptualize HR systems in the literature and can we arrive at some consensus regarding both the form (their composition) and the function (their objective) of these systems? Methodologically, there are questions regarding the implications of how we conceptualize HR systems for how we measure and study HR systems. We turn to a discussion of these issues below.

A Conceptual Review of Human Resource Management Systems There are several reasons for variations on conceptualizations of HR systems in literature. First, at a basic level, differences in HR systems in literature reflect the practices that comprise the systems. Second, studies differ in their conceptualizations of the objectives for HR systems, which, in turn, may influence how these systems are expected to be designed. Alternative HR Practices within HR Systems As shown in Appendix A, studies vary in the degree to which different HR practices are used to comprise HR systems.While many different HR practices are certainly viable candidates for inclusion in HR systems, their inclusion/ exclusion varies greatly across studies. For example, some HR systems place emphasis on worker's related practices, such as quality circles, empowerment, participation, and voice (Godard, 1997; Ichniowski, Shaw, & Prennushi, 1997; Kochan, Gittell, & Lautsch, 1995; Pil & MacDuffie, 1996), while others might focus on HR practices related to training, performance management, or compensation (Bartel, 2004; Datta, Guthrie, & Wright, 2005; Gomez-Mejia, 1988; Whitener, 2001; Youndt et al., 1996). Although this list of HR practices is not exhaustive of all possibilities, it highlights the tremendous variability across HR systems and points toward a lack of organizing logic regarding the selection and exclusion of HR policies and practices across systems.

In addition to variation in which practices are considered, there are also some conflicting conceptualizations of the role of the same HR practices for different systems. For example, Dyer and Reeves (1995) noted that incentive bonuses were a component of the ''control'' HR system in Arthur (1994), but part of the ''flexible'' production scheme in MacDuffie (1995). Becker and Gerhart (1996) cited differences in the use of variable pay in Arthur (1994), Huselid (1995), and MacDuffie (1995). A low emphasis on variable pay was included as part of a ''commitment'' HR system in Arthur (1994), while a high emphasis on variable pay was part of HPWS in Huselid (1995) and MacDuffie (1995). Another example noted is the use of internal promotions and access to formal grievance procedures. Huselid (1995) and feffer (1995) described such practices as part of high-performance HR system. However, Arthur (1994) and Ichniowski, Shaw, & Prennushi (1997) included these as elements of more rigid HR systems. Becker and Huselid (1998) termed these two practices as components of ''bureaucratic HR'' system when viewed in isolation.

The Relationship of HRM and HRD

Traditionally, some writers suggested that HRD is a component of HRM in which HRD supports the HRM function in employees' training and development and the notion of training and development fitting in or integrated with HRM as in the 'HRM's wheel' (Guest, 1987) as seen in Figure 1 below. All the four components of HRD, namely; training and development, performance appraisals and management, career planning and development as well as change management components was advocated as positioned under the 'umbrella' or function of HRM along with other components such as recruitment and selection, compensation and benefits, employee and industrial relations as well as safety & health.

There are, however, two key principles that are central to the human capital idea. First, people are assets whose value can be enhanced through investment. As with any investment, the goal is to maximize value while managing risk. As the value of people increases, so does the performance capacity of the organization, and therefore its value to clients and other stakeholders (Youndt et al., 2004). Second, an organization's human capital policies must be aligned to support the organization's "shared vision"-that is, the mission, vision for the future, core values, goals and objectives, and strategies by which the organization has defined its direction and its expectations for itself and its people. All human capital policies and practices should be designed, implemented, and assessed by the standard of how well they help the organization pursue its shared vision (Wan, 2007; Youndt et al, 2004; Rastogi, 2000).

At most government agencies, the largest share of operating costs is devoted to managing and developing its workforce. For this reason, employees traditionally have been viewed through the budgetary lens, and therefore they have often been seen as costs to be cut rather than as assets to be valued. However, high performance organizations in both the private and public sectors recognize that an organization's people largely determine its capacity to perform. These organizations understand that the value of the organization is dependent on the value of its people. Enhancing the value of employees is a win-win goal for employers and employees alike. The more an organization recognizes the intrinsic value of each employee; the more it recognizes that this value can be enhanced with nurturing and investment; the more it recognizes that employees vary in their talents and motivations, and that a variety of incentive strategies and working arrangements can be created to enhance each employee's contributions to organizational performance, the more likely the organization will be to appreciate the variety of employee needs and circumstances and to act in ways that will make sense in both business and human terms (Lee, 2005; Kulvisaechana, 2006).