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Motivation is a drive which leads people towards achieving their goals. It's an enthusiasm and determination with a kind of excitement that directs one to continue to achieve greater heights, whether it is personal or professional. Motivating oneself is a continuous requirement for constant growth. Kanfer (1990) asserted that it is an imaginary construct that cannot be seen or cannot be felt. People can observe the impacts that are indicative of various motivation levels.
Another author Pinder (1998) resolves the direction, form, strength, and duration of work-related behavior. He argues that by observing these dimensions of behavior, one can make conclusions about the effects of motivation on employee's behavior (Steve M. Jex, 2002).
This is a crucial factor because in economic instability of the present market conditions it's very important to have a workforce with high spirits of motivation. This is a factor which normally produces results that are incompatible to study the employee behavior. It can also be defines as the quality of actions, initiation, persistence and it can be categorized with their comparative constructs, goals and strategies.
Strategies are the techniques used to get the goals and therefore to assure the goals and motives are the direct objectives of specific sequences of employee behavior. It is all about an individual moving towards the goal to understand the thing that sends them into deed. Intrinsic and extracts are the two types of motivation. These two types help to achieve and develop skills of a particular species.
Jere E. Brophy (2004) says that motivation is differed from its related parts called goals, approaches which are used to achieve aimed goals and objectives. It is used to boost people to initiate useful activity sequences. Motivation is considered as an important factor in making employees upbeat and down to business which results in increasing organizations output.
Durbin AJ (2008), argues that economic rewards are not that much important as leadership practices in employee efficiency. He says that understanding the social environment is crucial in changing employee behavior. To some point I agree with Durbin opinion because even if economic situations are not stable if management has the ability to motivate their employees than no issue will be generated with employee's sustainability.
Motivation is all about growing ones human capital. The test reclines not in just working but in management too who makes and manages the environment of work. Anne Bruce (2002) feels that motivation is fundamental and essential. He also states that recognizing that real motivation is not outside but inside the job.
In the article "Motivating your sales force in a tough economy" author Barnett Helzberg. Jr (2003) says that attitude down on company's work force in hard economic situations. Hard times are the examples when supervisors need to struggle to trust their sub-ordinate employees. Author proves that implementing too many rules will make employee uncomfortable and will allow raising more mistakes. Helzberg also experienced that macro managing is better than micro-managing is useful for the company's development even if the economy is unstable.
Bacilek (2009) suggests maximizing the resources and supporting development of employees with company's objectives and involves the energies of the workforce in the accomplishment of the assigned business objectives. Clear idea and concentration on executing human resources like providing assistance and guidance would help Sumudra Technologies to motivate employees of their organization. Training employees allows the trainee to mentor leadership growth and motivation across the company, and the methodology happens to be a long-term investment for the company like Sumudra.
From the above discussion it is clear that this needs more research which will be carried in the present dissertation to find solution for the Sumudra Technologies. The solution is motivating employees in proper direction and resolving the economic situations of the company will help to get out of the problem for the Sumudra Technologies. The following are some elements of motivation which would help me to discover the facts and it is useful for me to find exact solutions to prepare for my dissertation.
Theories of motivation:
Motivation of human beings is a study which has been carried from past many years. But none of them were not developed to explain employee behavior at workplace or were they practical enough to apply in the working environment. The following are some of the theories which specially explain motivation for employees. Theories of motivation are categorized into four (Steve M. Jex, 2002):
Require based theories: It explains work motivation in terms of the level to which employees satisfy their necessary needs at the place of work. Requirement specifies some kind of deficient condition in an individual. Psychological needs drive employee to serve more of human behavior. Maslow's hierarchy needs is a universal theory which explains about the psychological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization needs of an individual.
Job based theories: Herzberg emphasized the importance of job comfortableness in motivating employees along with some crucial limitations. This theory will include the various dimensions like task identity and significance, expertise diversity, sovereignty and feedback. These dimensions represent the various elements of an employee's job in order to satisfy work related needs (Steve M. Jex, 2002).
Cognitive procedure theories: This theory highlights the decisions and choices that employees make when they distribute their attempts. Cognition theories are being concentrated by psychologists from 1970s and have started focusing on the thought processes underlying phenomena like issue solving, choice and psychopathology etc. Even computer use has facilitated the growth of cognitive process theories.
