Analysis of Case Study into HR and team motivation

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Personal diversity within the team is not usually an obstacle, nor is a lack of awards and incentives. From analysing the HR data, it was identified that the following concerns from the RF team were raised:

Lack of clear goals - the team no longer have any clearly defined goals or the team's members do not understand or believe in them, they are concerned that they will not reach their objectives. The team lacks purpose - and so lack motivation - or are beginning to pull in different directions.

Poor measures of success - the team need to understand what success should look like. They need to know the difference between effective and poor performance to adjust their behaviour accordingly. They don't understand why and how issues have arisen and can't perform as effectively as they used to.

Lack of ownership - the team members need ownership of their own roles. Know what the team must achieve as a unit, and each person's part in that. Their lack of ownership is hindering them from getting tasks done, and members are becoming less supportive about other's needs.

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Poor cooperation or communication - communication from management and within the team is poor and they are becoming frustrated about the behaviour of fellow team members, but feel unable to express their feelings. This is causing tension and a lack of trust. There is a risk that the team may stop cooperating as personal agendas take over.

Building Motivation for Change

As organizational change takes place, employees' feelings are affected. Everyone will react, even you. This is inevitable. Employees will have different reactions to change - sometimes positive and sometimes negative. You need to manage negative reactions because they can be damaging to the change initiative. The prospect of change can lead employees to experience feelings of anxiety and fear, resulting in low employee morale. When employees feel this way, the impact on the organisation is also negative, and usually translates into a loss of productivity.

Sometimes leaders try to avoid dealing with change, thinking employees will adapt regardless of how it's handled. However, this can backfire. Employees are more likely to be resistant when they aren't involved or informed about the change. On the other hand, when leaders approach change openly and honestly, employees are more likely to be supportive. In addition to being open and honest, you can work to create a motivating atmosphere in support of organisational change. Do this by creating short-term wins and vision.

Short-term wins provide the motivation for the present and near future, while creating a vision provides a clear way forward. Together short-term wins and vision help you build a motivating atmosphere to move the organization closer to achieving the desired change. Creating vision and short-term wins can also help you gain the political support you'll need to implement the change. Because short-term wins demonstrate that the initiative is providing benefit and vision is providing guidance, you'll gain and keep the support of leaders within your organisation.

Taking Steps to Encourage Motivation

Every individual has different motivators. To create a workplace that supports unique motivators for many individuals, you must learn how to stimulate motivation on an individual basis.

Creating a motivating atmosphere involves three key steps:

discover what motivates employees

show them the benefits, and

ally the organization's goals with the employee's goals

The first step is to discover exactly what motivates each employee. You can use several techniques to do this:

talk to the employee about motivators - Like many leaders, your first reaction might be that compensation and other extrinsic rewards are good motivators. In reality, people are typically motivated by their unmet needs, such as the need for recognition. These unmet needs differ from person to person, so it's vital you consult with your employees directly to uncover their motivators.

have the employee list and rate his motivators - A great way to uncover your employees' personal motivators is by using an assessment exercise. Have your employee complete an assessment where he lists and ranks his motivators, and you do the same, based on your understanding of what his motivators might be.

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discuss the employee's list - There's a good chance that after comparing your lists, you'll find he's motivated by completely different things than you thought. But here's the crucial part of this task: take the time to discuss the results with your employee. This prompts both of you to think further about your motivators and refine your list as necessary. You can also better understand what motivates the employee and clarify anything you're not clear about.

Whatever approach you may take to discover personal motivators, consider how you'll modify your actions or behaviours to ensure that employees' needs are met. If you focus your actions on the specific things that motivate your employees, you'll be on the road to success.

The second step is to show employees the benefits of doing what you want them to do. The best way is to demonstrate how the task or behaviour you want them to perform will enhance their

feelings of participation and belonging

self-esteem and recognition, and

self-actualization and personal growth

Recall that these are the three highest categories in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. And don't forget to consider the individual's preferences when you're showing them the benefits.

