Identifying and Analysing Managements behaviour

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This article attempts to identify management behaviour and manager role in the organization and impact on employees and owner to achieve the different targets and next long term plans to complete the work.

1.0 Be able to analyses management behavior in term of structure and culture 

The plan of any business is to make best use of earnings and create high ratings. In order to do this there must be division and specialization of labor means that different people come together in order to create a product that has value to the customers. Hence, the behavior of different people concerned in a business must be corresponding with each other. It is usual to distinguish between three types of role within an organization, and hence authority.

(1) Line

This is based on the similarity with a group. Each manager has authority over his subordinates. He is the head of the department and he know how to manage the company and the management with proper way.

(2) Staff

This consist of a group of people who do not have authority to command the general staff, but have the right and duty to advise managers.

(3) Functional authority

These transpire when a manager or specialist is given authority to control the

activities of management staffs in more than one department. They do anything and take any decision for the best of business.

Companies have a choice between two types of organizational structure. (1) Line only, and (2) line and staff. The line and staff organization clearly take place when companies recognize the need for an optional remains. Evidently, since business is a dynamic process, there must be alteration and innovation. A company without staff is nothing. However, the understandable problem between line and staff formation is that there can be quarrel between line managers and staff advisors.

1.1 Analyses the relationship b/w management structure and culture and its effect on the business performance 

Relationship b/w management structure and culture is very deeply. Every organizational structure easily adopt by the employees. If any employee not accept as true the rules and regulation of organization its effect the business performance.

So it must be the relation between manager and the remaining employee is good because without the best management the company doesn't made progress.

1.2 Formulate the factors which influence individual performance in the workplace 1

1. Extra bonus and allowances

2. Decision making power

3. Effective and efficient

4. Right job for right person

5. Handsome salaries

6. Timing is fixed

7. Atmosphere

2.0 Be able to analyse the different approaches to management in the work place by evaluating theories 

Evaluating Performance through Motivation and Conflict Management

Organizations and management have a responsibility to the company and employees to obtain the right balance for the organization and performance. The right balance will consist of the appropriate motivational theories and the best conflict management approach. This piece will provide a brief overview of different motivation theories, how the theories can be applied as well as conflict management strategies and approaches.

Motivation Theories and Organizational Behavior

when looking into motivation from an organizational behavior viewpoint there are some key theories that can be estimated. The Goal Setting theory of Edwin Locke shows that a leader may set a goal and have an employee attempt to achieve it for a compensation. This concept is only workable if the individual believes that he or she is able to achieve that goal. Need theories, Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs focuses on what character actually requires. BF Skinner's theory of Reinforcement suggests that constant positive changes to the external environment of the company are more motivational than a specific reward. While the equity theory of J Stacey Adams offers the understanding of what one puts into a situation is what one should get out.

Different Motivation Theories Organizations Apply to Motivate Employees

"Motivation is the process that accounts for an individual's intensity, direction and persistence," as stated in Motivation Concepts (Robbins & Judge, 2009) and organizations have an obligation to motivate employees to keep productivity and creativity high and stress low. Organizations can achieve this in several ways.

There are need theories that focus on the needs of individual's person needs such as Physiological, Safety, Social, Esteem, Self-Actualization (Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs), Goal Setting theory, Self-Efficacy theory, Reinforcement theory, and Expectancy theory.

Maslow's Theory plays...

2.1 Evaluate one organisational theories and relate it to management in practice 

Abraham Maslow developed the Hierarchy of Needs model in 1940-50s USA, and the Hierarchy of Needs theory remains valid today for understanding human motivation, management training, and personal development. Indeed, Maslow's ideas surrounding the Hierarchy of Needs concerning the responsibility of employers to provide a workplace environment that encourages and enables employees to fulfil their own unique potential (self-actualization) are today more relevant than ever. Abraham Maslow's book Motivation and Personality, published in 1954 (second edition 1970) introduced the Hierarchy of Needs, and Maslow extended his ideas in other work, notably his later book Toward A Psychology Of Being, a significant and relevant commentary, which has been revised in recent times by Richard Lowry, who is in his own right a leading academic in the field of motivational psychology.

Abraham Maslow was born in New York in 1908 and died in 1970, although various publications appear in Maslow's name in later years. Maslow's PhD in psychology in 1934 at the University of Wisconsin formed the basis of his motivational research, initially studying rhesus monkeys. Maslow later moved to New York's Brooklyn College.

The Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs five-stage model below (structure and terminology - not the precise pyramid diagram itself) is clearly and directly attributable to Maslow; later versions of the theory with added motivational stages are not so clearly attributable to Maslow. These extended models have instead been inferred by others from Maslow's work. Specifically Maslow refers to the needs Cognitive, Aesthetic and Transcendence (subsequently shown as distinct needs levels in some interpretations of his theory) as additional aspects of motivation, but not as distinct levels in the Hierarchy of Needs.

Where Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is shown with more than five levels these models have been extended through interpretation of Maslow's work by other people. These augmented models and diagrams are shown as the adapted seven and eight-stage Hierarchy of Needs pyramid diagrams and models below.

There have been very many interpretations of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs in the form of pyramid diagrams. The diagrams on this page are my own interpretations and are not offered as Maslow's original work. Interestingly in Maslow's book Motivation and Personality, which first introduced the Hierarchy of Needs, there is not a pyramid to be seen.

Free Hierarchy of Needs diagrams in pdf and doc formats similar to the image below are available from this page.

2.2 compare and contrast two approaches to management by different organizations

Since the end of the 19th century, when factory manufacturing became widespread and the size of organisations increased, people have been looking for ways to motivate employees and improve productivity. A need for management ideas arise which lead to classical contributors such as Frederick Taylor and Henri Fayol generating management theories such as Taylor' Scientific Management and Fayol's Administrative Management. In the late 1920's and early 1930's the Hawthorne studies were conducted where Elton Mayo was the predominate figure and contributed to the Behavioural viewpoint. This brought about a Human Relations Movement which included Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y approach. Similarities and differences can be found between the theories due to the relevant time period they were implemented, the motives or goal of the theory and how they view organisations. However the use of contingency theory can help negate the dissimilarities which occur as it allows the relevant elements from

Frederick Taylor vs. Henri Fayol

Frederick Taylor and Henri Fayol are both considered classical contributors to management theory. Both were developing and expression their viewpoints at similar time period with the aim of "raising standard of management in industry" (Brodie,1967, p7) in a period were very few publications and theories on management. While both theories were developed with the same influencing factors such as war, social struggles and industrial revolution (Urwick. 1951, p7) each developed quite different management theories. Frederick Taylor is considered the Father of Scientific management and he developed scientific principles of management, focusing on the individual, rather than the team and aimed to improve efficiency through production-line time studies, breaking each job down into its components and designing the quickest and best methods of performing each component.

3.0Understand relationship b/w two motivational theories

Among various behavioral theories long generally believed and embraced by American business are those of Frederick Herzberg and Abraham Maslow. Herzberg, a psychologist, proposed a theory about job factors that motivate employees. Maslow, a behavioral scientist and contemporary of Herzberg's, developed a theory about the rank and satisfaction of various human needs and how people pursue these needs. These theories are widely cited in the business literature.

In the education profession, however, researchers in the '80s raised questions about the applicability of Maslow's and Herzberg's theories to elementary and secondary school teachers: Do educators, in fact, fit the profiles of the average business employee? That is, do teachers (1) respond to the same motivators that Herzberg associated with employees in profit-making businesses and (2) have the same needs patterns as those uncovered by Maslow in his studies of business employees?

This digest first provides brief outlines of the Herzberg and Maslow theories. It then summarizes a study by members of the Tennessee Career Ladder Program (TCLP). This study found evidence that the teachers in the program do not match the behavior of people employed in business. Specifically, the findings disagree with Herzberg in relation the importance of money as a motivator and, with Maslow in regard to the position of esteem in a person's hierarchy of needs.

Herzberg's theory of motivators and hygiene factors

Herzberg (1959) constructed a two-dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people's attitudes about work. He concluded that such factors as company policy, supervision, interpersonal relations, working conditions, and salary are hygiene factors rather than motivators. According to the theory, the absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction, but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction.

In contrast, he determined from the data that the motivators were elements that enriched a person's job; he found five factors in particular that were strong determiners of job satisfaction: achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, and advancement. These motivators (satisfiers) were associated with long-term positive effects in job performance while the hygiene factors (dissatisfiers) consistently produced only short-term changes in job attitudes and performance, which quickly fell back to its previous level.

