Investigate personnel requirements and undertake a job analysis for an identified position. Analyse the requirement for a specific vacancy with reference to accepted models.Design a job description and a person specification for the vacancy identified through the analysis.
Definition of Recruitment
It is the process when an organization has identified that they need to employ someone to fill in a position whether internally or externally. The process includes the receiving of applications.
It is the process of choosing who among the applicants is most suitable for the vacant post.
Personnel Management vs Human Resources Management
Most of the time, we have the impression that personnel management and human resources management do the same role in an organization. These are two different departments with different functions but they have a common factor that links them and made them almost the same in nature. That factor is workforce.
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Personnel management is mainly responsible for the administrative part of workforce such as payroll, employee benefits, employment law and handling tasks. On the other hand human resources management is responsible for the development of the workforce such as improving the employee's efficiency, motivating them toward the achievement of organizational goals and objectives and.
In terms of motivation, these two different departments have their own way of motivating employees. Personnel management motivates employees through job satisfaction and security in terms of wages and benefits while human resources management motivates employees more on a personal level through mentoring, training, coaching and enhancing their skills and capabilities whether as individuals or as a team.
Source: http://www.wisegeek.com/is-there-a-difference-between-human-resources-and-personnel-management.htm by N. Madison 07 oct. 10 (accessed 18 oct)
It is the process of collecting necessary information about the requirements such as duties, responsibilities, skill and knowledge to fill in a vacant position. In job analysis, it is important that the description of the duties and responsibilities are given to ensure the success of hiring the right people.
The job analysis should include two major parts which are the job description and job specification.
According to Margie Mader- Clark in her book The Job Description Handbook in 2008 (p.2), job description is a very important tool in expressing what the organization is expecting from the employee, how employees will be managed and evaluated with regard to their performance and how an employee could be terminated if the job requirements were not met. This could also serve as a legal document that will keep the organization away from any legal problems.
Job description should entail the "job summary" which is the gist t of important responsibilities with short description. A list of "job functions" should also be included in the job description; these are the descriptions of the main functions of the employee and should be in accordance to employment law and should not be discriminatory. Other information such as to whom the employee will report to, working hours, location, and other important information about the position should also be included in the job description.
It is document that entails the requirements for a specific position. Requirements such as educational level and qualifications, work experiences, essential qualities and characteristic for the position and abilities should be in the job specification. (Human Resource Management: Fresh Perspective ,2009 p.70)
Seven Point Plan
Alec Rodger has designed an approach called the "Seven Point Plan" in 1952. It used to effectively evaluate the applicants during the selection period. It is composed of different attributes which are divided into seven areas where the personnel department could audit the applicant's qualifications, skills, capabilities and other attributes that is required in the vacant post.
Figures 1 and 2 is a live job vacancy advert (as of writing) for a Reservation Agent for Novotel Hotel in London and will be analysed using the Seven Point Plan and whether the job description and analysis have contained its important parts.
Fig. 1 Job Vacancy Advert for Reservation Agent (Source: https://jobs.accor.com/AccorJobs/Offer/OfferDetail.asp?IdWS=0&IdLng=2&PreviousNavigationTab=1&Reference=81760) accessed 18 october
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Fig. 2: Continuation of job advert from fig. 1 from the same source.
From the previous figures, it was clearly stated what are the duties and responsibilities of a reservation agent such as dealing with daily reservation procedures, answering the telephone, filing recording and other detailed responsibilities on a day to day basis. It also stated to whom he employee will report to which is the Front Office Manager.
As to job specification, the required educational qualification, work experience and personal traits were also given.
Rodger's Seven Point Plan will be used to deeply analyse the job specifications from Figure 2. This could serve as the basis for the personnel management to carefully evaluate and select the most qualified applicants.
Physical Make Up
Applicants are required to have good personal appearance, must be properly groomed and have high personal grooming and hygiene standard.
Candidates should have at least post secondary educational attainment and secretarial work experience.
Must be able to understand and obey hotel's rules, regulations, policies and procedures such as fire, hygiene and health and safety. Applicant must also be able to follow local legislation.
Good up- selling skill is desirable as they have to achieve the hotel's maximum occupancy.
Applicants must be friendly, courteous and must be able to provide professional service. Good team spirit is also essential as providing assistance to the front office manager is required to have a smooth flow of everyday operation of the department.
Applicants must be flexible to be able to perform other duties and responsibilities if required and must be able to adapt easily whenever there are changes implemented according to the hotel needs. Applicants must also be willing to attend trainings and meetings if required.