The final step in motivating individuals is to ally the organization's goals with the employee's goals. This is important because your employees might be highly motivated and working hard, but if they're not working toward organizational goals, their motivation doesn't help organizational performance. Ensure that employees know exactly what your organization's goals are so everyone can work toward these goals.

When employees can actually identify how they're contributing to goals and making a difference, motivation is often increased. Show your employees how their work fits into the big picture, so they get a feel for how they contribute to something larger than their own positions. People can become complacent when they perform the same tasks over and over unless you show them how these tasks contribute to their own development and the success of the organization. Design tasks that are consistent with the employee's needs, since everyone's needs are different.

Because everyone is different, their motivators will also be different. To create a workplace that supports motivation for all employees, you need to know how to treat employee motivation on an individual basis. You can use three key steps: discover what motivates employees, show them the benefits, and ally the organization's goals with the employee's goals. With a good understanding of how to use these steps, you can motivate each employee based on his individual needs.

Key Strategies of Motivation

No specific procedure exists for motivating employees. What works for one organisation might not work for another. Incorporate the right strategies and tactics to create a comprehensive motivational strategy that works for you. Your strategy must do three things: it must involve, validate, and develop employees. You can use different tactics to accomplish these, and incorporating tactics that represent a combination of these strategies will make up a robust motivational strategy.

Involve

People like to feel they're an important part of the organisation, which is why it's important to involve employees. A great way to foster a sense of involvement is by delegating, which gives employees a sense of choice and control over decisions. You can involve staff members in many ways:

if you have weekly reports to complete, have an employee take over this task, giving her control over their completion

assign an employee or a team the responsibility for a complete process or unit of work

make information directly available to employees without it first going through managers, or

help employees become experts in specialized tasks by providing the necessary training, which would make them feel like a trusted and valued part of the team

Involving employees also means allowing them to set their own goals or participate in the goal-setting process. If you want people to be motivated, give them the opportunity to choose for themselves. Otherwise, they tend to become bored.

Demonstrate confidence in your employees - research has proven that when you expect people to perform well, they do.

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Involving employees also requires you to create an inclusive, collaborative atmosphere that fulfils your employees' need for belonging. Four tactics can help you do this:

be confident - Employees feel at ease when you share your knowledge and skills and foster a lighthearted atmosphere. This helps them feel comfortable enough to share their own ideas.

encourage a connection - Encouraging a connection among team members helps develop a sense of community as they keep in touch with each other's projects.

take the focus off your own authority - Take a step back during discussions and avoid recommending any one position. Make sure you perform your duties as a leader, but let your employees have a voice - this will make them feel more equal.

create a shared sense of cohesiveness - Meet with employees to analyze failures and celebrate successes. The goal is to make improvements together as a team, which helps everyone feel like their contributions are valuable.

Validate

The next strategy is to validate employees. People are intrinsically motivated by recognition for the work they do, so it's beneficial to reward and acknowledge employees.

Rewards should be tied to performance - If you've specified that reaching sales targets is important, you should reward performance relating to achieving targets and not, for instance, meeting deadlines. Also consider that not all employees find the same things rewarding, so tailor your strategies appropriately.

Let employees hear directly from customers - But praise shouldn't just come from customers, so celebrate your employees' achievements. Make sure you regularly acknowledge employees' successes to avoid generating feelings of demotivation, or even cynicism, about your organization.

Give feedback - Timing is important - immediate feedback is much more effective than tabling it for a formal meeting. Don't give negative feedback without stating how to improve performance. Catch employees doing something right and comment specifically on how you appreciate their efforts. It's more effective than simply saying "keep up the good work."

To help employees feel validated, create a climate of trust and openness. To establish this climate, be aware of the way you communicate with employees. Say things that encourage ideas and build self-esteem. By being encouraging, rather than belittling, you create an environment where employees trust you and feel confident.

Develop

The final broad motivational strategy is to develop employees. Address their needs for self-actualization by challenging them with new tasks and providing opportunities to develop new skills and knowledge. Encourage your employees to set and achieve goals, which need to be SMARTER: Specific, Measurable, Acceptable, Realistic, Time-based, Enlarging, and Rewarding.