Behavioral approach: It highlights the principles of learning. These theories will help companies to retain their employee but they need to recognize which theory will suit best for their organization (Steve M. Jex, 2002).
Maslow's hierarchy needs:
In the year 1943, Psychologist Abraham Maslow first initiated the concept of a hierarchy of needs theory with name "A Theory of Human Motivation". This theory suggests that, people will be motivated if they can fulfill their basic needs before moving to the other needs.
This theory always depicted as a pyramid with 5 levels. The lower four layers from psychological to esteem of the pyramid are known as Maslow's 'D-needs' or 'deficiency needs'. It includes Physiological, Love & Belonging, Safety & Security and Esteem.
D-needs arise due to deprivation. Satisfying these lower-level or D-level needs is very important to avoid consequences or unpleasant feelings. Once these are met then it continues to satisfy the other needs like self actualization. Maslow termed the peak level of the pyramid as B-need or being need or growth needs. This need will not stop from lack of something but it is desirable for growth.
Lower level of the pyramid is filled with the basic needs while complex needs are located at the peak level or at the top of the pyramid.
Fig: (Maslow, A. H. (1943))
Basic level (psychological) includes sleep, food, water and warmth. Except sex the other functions should be met because human body cannot exist without these basic needs. Once it is met then he can move to the other level named safety needs. If their basic needs are satisfied then he can look for individual safety like insurance policies, savings accounts, protecting the individual from unilateral authority etc (Models Menu, 1997).
This safety and security needs includes finance security, health and well being, safety net against illness and accidents and also from the adverse effects, personal security from crime etc will fall in this category.
Love/belonging is termed as social needs. This level could be attained if psychological and safety needs are met or fulfilled. It includes communicative family, friendship, intimacy and relationships etc to avoid loneliness.
Esteem needs involves self respect, self esteem and also to respect other people. Humans have a need to be recognized, respected and to be self valued. This need has become increasingly important after the three basic levels.
Self-actualizing Needs is the highest level of this theory. In this region people are anxious about their personal development and they are mostly self aware of. But they are less aware of other people interests or their opinions to accomplish their potential.
Â Applying Maslow's theory to Business Management implications:
education, religion, hobbies, personal growth
training, advancement, growth, creativity
approval of family, friends, community
recognition, high status, responsibilities
family, friends, clubs
teams, depts., coworkers, clients, supervisors, subordinates
freedom from war, poison, violence
work safety, job security, health insurance
food and water
Heat, air, base salary
Fig: (Theories of motivation, 2010, p.1)
Similarly Maslow's theory could be applied to the business management to motivate the employees in an organization
Physiological Motivation: This needs include, providing sufficient lunch breaks, paying salaries which permit employees to buy his life essentials (Theories of motivation, 2010).
Safety Needs: Safe work environment, free from threats and job security.
Social Needs:Â creating a feeling of belonging, acceptance and community by supporting their group or team dynamics.
Esteem Motivators: recognizing their strengths, appreciation, achievements, assigning most important projects and giving values to them will include in this esteem motivation.
Self-Actualization:Â assigning meaningful and challenging projects or assignments enabling progress, innovation and creativity to achieve its long term goals will come under this category (Theories of motivation, 2010).
Critics and limitations of Maslow's theory:
According to (Hofstede, 1984) this theory may not be useful to the different people with different culture backgrounds and some other people are much less structure about their way to satisfy the needs. Wahba, A and Bridgewell, L. (1976), Other philosopher and Chilean economist Manfred Max-Neef has also argued that the fundamental human needs which are specified by the Maslow's theory are "non-hierarchical, and are ontologically universal and invariant in nature-part of the condition of being human"(Reference, 2010, p.3).
But the main limitation in this theory is different people will have different relationship between their motivating factors and needs. Like some people earn money to fulfill their security needs and they would be happy to work for certain level but some other people may look to satisfy their self esteem needs, for that they work harder and harder to increase their financial rewards. So these factors are always effected by their external factors such as social life, family life etc. in addition to this there is no evidence to support this (Maslow's) hierarchy applying to all people and also no evidence to sustain different needs in different situations.
Hertzberg theory of motivation
Frederick Herzberg another psychologist defined two factors by analyzing, surveying the employees. Finally he concluded that in order to understand the employee satisfaction or dissatisfaction (about their feelings on job, whether it is good or bad) can be determined by two factors namely hygiene and motive factors. And hence this theory is also known as two factor theory.