There are no specific conditions such as geographical condition required. An optional requirement was also given and that is the knowledge with Opera as training will be given to successful applicants.
Applicants who will be able to comply with the seven point plan above will be possibly considered by the personnel management and could possibly be hired.
Examine current employment legislation as it affects recruitment and selection of personnel.
Employment legislation is designed to assure equality and fairness of the employer when recruiting and selecting employees and to avoid discrimination on the basis of gender, race, religion, age, sexual orientation and disability.
Employers must not discriminate or treat applicants with disability differently from the others unless it could be justified. Applicants with disability should be treated fairly and must be given a chance as those without any disability.
In America, people with acquired immune deficiency syndrome or AIDS and those recovering from drug addiction and alcoholism is considered as people with disability, therefore they should be treated fairly when it comes to employment.
During the selection process, employers must not discriminate an applicant on the grounds of race, color and cultural background.
Also in America, Kum Martin has sited in his article Racial Discrimination at Workplace, that a Civil Act was passed in 1964 that forbids racial discrimination at work place to protect individuals from discrimination on the grounds of race and color in relation with the selection, promotion training and other areas of the employment. The act also states that whoever refuse to adhere could be sued and charged of discrimination.
In the United Kingdom, they have the 1976 Race Relations Act that prohibits employer to discriminate an individual on the basis of colour, nationality and ethnic background. It states that whether the discrimination was done in purpose or not will not matter but what matters is that an individual is not fairly treated due to his/her colour or race.
Marital status should also not be an issue when recruiting and selecting employees, parents with children to take care of. Most of the time, parents will not be able to work full time because of their family responsibilities and so opting to look for part time jobs which sometimes will not be enough source of income.
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An article written by Nikki Chesworth on the 14 October Issue of London Evening Standard, she mentioned that from last year there was a 12.7 percent rise of women starting up their own business as they seek flexibility in working hours so they could still be able to attend their family responsibilities. Though they would like to earn more, the working hours are becoming a problem that is why they opted to open their own business in order to earn and at the same time attend to their family duties. Chesworth also sited on her article that according to Citizen Advise Bureau, mothers have the right to ask for flexible working hours if they have a child under 17 or 18 if disabled.
According to the article, Accenture has just been named the Top Employer for Mums in the UK by Equalities Minister Lynne Featherstone. Accenture has adopted family- friendly policies such as working part time where employees said that flexible working hours made them stay with Accenture.
From the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's (EEOC) press releases dated 24 March, 2004 and 30 March, 2010, the Lowe's Company Inc. has been sued for racial discrimination and religious discrimination respectively.
According to the EEOC press release in 24 March 2004, Lowe's is the second largest home improvement retailer in the world and its headquarters in Wilkesboro, North Carolina is the 14th largest retailer in America. The EEOC has filed a lawsuit against Lowe's under Title VII of 1964 Civil Rights Act for refusing qualified applicants who are African American, between 2002 and 2003 because of their race. Back pay, interest on back pay, compensation for emotional, psychological and punitive damages were the court orders demanded by the lawsuit.
From the EEOC press release dated 30 March 2010, another lawsuit under Title VII of 1964 Civil Rights Act has been filed against Lowe's Company Inc. when it refused to accommodate an employee to one of its store because of strong religious belief. The employee passed two written requests not to be scheduled for work on Sunday which Lowe's has denied for the reason that it will be difficult for other employees who would like to have Sundays off. Eventually the employee has been reduced from full- time to part time and was denied to apply for full- time positions because of religious belief. After the trying voluntary settlement, the court was asked by the lawsuit to order Lowe's not to continue this kind of discrimination and to give employees reasonable consideration based on their sincere religious belief. Also the EEOC asked the court to order Lowe's to retain the employee to give back his full- time position with the requested accommodation plus back pay and compensation to emotional, psychological and punitive damages.
From the cases above, any employer who will be caught and proved discriminating individuals may be considered as breaking the law and will be charged and fined accordingly. It will always be best to be careful in designing job descriptions and specifications by ensuring that it will not lead to discrimination of applicants.
Sources: U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Website (www.eeoc.gov) accessed 21/10/10
(http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Employment/ResolvingWorkplaceDisputes/DiscriminationAtWork/DG_10026667) accessed 18/10/10
(http://ezinearticles.com/?Racial-Discrimination-at-the-Workplace&id=3782350) accessed 18/10/10
London Evening Standard 14 October 2010
Implement and evaluate the recruitment and selection process.
Devise and use appropriate documentation for selecting at least one member of staff.