Use workplace systems

Your efforts to involve, develop, and validate employees are supported by another important strategy: enlist the support of workplace systems. It's not enough to simply have good relationships with employees to motivate them; you must create a structure that supports motivation. Use your organization's performance management framework to link motivation and workplace systems. A good performance management framework can do the following:

involve employees in setting goals and being accountable

highlight their achievements and incorporate regular feedback

help generate new challenges

project a can-do attitude through clear support from leaders, and

ensure that rewards and consequences are equitable, fair, and consistent

It's vital to make sure employees have the resources they need to do their jobs. All too often, employees are frustrated because they can't find the information they're searching for, they don't have the required materials, or they have nobody to ask for help. Needless to say, these frustrations can have a demotivating effect.

As a leader, your goal should be to support employees so they can motivate themselves. Motivation isn't easy, but by learning how to involve, validate, and develop employees, and how to enlist the support of workplace systems, you'll have a more satisfied workforce - which leads to more satisfied customers.

Using Shared Leadership to Motivate Teams

Motivation is critically important to improving team performance. And as the team leader, you're the one who must provide the incentive for your team members to want to be successful.

One approach to motivating a team is to use participatory management methods. This helps create an environment in which team members feel a sense of empowerment. When team members feel they're making a difference, they're motivated to perform at a high level and they're committed to the team's overall high performance.

Three ways to foster participatory management include the following:

Delegating leadership responsibilities - Allow the team as a whole or individual team members to take over a variety of team leader responsibilities.

Allowing team members to use their skills - Let team members use their skills and experience to support colleagues and the team as a whole. Encourage team members to develop new skills that will help them take on more challenging tasks.

Sharing or rotating leadership roles - Give team members a chance to lead projects, meetings, or other key team activities. You can do this either by letting several team leaders share a responsibility or by rotating a responsibility for a given activity.

Delegating leadership responsibilities

When you delegate leadership responsibilities, you allow the team as a whole or individual team members to take over responsibilities that would normally belong to you.

Delegation works best in an environment that uses diverse skills and activities. When you delegate, make sure you hand out the challenging, high-level responsibilities - not just the tasks you don't like to perform. The ideal task would require the team member to build external relationships that would benefit the team or master a series of complex details.

And don't neglect to give team members the authority to make decisions about their tasks at the same time that you give them the responsibility for results. Responsibility without authority is demotivating and leads to frustration.

After you've given the responsibility and authority, you must step back and let the individual decide how to get the job done.

Allowing members to use their skills

A second way to foster participatory management is to encourage team members to use their skills to support their peers and the team as a whole. Most teams are made up of people with varied abilities, skills, and experience levels. If you have especially talented or skilled individuals on your team, you can ask them to use those skills or talents to help other team members or the team as a whole.

Asking team members to share their skills, talents, and experience will make them feel valued and motivated. At the same time, other members of your team will also benefit.

In addition to using current skills, some team members may have an interest in developing new capabilities and might even want to take on new roles that aren't in line with their experience. In these cases, provide support and coaching to encourage them. As team leader, you need to help team members find a role with which they're comfortable. To do this, you need to take into account their needs, strengths, and experience.

Sharing or rotating leadership roles

A third way to foster participatory management is to share or rotate the leadership role among team members. This means that the role of team leader is passed from teammate to teammate, according to a set schedule. This approach often works best when the leadership responsibilities are simple and straightforward. You don't want your leaders to become overwhelmed with complex tasks.

Or you could create a subgroup of people to conduct all the training for new hires. You could then rotate new people into the subgroup periodically.

When rotating or sharing the leadership role, you should follow certain guidelines:

First, the responsibilities for the role must be clearly explained in writing and posted where all team members can access them easily, such as the company's intranet.

Second, the change in leadership should occur precisely at scheduled times to avoid confusion over who's in charge, or the feeling that there's nobody in charge.