Motivation factors are the factors which are strong contributors to the job satisfaction. Ex: promotion opportunities.
Hygiene factors are the factors which are not strong contributors to job satisfaction which must be there to meet a worker's or employee's expectations and prevent job dissatisfaction
Ex: physical working conditions.
Fig: motivation-hygiene factors (Frederick Herzberg et al., (1959))
According to Herzberg, managers should use these two factors to motivate the employees. Motivation factors include growth opportunities, achieving success, career developments and recognition. Whereas maintenance or hygiene factors include relationship with his manager or with his superiors, status or value of the person in an organization, relationship with his colleagues or with team leaders and administrative systems etc will fall in this category (Hertzberg, 1957).
From this theory it is clear that the employees who maintain good relationship with their peers will definitely perform better than those who do not maintain the relationship. Moreover someone who has some small amount of responsibility will perform better than those who don't have. He also described motivators as satisfiers and hygiene factors as dissatisfies. Here the term hygiene is concerned to the maintenance factor which is necessary to avoid dissatisfaction but not for the satisfaction.
Implications for business:
This motivation-hygiene theory not only provides hygiene factors to avoid workers or employees dissatisfaction, but it should also provide intrinsic factors to the work environment for the workers to be satisfied in their jobs. Herzberg argued by saying that job enrichment is vital for the employee intrinsic motivation. Some of his implications include:
The manager should focus on two factors because hygiene factors are enough to avoid employee dissatisfaction at the same time to ensure challenges and rewards will motivate or encourages the employee to work harder. Herzberg also added that the job should be interesting and challenging enough to make use of employee abilities. Hence this theory is the result of natural response and to ask employees about their sources ofÂ dissatisfaction and satisfaction in their work environment. This theory has little evidence on supporting "employee motivation can be increased with the job satisfaction" (Essays,2003).
This theory could explain about the professionals but it does not explain about blue collar workers. Later researches suggested that the independent factors of the hygiene and motivators is flawed and of the study confirmed that both are related to job dissatisfaction or job satisfaction.
The first cognitive approach was taken from attribution theory, Heider, (1958) and Weiner, (1974) explains that every individual defines failure or success of self and others by providing some attributions which are either external or internal and are either can be controlled or under control.
This theory of motivation gives details on why people choose jobs though they are paid very less. It is an intrinsic motivation factor which is an energizing and visualizing force to make people act and particularly it is "the individual internal process that energizes directs and sustains behavior; the personal force that causes one to behave in a particular way" (Olsen, 1996, p.1).
Actually it suggests two motivation systems. They are intrinsic and extrinsic for the two kinds of motivators. This cognition process evaluates benefits and costs of any task or job whether it is taken as internal or external or both.
Intrinsic motivators:Â it includes essential or intrinsic attention of the work and the internal factors like responsibility, achievements and competence will come under this. These are the motivators which come from their actual performance of the job or task (Theories of motivation, 2010).
Extrinsic motivators:Â it includes the external factors which are controlled by others. Working conditions, promotion, pay, and feedback will come under this category. These are the motivators which come from person's environment (Theories of motivation, 2010).
Here the intrinsic motivators will carry out their own achievements and objectives without any extrinsic factors. But once if they feel that they are doing their job for the pay or for the other external conditions then they are in a way to lose motivation. So it is clear that the powerful extrinsic motivators will reduce the employee intrinsic motivation.
This theory prioritized the intrinsic motivators than the extrinsic motivators and it tends to be higher on the Maslow's hierarchy needs theory (Theories of motivation, 2010).
Process theories give details on how employees select their behavioral actions to meet their requirements. Some behavioral modifications are familiar in behavior theory which can be discussed below (Isaac Ferguson, 2000).
These modifications are taken from reinforcement theory and from operant conditioning theories. It moulds the employees into productive patterns and also makes them to work on time for the positive reinforcement (Isaac Ferguson, 2000).
So these motivation theories will guide the manager about how to motivate the employees in an organization and it shows the direction towards the success for the employees. It results high productivity or output and it is also clear that highly motivated employees will perform more than de-motivated workforce. Motivated staff will give their best performance to company by helping the management and by making things faster in order to achieve its objectives, targets and profits.
