An Introduction To The Concepts of Leadership

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Leadership is the ability to guide followers. It is a huge responsibility since people depend on you. To be a good leader you should be able to carry out the four roles of management:- Planning, Organising, Leading and controlling. Which also means you should be educated and smart to do so. Still apart from all these requirements to be a good leader, the main priority is the followers. No matter how intelligent or rich you are you still cannot be a leader if you don t have any followers. Hence leadership is classified into two, Charismatic & Transformational accordingly

I. a Charisma .

Charisma is the ability to inspire enthusiasm, interest, or affection in others by means of personal charm or influence. It s the power of controlling people without them knowing it. It s a divine gift that people can posses.

It can originate in the individual, in the follower or in the situation. Charisma is not always positive, it can also be negative if the person does not make use of it properly.

Charisma is something like beauty, you know he is good looking and you like him, hence you tend to listen and follow him even though he does bad things. But if his notoriousness is greater or more dominant than his charisma then it can lead to a negative feedback.

The president of United States of America, Barack Obama is a perfect example of charisma. His speeches, body language, gestures, and charm had a great deal of effect in influencing the people. As mentioned in the article Nye, Joseph S. Jr. "The Mystery of Political Charisma." Wall Street Journal, May 6, 2008. In the end, Barack Obama's charisma is in the eyes of his followers.

I.a.i - Is it an Inherent trait or can it be acquired?

In practice, the word charisma is a vague synonym for "personal magnetism." People vary in their ability to attract others, and their attraction depends in part on inherent traits, in part on learned skills, and in part on social context.

Yes Charisma can be acquired but is often considered to be a trait. Trait like knowledge is not inborn it has to be acquired but charisma is an exceptional. Everyone is born with charisma but in different quantities. Hence charisma is an inherent trait. It also depends on the people for a person to be charismatic. If a person is considered to be charismatic and if the people don t see his charisma then you re not charismatic. But you can emerge as a charismatic leaders after great speeches like 'I have a dream...' by Martin Lutur King. So charisma can be acquired by an individual.

I.a.ii - Can non Charismatic individuals be an effective leader?

Yes, but with limitations. He has to put great deal of energy and commitment to get follows. He has to work hard and has to regularly keep on building enthusiasm in the followers to be a affective leader. Unlike charismatic leaders a non charismatic leader needs great effort to be an effective leader. Therefore it s rare to find non charismatic individuals who is an effective leader. But as mentioned above everyone is born with charisma in different quantities.

Larry page and Sergey Brin, out from Stanford University they had significantly low charisma but they lead hundreds of employees efficiently and made Google a multibillion dollar business. This example justifies that charisma is not obligatory to be effective leader. Charisma is just an additional boost up for a normal leader to become extra ordinary. Even without charisma a leader can build him into an effective leader by having other leadership qualities at an extraordinary level as do in the case of Jerry, former CEO of Yahoo. Mr. Yang Jerry has great vision but no charisma still he made his way to success. Article:-

I. b - Charismatic & Transformational Leadership

There are two types of :-

1. Charismatic leadership

A charismatic leader gathers followers through dint of charm and personality, rather than any form of external power or authority, it is interesting to watch a charismatic leader work with people, they are, for that time, the most important person in the world, the charismatic leaders pay a great deal of attention in reading and scanning their environment, they are good at picking up the moods and concern of both individuals and a large number of audience, they will use their actions and words to suit the situation they will be in, the charismatic leaders will show great confidence in their followers, they are very persuasive and they make very effective use of their body language and their verbal language, many politicians as well as the religious leaders use their charismatic style, so they can gather a large number of followers.

2. Transformational leadership

A transformational leadership starts with the development of a vision or a view of the future for the company or a business set up that will excite and convert the potential followers, the vision in fact never stops, it takes energy and commitment, in order to create followers, the transformational leader has to be very careful in creating the trust, and their personal integrity is a critical part the vision they will be selling, the passion and the confidence of a transformational leader can easily be mistaken for reality and truth, transformational leaders tend to see the big picture of the situation but not the details of the situation.

I.b.i Are both leadership concepts similar or different from each other?

They are significantly different.

Transformational Leadership Charismatic Leadership

? More towards the followers view ? For himself

? Gather by developing view of the future. ? Through dint of charm and personality

? Takes energy and commitment ? Body language and their verbal language.

I.b.ii Transformational &Transactional Leadership

As a starting point, let us review our everyday life. In general, a relationship between two people is based on the level of exchange they have. Exchange need not be money or material; it can be anything. The more exchange they have the more stronger the relation. Your manager expects more productivity from you in order to give good rewards. In this way, if something is done to anyone based on the return then that relation is called as Transactional

I.c - Strong Culture & its relations to business performance

According to the journal of Culture Traits, Strength, and Organizational Performance :Moving Beyond strong Culture by Guy S. Saffold ,III, Trinity Western University, strong culture means homogeneity and stability of group membership , and the length and intensity of the group s shared experiences.

In a strong culture, great emphasis is placed on values. Values determine how you are going to conduct your business and what you stand for. These values are shared with all employees and are woven into the fabric of your company. In a strong and cohesive culture, every employee knows the values your company extols. They share in those values and believe in them. So, people within the organization tend to have similar beliefs and behaviour patterns.

According to my research, I found out that strong culture leads to higher level of business performance. Firstly, good leaders and good followers are necessary for developing an organization with a strong culture. Companies with strong cultures tend to enjoy better returns on investment, higher net income growth, and bigger increases in share price than firms with weaker cultures.

Having such performance is important for several reasons such as helping planning and decision-making. Besides that , companies with strong culture could reach higher business performance by setting their mission which defines the long-term direction and purpose of the organization, involvement which measures the company's ability to drive commitment and to develop ownership with employees, consistency which defines the values, agreement and coordination that hold the company together and adaptability which measures the company's ability to read and scan the business environment and to respond to change. Companies that are strong in adaptability and involvement have an edge in innovation and creativity, while companies excelling in mission and consistency have a high measure of stability, return on investment and return on sales.

I.c.i - Types of Organisational Cultures

Types of organizational culture identified by academic authors are considered to impede business progress :

? Pragmatic Culture

In contrast to normative cultures, stress is laid on satisfying the wish of their clients. In this type of organizational structure, no norms are set by the company, and utmost importance is given to the needs of the client.

? Baseball Team Culture

In this kind of culture, the employees are "free agents" and are highly prized. These employees find employment easily in any organization and are very much in demand. There is, however, a considerable amount of risk that is attached to this culture, as it is also fast paced. Examples of this kind of culture are advertising, investment banking, etc.

? Fortress Culture

Employees are not sure if the will be laid off or not by the organization. Very often, this organization undergoes massive changes. Few examples of this type of culture are loans and savings, large car companies, etc.

? Process Culture

This type of culture does not include the process of feedback. In this kind of culture, the organization is extremely cautious about the adherence to laws and prefer to abide by them. This culture provides consistency to the organization and is good for public services.