Third, make sure team members discuss their experience as team leader with you before leadership is handed over to the next person. A good debriefing can avoid repetition of poor behaviors, as well as help reinforce good leadership skills that team members are demonstrating.

Rotating or sharing leadership provides a powerful learning experience for each individual who takes on the leadership role. This is especially true for the team members at the extremes of the experience range:

The junior team member often finds the experience of leading the team to be humbling, and sometimes frightening. This person finds out first-hand how tough it is to have all eyes on you when difficulties arise. Junior team members especially benefit from debriefing.

The senior team member may have to relearn how to be a good follower. Having a new team leader who's liable to do things differently means that processes may change. The senior member must listen carefully to ensure she remains in step with the team.

Motivation is what makes the difference between a good team and a great team. As the team leader, it's your responsibility to provide motivation to your team members. One way to do this is to create an environment in which team members feel empowered, through participatory management methods.

You can accomplish this by using three different approaches: delegating leadership responsibilities, allowing team members to use their skills, and sharing or rotating the leadership roles. Taken together, these approaches empower and motivate team members to excel.

PD Consultants approach

Five Parts of Performance Management

Being good at your own job is now no longer enough. You also have to encourage and support high performance standards from your team.

Like a sports coach, you must inspire your team members to focus on a common goal and help them to use their mix of abilities to achieve it. Your team members need to know whether they are performing successfully, and you should reward their successful performance.

Possibly establish a new system

As a new manager, you may find that the team or department you inherit is already accustomed to having its performance carefully managed. In this case, your prime responsibility is to maintain standards.

It is equally possible, however, that you will find that team performance has not been rigorously managed in the past. You will then have to introduce and establish a totally new system, and this may present a few additional challenges.

Establishing the system is challenging, but it is also vital to run it effectively.

Five parts of performance management

To establish an effective system, you need to establish a performance management process. Performance management is about

creating a shared vision

helping individuals to play their part

evaluating performance

giving feedback

linking performance and reward

You will, of course, experience this process from two perspectives. As a new manager, you will have your performance managed by your boss.

Creating a shared vision

It is important that your team members can recognize the benefits of the work that they are being asked to do and can see how it fits into a broader context. Common objectives have to be identified and agreed upon.

The vision is one with which your team members can identify. Something vague or something that does not seem to relate to the work that they do will not help to inspire or focus them. Keep the vision practical and relevant.

Helping individuals play their parts

Poor performance can result from a lack of clarity about what is expected from each individual.

It is important that all team members understand the roles they must play. Your team members will be more committed if they are able to discuss their roles with you. Always make sure that all team members understand exactly what is expected of them.

Evaluating performance

It is important to evaluate performance to ensure that objectives are being met. Although it is important that you delegate and do not directly interfere with your team's work, your support and advice are vital, so you must continue to monitor and evaluate the work that is being done.

Evaluation is an important part of making sure that everything is going according to plan. Evaluating performance gives you an opportunity to identify what is being done well and what could be improved.

Giving feedback

By using feedback, necessary improvements can be identified and made. It is also possible to identify what is working well.

It is important for people to understand what they are doing right - and what they are doing wrong. People need feedback to help them improve performance. Positive feedback can also increase motivation.

Linking performance and reward

It is important to have a system that links performance and reward. This helps to emphasize the value of the work being done.

People hope to be rewarded for good performance. Clarifying the link between what has to be done and what reward will be received is vital. It is also important to deliver what has been promised.

By following the five steps of the performance management process, you can ensure that your team is more productive and efficient and that you are recognized as an effective manager.

Recognizing Value at Work

How do you feel when you do an activity that you love? Do you feel fulfilled, energized, happy ? Does time seem to pass extremely quickly? Is the activity valuable to you?

Values are the principles or qualities that an individual considers important, such as honesty and hard work. People's motivations, or reasons for doing things, are driven by what they believe is important and will bring enjoyment to their lives.