Levels of motivation
Motivating employees would be a challenging task for management. The decision on how dedicated and committed will be an employee towards the company will totally depend on the individual employee. Here management of Sumudra technologies need to understand that applying one strategy to all employees cannot help to motivate everyone in the organization. While looking at the levels of motivation Maslow's hierarchy theory of needs has helped us to guide to recognize what to look for management with their employees.
Level 1: Security and safety
Employees need to be assured about their safety and security at the work place; management must provide security services and create a fear free environment (Derik Mocke, 2010).
Level 2: Incentives
This is a level which is known by every individual. Most of the people don't work after winning a huge amount of reward. With this perception companies try to satisfy the compensation and benefits requirements of employee's.
Level 3: Affiliation
This level discusses about the sense of belongingness. It contains being in the know and being part of the team. This is too a variance in professional and personal values can have a great affect on the motivation of employees (Derik Mocke, 2010).
Level 4: Development
Employees wish to have the faith that success is taking place. They feel secure, obtain all the money they want to earn and feel part of the group. But if there are no development opportunities employees think about absconding from the organization (Derik Mocke, 2010).
Level 5: Life or Work Harmony
Employees may have all types of rewards which are desired by them, but they will burn out closer or later if employees don't have the sufficient time to spend it on the other things they desire for (Derik Mocke, 2010). Therefore it is advisable to be aware of these five levels of motivation of employees when management employ with their employees. Company should assess what are the needs and desires of every individual employee before applying these levels in their organization. Employ with every individual and explain them about the various levels and inquire them where employees find themselves suitable on the pyramid. Engaging with greater teams and eventually with the entire company about the levels of motivation of employee etc is some points which should be remembered when management engages these five levels with their employees.
Whenever manager engages with employee then he should aware of five levels of employee motivation which are discussed above. The management or authority of an organization should evaluate the needs of each individual and they have to maintain good communication between employees and management to explain them various levels in the motivation process. Regularly taking feedbacks and asking them where employees find themselves on the Maslow's pyramid, engaging with whole organization and even making bigger teams for the motivation levels will help them to motive their employees in the company (Derik Mocke, 2010).
As there are six more steps to high levels of motivation. This needs to be discussed in detail in order to understand the intensity of motivation factor when applied on employees. If Sumudra Technologies improves or applies these levels of motivation it can get some fruitful results in order to sustain and motivate its employees.
There are four more levels of motivation which are explained by Danny Cox and John Hoover (2002),
Level 1 Compliance: This is important to perform something according to the instructions given by management. Fulfillment doesn't involve any type of personal wish in it.
Level 2 Goal Recognition: recognition of goal gives employee a feeling of asset in the goal and makes raised aspiration and motivation in the employee.
Level 3 Commitment: This is the highest and best level of motivation employees. There won't be anything else then creating a feeling in employee that goal is really his own. Here management is just need to bring individual employees to level of commitment (Danny Cox and John Hoover, 2002).
Level 4: Self motivation: And the last level of motivation is the self motivation. Name itself indicates the motivation which is self initiative and is bound to his/her personal knowledge, talents, skills and experiences.
In order to reach level one, the management has to simply order the person and inculcate him to have the special quality or the ability to avoid being fired. To reach second level, clear and better communications will be benefited in achieving their goal and also including the job necessities will assist the employees to reach their second level of motivation. To reach third level of motivation, the employee has to understand why they are uniquely suited to the particular task or the work, and by amplifying their strengths, and by explaining those about importance of job to be a part of their aims etc will help them (Danny Cox and John Hoover, 2002).
Hence the above levels and steps would be helpful to improve the employers and managers qualities, skills and abilities to achieve their objectives in an organization and these motivational levels will also helpful to me in order to analyze the employee motivation levels position in the Sumudra technologies private limited .
Process of motivating employees:
drive towards the goal
attainment of the goal
Motivation has come from the Latin word movere which is "to move". The manager should motivate the employees to work towards the shared organization goals.
Fig: Basic Motivation process Marjaana Gunkel 2006, pp. 21
Fig: Motivation Process David Hoyle 2000, pp. 146.