In summary, satisfiers describe a person's relationship with what she or he does, many related to the tasks being performed. Dissatisfiers, on the other hand, have to do with a person's relationship to the context or environment in which she or he performs the job. The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation in which the person does what he or she does.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

In 1954, Maslow first published Motivation and Personality, which introduced his theory about how people satisfy various personal needs in the context of their work. He postulated, based on his observations as a humanistic psychologist, that there is a general pattern of needs recognition and satisfaction that people follow in generally the same sequence. He also theorized that a person could not recognize or pursue the next higher need in the hierarchy until her or his currently recognized need was substantially or completely satisfied, a concept called prepotency. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is shown in Table 1. It is often illustrated as a pyramid with the survival need at the broad-based bottom and the self-actualization need at the narrow top.

Table 1

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Level

Type of Need

Examples

1

Physiological

Thirst, sex, hunger

2

Safety

Security, stability, protection

3

Love and Belongingness

To escape loneliness, love and be loved, and gain a sense of belonging

4

Esteem

Self-respect, the respect others

5

Self-actualization

To fulfill one's potentialities

According to various literature on motivation, individuals often have problems consistently articulating what they want from a job. Therefore, employers have ignored what individuals say that they want, instead telling employees what they want, based on what managers believe most people want under the circumstances. Frequently, these decisions have been based on Maslow's needs hierarchy, including the factor of prepotency. As a person advances through an organization, his employer supplies or provides opportunities to satisfy needs higher on Maslow's pyramid.

TCLP study in relation to Herzberg's theory

According to Bellott and Tutor (1990), the problems with Herzberg's work are that it occurred in 1959--too long ago to be pertinent--and did not cover teachers. They cite earlier research by Tutor (1986) with Tennessee Career Ladder Program as a means of overcoming both those problems. TCLP has three levels, the largest and beginning one of which (Level I) has 30,000 members. Bellott and Tutor believe that the data from the study clearly indicate that the Level I participants were as influenced by motivation factors as by hygiene factors (Table 2), contrary to Herzberg's position that hygiene factors do not motivate.

Table 2

Distribution of motivation and hygiene tendencies 

among teachers at the various 

Career Ladder levels (from Bellott and Tutor)

Tendency

Level I

Level II

Level III

Total

Motivation

71

101

149

321

Hygiene

70

11

24

105

Total

141

112

173

426

The survey asked classroom teachers, "To what extent did salary influence your decision to participate in the (TCLP) program?" Teachers responded using a scale of from 1 (little influence on deciding to participate in the program) to 7 (large influence). The results for the four highest-average items, shown in Table 3, indicate that at all three levels teachers viewed salary as a strong motivating factor, easily the most important of 11 of Herzberg's hygiene factors on the survey.

Table 3

The importance of various of Herzberg's 

hygiene factors in teachers' decisions to participate 

in TCLP (from Bellott and Tutor)

Factor

Level I

Level II

Level III

Personal life

3.658

4.794

4.984

Possibility for growth

4.013

5.528

5.394

Salary

5.980

6.500

6.468

Status

2.960

4.373

4.261

Items ranked lower than those shown were Interpersonal relations with peers, with students, and with superiors; job security; school policy and administration; supervisor; and working conditions.

On Herzberg's five motivation factors, achievement ranked as the most important one. However, the overall conclusion drawn from the research is that salary was the single most important influence on the teachers' decisions to participate in TCLP, regardless of level in the organization. Further, actual salary increases ranged from $1000 to 7000 per year. The teachers perceived the amount of salary increase to be tied to achievement and the other motivation factors.

The study and Maslow's theory

According to data from the TCLP survey, the teachers at all three experience levels are less satisfied with their personal achievement of esteem (a middle level need according to Maslow) than with their achievement of self-actualization. These results are summarized in Table 4. Therefore, it can be concluded that self-actualization is a prepotent need for esteem. Two reasons seem to account for this. First, self-actualization provides the basis for self-esteem. Second, this self-actualized performance is also the basis for reputation, the esteem of others.

Table 4

Arithmetic means of perceived need 

deficiency areas by Career Ladder levels 

(from Bellott and Tutor)

Teacher Level in TCLP

Need Deficiency

I

II

III

Security

1.4266

1.0563

0.7906

Social

1.0312

1.1537

0.8747

Esteem

2.1173

2.3278

1.9016

Autonomy

1.8640

2.1188

1.5052

Self-actualization

1.8265

2.2883

1.3792

Conclusion

Although Herzberg's paradigm of hygiene and motivating factors and Maslow's hierarchy of needs may still have broad applicability in the business world, at least one aspect of each, salary as a hygiene factor (Herzberg) and esteem as a lower order need than self-actualization (Maslow), does not seem to hold in the case of elementary and secondary school teachers. These findings may begin to explain why good teachers are being lost to other, higher paying positions and to help administrators focus more closely on the esteem needs of teachers, individually and collectively.