1. What motivates team members

Sometimes people are not consciously aware of what their values are. Facilitators need to discover what motivates their team members before they can help them find value in their work. Some values that commonly motivate people are

Personal recognition - Personal recognition can be a powerful motivator. Most people value recognition for a job well done. It might come as a formal company announcement of a special achievement, or an informal note from a manager or a co-worker. It can be verbal or non-verbal.

A chance to use talents - Certain talents may lie dormant until people are given an opportunity to exercise them. Barbara Sher, an author and career counselor, has said that our gifts lie in what we love to do. People who value their gifts may feel motivated to accept new challenges that allow them to use those talents.

An opportunity to grow - Many people value personal and professional growth as a life-long process. These people look for opportunities that help them stretch and grow by learning new talents. The discovery of new skills can take people in directions never before imagined.

Money - Money can also be a powerful motivator, especially if it is tied to performance. People who work for a fixed salary may not always see the value of hard work in measurable terms in the same way as those who work for commission or bonus programs.

To effectively facilitate teams, leaders need to understand these principles.

2. How to help team members find value in their work

When facilitative leaders have discovered what motivates their team members, they can apply strategies to help team members find value. In the work world, certain tasks are performed simply because they have to be done. Facilitators need to encourage team members to move beyond just doing what they have to do, to considering how their work has value and benefits others.

It's not the facilitator's job to convince team members of the importance of their work. In fact, if you tell team members that their work is significant, and try to sell them on the importance of their role in the company, they may not find value for themselves.

The facilitator's job is to help team members discover value for themselves. Two strategies can be applied to lead team members to identify and reflect upon what they value about their work.

Facilitators can ask discovery questions so that team members can identify for themselves the importance of their work.

When facilitators ask discovery questions to help a team find value, they should avoid posing derogatory comments or invasive questions. For example, some positive discovery questions include:

What do you get from being a part of this team?

How do you benefit personally from being here?

How is your job meaningful for you?

Facilitators can guide team members toward self-realization of their values by engaging them in meaningful conversation.

This is an opportunity for participants to discuss their feelings, to exchange ideas, and to voice their opinions on matters related to the meeting.

In the midst of the pressures of the job, it is sometimes easy for people to forget what's important in their work. Some employees are able to find value in their work when they see the connection between sales performance and attitude.

As a facilitator, you can help team members find value in their work by asking questions leading to new job-related discoveries and by engaging team members in meaningful conversation.

Team members who understand the value of their work will give their best effort on the job. Employees need to see how their work contributes to the big picture and benefits others. This leads to a sense of personal fulfilment and satisfaction.

Coordinating an effort to improve internal communication within the organization, the communications director assembles a cross-generational team of employees to evaluate communication problems and recommend solutions.

In addition to being multi-generational, the team comprises experts from diverse fields, including curriculum specialists, researchers, educators, writers, evaluators, and technology personnel.

The diversity of this team will provide a wealth of ideas and experience. But it also could make motivation even more important. Motivational strategies need to be applied.

1. Give team members important and meaningful work

At their first meeting, team members voice their views on internal communication and discuss how to identify specific problems. The team leader adopts a facilitator's role and encourages contributions from each member and decision making by consensus. When the team created a research plan, the leader encouraged members to volunteer for individual tasks that would put their talents to use and capture their enthusiasm.

Having decided as a group that an employee survey was the best way to research the company's communications problems, the team divided into subgroups that reflected various areas of expertise. The subgroups then began working on the individual tasks of preparing, presenting, conducting, and evaluating the survey.

2. Provide the team with high visibility within the organization

The team leader knew the reliability of the survey would be directly related to the volume of employee responses. He also knew that employee response rates would depend on whether employees believed they would benefit from participating. He decided to put his communication skills to use in publicizing why the team was conducting the survey. For example:

The team leader sent out several e-mail messages to all employees to announce the upcoming survey and stress that honest responses could improve the work environment.

He featured the team in a front-page story in the company newsletter. The story explained that the survey was a brainchild of the team, not a mandate from management. It described how each member was contributing to the project and explained what the team hoped to gain.