Some standards are required to motivate the employees to achieve the objectives (quality) and to continue improvements and growth of the organization. Achievements of an organization completely depend upon the workforce and its activities so the organization will recruit the staffs who are motivated to attain the organization goals. Motivation is a key to the performance where it depends upon the environment, motivation and ability to perform the task. Motivation can be simply defined as it is an inner mental state to prompt intensity, directions and persistence (Marjaana Gunkel, 2006).
From the diagram motivation occurs if the employees satisfies their personal requirements and also work expectation from the company. Usually any employee can be motivated if an organization recognizes his efforts and appreciation and hence they can feel like, they are the main part of an organization or team.
Motivation process includes following steps:
Ideal self (desired), Actual self (perceived), Needs (deficiency between actual self and ideal self), Goals (it comes when an employee satisfies his needs), Expectations (this is the effect of behavior to achieve their goals), motive and drives (motivation acts as energizers to achieve goals), Behavior Self monitoring and Monitoring outcomes.
This process also explains about the barriers which affect the motivation process like job related, goal related, fear of failures, suspect of management, not a challenging environment, little respect, no rewards, no responsibilities. So the manager has to motivate the employees by removing these barriers to achieve the organization goals. Employees can be motivated if proper training and counseling sessions should be conducted to improve the process under the controlled conditions (David Hoyle, 2000).
From the above I can say that this process could be beneficial to the managers to motivate their employees in step by step manner and to analyze their employee status like where they are and what steps should be followed to improve employee performance and how they can be improved etc problems could be solved.
Motivation and Communication:
Motivation is depended on having clear goals and objectives. As motivation is personal, goal is align staff's individual constrains with the companies uses in common and units in specific. Motivation can be done through communication organizational goals correctly to the employees (John Kotter, 1995). Author says to analyze how much communication of the vision is required, and then multiply that attempt with ten. He mentions that management should not limit to the meeting rooms. Actions adjoined with words are powerful communicators of the fresh ways. Here one needs to understand that transformation effort will fail if most of the employees doesn't understand, realize, commit and try to make the effort occur. The principle behind this is utilized every possible communication channel and opportunity to motivate in order to achieve the organizational goals.
Teach fresh behaviors by showing the example of the guiding coalition team to the company's employees (John Kotter, 1995). Communication at the workplace can acquire numerous forms and has a lasting cause on motivation of employee. If employees feel that communication from organization is valuable it can show the way to feelings of employee work satisfaction, loyalty towards the company and increase trust at the workplace.
Hence the proper communication at the workplace will be a good motivation to the employees as well as for the management. If the staff can communicate with the executives or with the head of the departments then they can easily exchange their ideas, can give their suggestions, and can put their maximum efficiency to perform the task allotted to him. So these will be advantageous to the company and at the same time employee will be motivated and satisfied to do the work.
Culture and leadership:
Culture is defined as learning values, norms, symbols, beliefs, traditions which are common to the group of people. Sharing these qualities of a group will make people unique. According to gudykunst and ting Toomey (1988), culture is the way of different customs, different scripts of group and their lives. Whereas nature of the leadership itself is the complex and it can be defined as stepping forward to solve the problems by sheer force of will. It is the influenced relationship between the followers and the leaders who plan for real revolution and outcomes to replicate their shared purpose (Richard L. Daft, 2007).
The main important task that the leaders can do is managing and creating the culture in addition to this they (leader) also have the capability to understand the work with culture.
Studying the organizational culture can be focused more on performance and behavior of an employee than the values and the interaction or the communication between the employees/management is good then the organization culture could be created else an organization has to be changed inside and outside of an organization. But changing the organizational culture is not an easy task and it takes more time through the relationship of individuals and interactions (Mary J. Davis, 2000).
Culture represents the non rational and subjective values which is shared by the members of an organization and Tushman and O'Reilley (1996, p.18) assert that the culture is an "effective way of controlling and coordinating people without elaborate and rigid formal control systems" and hence it can be controlled, managed and deliberately changed by the managers in an organization.
Some of the culture in an organization includes corporate culture, base ball team culture, club culture, academy culture, fortress culture etc.
Leadership in an organization defines an art of motivating different group of people to act or to work towards achieving the common goal. Here the leader gives the inspiration and directs towards the action for the success of an organization. Different leadership styles could be followed in an organization like transactional, transformational, invitational, Laissez Faire, Autocratic and participative style leadership etc.