Descriptors: Career Ladders; Elementary Secondary Education; Industrial Psychology; *Job Satisfaction; *Motivation; *Needs; *State Programs; *Teachers

3.1 Write about different motivational theories and their application and performance within the workplace 

Using Relevant Theories And Examples, Explain How Motivation Can Affect Employees' Commitment And Performance At Work.

The aim of this essay is to give an in depth explanation on the effect that motivation can have on an employees' commitment and performance at work. It will examine several different motivational theories and their criticisms. It will also look at how differing attitudes of an employee affect motivation. Finally it will examine how motivation is linked to commitment and performance at work.

What is Motivation? Motivation can be described as a driving force within us. It makes people try and achieve certain targets in order to satisfy a particular need or expectation. It makes an individual behave in a certain way and makes them make decisions to act in a certain way and to continue with these actions until they satisfy their needs and expectations.

According to Mitchell there are four particular characteristics that support the definition of motivation. First of all motivation is described as an individual phenomenon. This implies that every person has different characteristics and is unlike any other. This allows them to demonstrate their "uniqueness". Mitchell also suggests that motivation is intentional and is therefore under the control of an individual. From this statement we can conclude that actions that are influenced by motivation are in fact a choice of action. Mitchell also identified that motivation can be used to predict behaviour but it is not actually behaviour itself. Finally Mitchell described motivation as being multifaceted. He argued that the two most important factors of motivation are arousal and direction of choice or behaviour. In summary Mitchell defined motivation as "the degree to which an individual wants and chooses to engage in certain specified behaviours".

Maslow (1943) believed that it is inbuilt in human nature to always want. What we want also depends on what we already have. Marlow suggested that human needs have a hierarchy. His hierarchy of needs is shown as a series of steps in the form of a pyramid.

Of the many different types of motivation theories, I would like to highlight three that are of particular use:

David Merrill and Roger Reid's work on the four personal styles

David McClelland's theory of motivation involving three basic needs: achievement, power, and affiliation

Fredrick Herzberg's work on money as a demotivator at work

There are many more good motivation theories - Maslow, Myers-Briggs, etc. - but I've found these three to be most useful in managing groups.

The Power of Intrinsic Motivation

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The starting point for all three different types of motivation theories is that they are built on the concept that intrinsic motivation is much stronger than extrinsic. This bedrock fundamental is perhaps the most powerful concept to apply in your work; see my post on top employee motivators for a more thorough review of incentive plans.

Briefly, it means that to get great results, you need people to be intrinsically interested in their work. Your efforts to control, set expectations, and reward people are all methods of extrinsic motivation, which helps explain why managers are often disappointed with employee results when relying on those motivation tools.

So, to help you get better results, here are three methods of intrinsic motivation that all build on that intrinsic bedrock.

Employee Motivation Theory 1: Personal Styles

In their theory on motivating different types of people, Merrill and Reid identify four personal styles:

Style

Major Drivers

Prefers to

Driver

Action Oriented: Focus is on present time frame, direct action. Minimum concern for caution in relationships. Tends to reject inaction.

Control, Tell

Expressive

Intuition Oriented: Focus is on involving others, future time frame. Minimum concern for routine. Tends to reject isolation.

Emote, Tell

Amiable

Relationship Oriented: Focus is on relating, supporting; present time frame. Minimum concern for affecting change. Tends to reject conflict.

Emote, Ask

Analytical

Thinking Oriented: Focus is on cautious action, "getting it right", historical time frame, cautious action. Minimum concern for relationships. Tends to reject being wrong.

Control, Ask

* Information adapted from their book, Personal Styles & Effective Performance.

Application: To help people feel connected intrinsically with their work, structure their work so these personal style needs are met.

Examples:

Style

More Effective

Less Effective

Driver

• When you want to make a point, ask, as in, "What do you think of this idea?"

• Get things done quickly that are going to be effective, even if they aren't perfected.

• When you want to make a point, lecturing them, as in, "Here's how it is."

• Spending time in reflection and consideration, in an attempt to perfect.

Expressive

• Make work a party while you're getting stuff done; breathe life into work.