Employees began to take interest. Some contacted team members personally to make suggestions on improving communication. Although there were isolated cases of pessimism and distrust, most employees seemed to look forward to the chance to voice their opinions.

So far, the team has been motivated by two strategies. All members were engaged in important and meaningful work, and their efforts received high visibility throughout the company.

3. Tie rewards to the team's collective efforts

Once team members had a chance to review a summary of the survey results, they reconvened to consider solutions. Through a process of brainstorming, discussion, and consensus decision making, they decided on a course of action to address each identified problem. For example:

Employees don't trust managers to share information-The team recommended that managers hold monthly all-staff meetings to update employees about the company's plans and work-related issues. According to this recommendation, employees would be able to submit their questions anonymously in advance of the meetings.

Departments are uninformed about one another's work-The team recommended that the company newsletter begin featuring a different department in each issue. The articles would explain the department's work and describe the role of each member of the department.

Because of rapid growth, many employees don't know one another-The team recommended that managers take new employees on a tour their first day to introduce them to their new co-workers. In addition, it recommended the introduction of new employees in both the company newsletter and at all-staff meetings.

As a result of the team's work, management adopted all their recommendations, and everyone seemed to think the team did a good job. Team members thought they made a great team, and their recommendations will improve communication.

Evaluators put in a lot of extra time on that survey, so their director decided to give them a bonus. They were considered lucky to have a director who rewarded their efforts.

It appeared that no one else got bonuses although others on the team did put in extra time and effort.

Some felt that it just depended on who you are. Others really didn't expect to be compensated for their work on the team; they were just proud to be part of a successful effort. But they didn't expect to be left out either.

The first two motivating strategies were applied well to this team. Team members were charged with important and meaningful work, and the team's work received high visibility within the organization. Unfortunately, the third strategy seemed to fall through the cracks. The managers, including the team leader, should have consulted with one another about rewarding the group's collective efforts rather than allowing some members to be rewarded while others were not.

It is vital for a company, and a team leader, to use all three motivational strategies to motivate a cross-generational team.

The risk of doing business feels less overwhelming when you have an excellent staff.

Successfully managing and motivating your employees depends on your skills to analyze, predict, and evaluate their work conditions. To do this, you need to know how to inspire top performance through:

the creation of internal marketing plans

the identification of what supports your employees

the prioritization and focus of employee actions

the development of superior training.

The creation of internal marketing plans

Creating an internal marketing plan helps you to know what employees need and want. It's just as important as knowing what your customers want.

Maintaining employee files with information about goals, lifestyle, and history will help you strategize how to keep a valuable resource.

The identification of what supports your employees

The second way to motivate employees to improve performance is to focus your plan on the workers' welfare. This may seem counterintuitive-focusing on the business's welfare would make more sense.

But if your plan clearly supports your employees, its chances for success are better because it's more likely to gain worker attention, trust, and respect. It's great when your staff members understand what you want them to do; it's even better when they do it. They'll do it when they feel important, competent, and understood.

The prioritization and focus of employee actions

Employees often lack the skills to prioritize and focus, which can cause a manager to fall short of bottom-line responsibilities. To respond to that potential shortfall, managers need to compensate through the use of organizational controls.

This kind of support can help staff gain clarity in regard to purpose, goals, mission, consequences, rewards, and the relationship of tasks to the "big picture." The simple act of asking a question can be an effective tool for making sure priorities and focus are correct.

To open these dialogs, you can:

ask open-ended questions that gauge employee temperament and needs

qualify employee questions and statements to be sure you understand the motivation behind them

complete discussions with questions that have yes-or-no answers so that you're sure of the employee's feelings, opinions, needs, or commitments.

The development of superior training

The final ingredient for inspiring performance is training.

Employees without training, no matter how well-intentioned, are a drain on resources. Acquiring a sense of the organization's past, present, and future, corporate culture, communication, teamwork, customer service, and negotiation all require training.

Most training focuses on information. What training really needs to teach is the application of the information. When people feel comfortable and confident with new material, they can retain and apply it.