Critically evaluate the recruitment and selection process in one organization, making improvement for recommendation.
Recruitment and Selection Process
The following discussion will be about the recruitment and selection process for a customer service representative in a travel agency.
Position: Travel Customer Service Representative
Posting date: 18 October 2010
Job Location: Central London
Salary: 16,000 GBP per annum
Job Type: Permanent
Duties and Responsibilities:
Successful applicants will be responsible for dealing with customers queries regarding their bookings and providing assistance to new customers in making their reservations by offering the most suitable option for them.
Up- selling company other company products
Ensuring that proper handling of customer assistance is provided including accuracy of information to be given.
Tracking of existing customers records for referencing.
Responsible for updating data and computer records at all times and preparation of daily reports to be given to the customer service manager.
Must be over 18 years of age
Must at least have NVQ Level 2 qualification.
Knowledge with CRS system such as Worldspan or Sabre is essential but not required as full training will be provided
Good communication skills (verbal and writing)
Has experience in any customer service jobs
Flexible with the working hours as shift patterns may change depending on the volume of calls.
Strong customer service orientation
Have the initiative to work with less supervision and the ability to work under pressure and have good time management skills
Able to work with a team
Willing to work on weekends and holidays
Shifts will be 5 days in a week where days off may not always be consecutive days. It is a 9 hour shift with 1 hour unpaid break. Possible of having 1 day off a week especially during busy season and could be taken a soon as it will not affect the daily operation during non- busy season.
28 days paid holiday
Company perks such as travel discounts
Closing Date: 12 December 2010
The job vacancy will be posted in newspapers and on company website to attract applicants in a wider range as well as company bulletins for internal hiring.
Once applications are received, it will be treated with utmost confidentiality.
An informal telephonic interview will be conducted by a personnel employee to initially evaluate the applicant's communication skills. Once the interviewer is satisfied with the applicant, personal interview will be conducted and a written notice will be given to the applicant either by post or email. The written notice will include the time and date of the interview and the contact details of the company.
During the personal interview, candidate will be asked situational questions related to the items on candidate profile form so that the interviewer would be able to evaluate the applicant. 1 being the lowest and 5 being the highest.
Position Applying for:
Key Knowledge and Technical Skills
Understands laws, policies and procedures
Knowledge of the operating system
Exhibit commitment to targeting sales
Demonstrates good marketing skills
Ability to cope with tight competition
Social, Communication and Collaborative Skills
Ability to work in a team with leadership skills
Displays desirable customer service characteristics such as empathy.
Shows willingness to go extra mile for the customers.
Exhibits strong communication skills that could be essential for training and coaching.
Shows flexibility when it comes to working with people with different cultural background, sex, race, etc.
Self- Awareness and Self- Management
Ability to work in own initiative with less supervision
Displays self- discipline
Ability to manage stress and to work in a busy environment.
Good problem- solving skills.
Demonstrates commitment to the job and to the company
Have a positive attitude and ability to contribute to building a positive culture.
Willingness to participate in training for necessary improvement.
Ability to motivate him/herself as well as the others toward achieving common goal. (Ability to influence others)
High emotional intelligence.
Interviewer's Name and Signature:
After the interview, important documents submitted by the applicant will be verified. Then the references will be checked to assure that the applicant is capable of carrying out the duties and responsibilities of the job.
Based on the candidate profile form, the candidate who will have the highest score will be sent a job offer. The job offer letter will include the orientation, company induction and the start date.
To avoid any legal problems, especially discrimination, all the documents needed to post a vacancy should be thoroughly checked and much better be checked by an employment solicitor.
During the recruitment and selection process, internal hiring is one of the best ways to recruit and select people because in that way, those who are willing to apply have got the knowledge about the company and may save expenses for advertising if qualified applicants will be hired internally. For external hiring, reference check must also be given high importance as this will give the personnel the idea of what to expect from people they would like to hire provided that the referees are eligible like previous employers, trainers or teachers.
Also, it is a must to regularly check the job description and specifications to make sure that it is up to date and still applicable for the job position to be posted. If there are changes in the current job duties and responsibilities, the job description should be updated so it will not be misleading in case the same position will be vacant and again to save the company for any legal problems that may arise due to improper documentations.
I can say that recruitment and selection is one of the essential factors that contribute in the success of an organization because this is the phase where the employees who will help the organization to achieve its goals will be chosen. It is very important that proper and fair recruitment and selections processes should be done in order to get the most qualified applicant who can be very useful to the organization and in return the organization should always give fair and equal treatment not only to its current employees but also to it prospective employees.