• Make use of their good gut instincts.

• Spend 3 hours in a room sequentially creating a step-by-step checklist.

• Don't trust them until they can "prove it."

Amiable

• Include effectively when a group tackles a project, and not just the "amiable" coworker; they'll feels others' "pain" if their input is excluded.

• Act trustworthy, and trust them.

• Try to get results through intimidation and application of stress.

• Divide and conquer; use conflict - of ideas, of emotions - to try to get best results

Analytical

• Give them space to get grounded - to get it "right" - before they proceed to action.

• Assign complex problems where you need absolute confidence in the details.

• Use conflict to try to get best results.

• Push, push, push, especially if towards an outcome that favors your self-interest.

• Ask them to "wing it", to bet the company on their "hunch."

Employee Motivation Theory 2: McClelland's Theory of Motivation

Style

More Effective

Less Effective

Achievement

nAch

Seek: To excel; may avoid both low- and high-risks as a result, in order to pursue meaningful success.

Work alone or with other high achievers

Power

nPow

Seek: Either personal or institutional power. Either way they want to direct others, but the institutional power is in service to the institution's success, so those with that focus tend to make better managers.

Direct others

Affiliation

nAff

Seek: Harmonious work relationships, to accept, to be accepted, and to include others. They can be more comfortable conforming to group norms.

Work in settings with significant personal interaction

 

Application: To help people connect intrinsically with their work, structure their work so their major need is met. The "Power" need correlates to the "Driver" above; "Affiliation" to the "Amiable" above.

What's new here is the "Achievement" need. It can cut across all the Merrill and Reid personal motivation styles. The key here is to surround high achievers with other high achievers. To be their best, they need to know they're on a team capable of pulling off a worthwhile, attainable mission.

Employee Motivation Theory 3: Money as a De-Motivator

Frederick Herzberg was a clinical psychologist and pioneer of "job enrichment." He proposed the Motivation-Hygiene Theory, also known as the two factor theory of job satisfaction. According to his theory, people are influenced by two sets of factors:

Motivator Factors

Hygiene Factors

• Work itself

• Responsibility

• Promotion

• Growth

• Achievement

• Recognition

• Pay and benefits

• Company policy and administration

• Relationships with co-workers

• Physical environment

• Supervision

• Status

• Job security

• Salary

Application: To create an environment where people motivate themselves, you must adequately take care of the hygiene factors. If you don't, demotivated employees will likely result. The key here is that "adequate" is enough; you don't need an outstanding physical environment because it won't increase employee motivation noticeably. In sum, the "hygiene factors" have a downside if not done well, but not much of an upside potential impact on employees, even if they're done very well.

Then, allow the "motivator factors" to work for you - these are the factors that have the real upside and can make a strong contribution to your results. And note, they are almost all methods of intrinsic motivation.

The one "extrinsic" item on the list, recognition, can be made intrinsic if it's in the form of encouragement, rather than as a reward. For example, in Soul of a New Machine, Tracey Kidder writes that the "reward" for successful hi tech engineers is…the chance to tackle the next cool project! "Congratulations on the great results. I'm not at all surprised. Now let's figure out how you can make that kind of an impact again," is more powerful than "Atta boy/girl" in whatever form, whether bonus, plaque, employee of the month award, etc.

A Summary of Employee Motivation Theories

Employee motivation is simple.

You can't motivate people.

You can provide an environment where people motivate themselves.

Apply what you know about people's styles to strengthen their individual work "environment."

And along the way, focus, focus, focus on intrinsic motivation factors.

Which means: Build strong work relationships and expand those relationships so that more is possible.

These different types of motivation theories are simple in concept. What makes it hard is that all of the above mean building a healthy, vibrant work environment, and that work is as vulnerable as building any other effective relationship in your life.

Hopefully, in these posts on employee motivation, we've given you some signposts to help guide the way.

As always, we're curious about your thoughts!

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Read more about employee motivation and retention in this blog post on Employee Retention Tips for Managers.

REFERNCES

http://en.allexperts.com/q/Careers-Business-1481/2008/4/Management-Functions-Behaviour-1.htm

http://www.oppapers.com/essays/Evaluating-Performance-Through-Motivation-And-Conflict/339159

http://www.businessballs.com/maslow.htm

http://pareonline.net/getvn.asp?v=5&n=11

http://blogs.payscale.com/compensation/2009/07/different-types-of-motivation-theories.html

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