When you have a good employee, it's important to keep her. To keep employees, you need to know how to inspire performance through internal marketing plans, identification of employee needs, prioritization and focus, and training.

Defining difficult behavior

Difficult behavior is present in every workplace. During your career, you may encounter instances of bullying, controlling, backstabbing, gossiping, complaining, rudeness, lack of motivation, passive aggressiveness, and uncooperative behavior. It's your job as a manager to deal with difficult behavior and maintain a productive environment. But how do you know when employee behavior is truly difficult and outside the range of normal behavior? When do you need to take action?

Difficult behavior becomes problematic when it hinders the work of other people and thereby affects the productivity of a team or group.

To help you identify difficult behaviors, it's useful to have some evaluation criteria. Behavior can be considered difficult and problematic when it interferes with a team's ability to perform its work, damages team unity, or has an adverse effect on one or more team members.

The effects of difficult behavior

There are many effects that can ripple out from difficult employee behavior:

stress - Stress is one result of having to deal with difficult behavior. In fact, stress-related illnesses cost organizations hundreds of thousands of dollars a year in lost productivity.

strained working relationships - Effective teamwork relies on team members being able to work together easily and freely. Teamwork suffers if team members have to worry about enduring a teammate's anger, sarcasm, or unreliability, for example.

negative emotions - Difficult behavior produces negative emotions in the team members who must endure the behavior.

reduced creativity and productivity - To be creative and productive, team members must be able to focus intensively on a problem or process. Difficult behavior draws attention to itself and dissipates focus. Ultimately, the organization's goals may even be in jeopardy if teams aren't as creative and productive as they should be.

loss of credibility - Team members deserve a safe, harmonious, and calm environment in which to do their work. When the environment is threatened by difficult behavior, they look to their manager to deal with it. Failure to address the behavior could cause team members to lose respect for, or belief in, you.

Since the potential effects of difficult behavior are so severe, it's crucial for you as a manager to deal with the behavior firmly and in a timely manner. If you don't, the behavior won't disappear - it'll get worse.

Aggressiveness, negativity, indecisiveness, and disrespect are examples of difficult behaviors you'll need to identify and address in order to keep your organization running smoothly.

Difficult behavior becomes problematic when it affects other people. To help you identify when difficult behavior crosses the line and must be addressed, consider three criteria. First, difficult behavior interferes with a team's ability to perform its work. Second, difficult behavior damages team unity. And third, it has an adverse effect on team members. Difficult behavior has some serious effects on teams and team members - stress, negative emotions, strained working relationships, and reduced creativity and productivity. As a manager, it's your job to address difficult behavior firmly and in a timely manner. If you don't, the behavior will only get worse. And your own credibility will be negatively affected.

Motivation today looks much different from the way it looked in previous decades. External rewards are no longer enough. Today, companies must tap into internal motivators. There are a number of ways you can do that in today's workplace and energize your company's employees.

Essential motivators to most people are to feel important, appreciated, and needed. Every person needs to feel he or she is making valued contributions. Whatever your position in the company, you can help others feel important by your words and interactions.

Celebrate people's successes with them. Avoid tendencies to cut people down or minimize their contributions. Seek others' input, and whenever possible, add new work that touches on individual passions and interests. Stretch people by giving them assignments that help them grow.

One person may do something so well that you're hesitant to trust it to anyone else. Don't be. Help others grow by letting new people work with your "expert" or by giving the "expert" new challenges.

When motivating people, it's important to be aware of the power of internal motivation. People are motivated by:

job meaningfulness and purpose

freedom to use personal judgment

positively worded messages

decision-making authority

a sense that their views matter

personal progress markers.

There are many strategies you can use to motivate yourself and others. Some suggestions are listed below.

Do. Find something people love to do and let them do it. How do you know when that happens? The person enjoys being at work, helps others willingly, contributes ideas, and coaches rather than criticizes others who do similar work.

Dream. Dreams have motivated most of the world's biggest discoveries. Dreams are goals with wings. Motivate others by knowing what their dreams are and helping to pursue them.

Focus. Focus on what you and others do well. Talents are usually seen in abilities, behaviors, and values, such as hard work, assertiveness, and positive self-image. Motivation is renewed when you praise others for doing these things well.

Set. Set goals. Encourage people to set easily achieved goals to remind them they're moving forward, and larger goals to keep them motivated. Studies estimate that only three percent of all workers have specific goals. But goals enable you to control your career.

Expect. Expect the best for and in others. If that's what you're looking for, that's what you'll get. Affirm others' self-esteem and worth by expecting them to succeed. Never consider the possibility of failure.

Reduce. Reduce the demotivators in the workplace. Help people fulfill their goals. You can do this by encouraging others, giving them recognition, keeping them in the loop, and involving them in interesting work. Also, reduce fear of failure.

Know. Know the people you work with. People are motivated by different things. Know what each person's personal motivators are. Repeated employee surveys have shown that many people prefer appreciation to more money.

Learn. Be teachable, open, and committed to learning at least one new thing every day-and approaching others with that mind-set. Linked to that, be willing to change your mind. Read upbeat books and success stories, and listen to motivational tapes.

Remember, whatever your position is in the company, you can help others feel important by your words and interactions. By using the strategies described above, you can become a good motivator.

Human relations are present in various ranks in an organisation. People interact with one another in different circumstances, as colleagues, supervisors or subordinates. No matter what the circumstance is, a relationship is built. Based on the Hawthorne experiments as well as in present organisations, all kinds of groups exist. Formal group are those which are officially designated by the higher authority and informal groups are groups which are formed unofficially formed by members themselves.

The Hawthorne experiments also generated new ideas for communications in an organisation. Good communication that exists within the ranks of the organisation is Essential for the smooth operation of any firm. Sound communication is difficult to establish even in the smallest of companies. When the organisation expands in the future, the diversity among individuals is wide. Only through communication will a manager understand the needs of his or her employees and their needs will be handled accordingly. With the advancement of technology, communications is made more efficient with the likes of e-mail and the mobile phone. The Hawthorne studies taught managers that communication with the employees is essential for higher productivity and efficiency.

All the theories mentioned in the previous paragraphs further develop the study of human relations and the understanding of people in the organisation. However, the subject has been condemned as the theories pertaining to good management, group psychology as well as the suggestion of needs by individuals are too generalised. The critic

One theory in the human relations subject which is criticised is Maslow's hierarchy of needs. In his experiments, some people feel that he was actually concentrating on the human personality rather than the needs of an individual. The findings were also based on certain individuals and through further investigation, the people that he based his findings on were white male of higher education. This proved that his findings were somewhat sexists as well as racially discriminatory.

Also, in practice, some levels of the hierarchy of needs do not exist for some individuals and some incentives that were present could fit in more than one hierarchy i.e. money in most cases not only buys food and shelter bought can also be seen as a symbol of status to some people. The threat of redundancy of an individual in an organisation can also affect an individual's higher level of motivation as the need to satisfy the lower level achievements take higher precedence. An individual's satisfaction of his or her hierarchy of needs is difficult to decide as different people think differently and thus it is not a general statement.

The assumptions of both Theory X and Theory Y have been condemned to be unrealistic and are of very extreme diversity.

The Hawthorne studies were also criticised by various theorists. They were condemned for not having enough controls in the experiments. Changes to the reward agreement and the variation of the number of test subjects during the study affected the validity of the findings. However, people who conducted the experiments have never mentioned that the tests that they have done were replicable. They have never avoided the fact that the changes in the reward system as well the workload were not implemented.

In conclusion, I personally feel that the Hawthorne studies have led us to the advancement of management theories and practices. Without having the experiment done by Elton Mayo, the welfare of workers would not have been considered by the managers. Employees would still be somewhat subjected to semi harsh working environments as human rights law would have eventually played a part. Also, without the evolution of the studies done during the Hawthorne experiments globalisation might not be possible. Interaction between people will be hindered and people will be less motivated.