Organizational culture is an idea in the field of management and in organizational studies which describes about values, attitudes, experiences, psychology, personal beliefs and cultural values of an organization. According to Charles W. L. Hill, and Gareth R. Jones, (2001), it is also defined as collection of norms and values which are shared by people or groups of an organization and it controls the way they communicate or interact with the stakeholders outside of an organization.
Deal & Kennedy, (1982), Ouchi, (1981) and Posner et al., (1985), suggested that the organizational culture effects on the commitment, productivity, ethical behavior, performance and self confidence. He also asserted that each and every organization should maintain its culture and leadership values to impact on company production process, behaviors of leaders, policies and practices to sustain for long time.
From this I can say that culture can effect on a strong leader. And if and only if the culture and leadership of an organization is maintained well then that particular organization can give best customer satisfaction and good customer service.
Sustainability and staff development:
Sustainability can be easily understood with the help of a building instead of an organization and any one can answer that it can sustain for long term. For that the house requires good infrastructure, roof, foundations, walls etc. here the infrastructure is not so important but the people who live in it should take care of that then it can sustain strong for overtime. Similarly sustainability of an organization deals with the good leadership, business plans and practices, community engagement, program developments etc. hence the sustainability is defined as the long term health and strength (vitality) of an organization (Haukeborow, 2010).
Staying ahead is the key to success in a competitive environment. So an organization with sustainable business solutions will significantly improves the company's product success rates. It not only reduces the waste and cost but also increases the revenues with improved time management.
And the other important aspect of sustainability is their extensive communication facilities which allow them to keep in touch with their customers 24 hours a day (Sumudra, 2007).
Staff development is most important aspect in every organization to sustain for long time and it also increases the quality of the work which they do. It provides more production to the organization and increases the confidence levels among themselves. Staff development is necessary in the larger companies in a high work pressure times because if number of employers is more, then the work allotted could be completed in a less period of time and vice versa.
Steps to be followed to maintain employee sustainability:
Focusing on innovative and using appropriate work practices, maintaining the values of inclusion, re-focusing and prioritizing the training and development and improving the working conditions particularly in the area of health and safety will give employee sustainability.
High work pressure, less time and continues increasing of work load, situations like these are resulting especially in MNCs as well as in medium scale companies. Because of these stress employee cannot put his 100 percent effort in his work so this may lead to failure of the project.
Psychological contract levels and factors:
Rousseau, D.M. (1989) describes psychological contract as an entity's belief in mutual compulsions among this entity or person and another person or party, like employer. This faith is forecasted on the perception that an exchange of promises have been prepared to which the parties are vault. Tekleab (2003) in the book Supervisor Psychological Contracts Management suggests designing realistic job previews to comprise data on employee obligations and socialization agendas to contain information on company's obligations.
Psychological contract levels and individual factors that influence data formation of the contract are discussed by many authors in their articles. Like in the same book Vos et al (2005), views at how work values and locus of manage or control influenced data seeking during socialization. He also agrees that individual factors influence psychological contract level developments. But these factors are of limited significance when talking about psychological contract levels which intends to indentify organizational and supervisor chances to make easy positive psychological contracts (Maida Petersitzke, 2009).
A 3rd group of extra-organizational factors contains wider political, economic and legal changes that in turn form observations of the psychological contract (Neil Conway and Rob B. Briner, 2005). Psychological contracts would be operationalised from a diversity of viewpoints. A prior cut on operationalization happens with the decision whether to focus or not on the aspects of the psychological contract considered to simplify across persons and settings. And a 2nd cut on the operationalization happens with the decision of whether to concentrate upon content, characteristics, evaluations. This refers to the terms and elements which have the contract (Rousseau, D.M. and Tijoriwala, S.A., 1989).
Psychological contract levels may vary from one place to other place because an organization consists of various employees from different states and from different culture. Obviously, psychological contracts levels will influences the cultural and sociopolitical influences of the country in which the employee belongs and in which an organization is located. Finally psychological factors and levels are necessary to develop complete and more understanding of employee cognition.
Economic conditions play a major role in motivating employees and in creating sustainability. Assessment, tax rates, revenues, municipal debt, financial assets like development charge accounts, reserve funds, complete fire protection system charges, employment and unemployment conditions, previous and present political philosophy regarding the budget up/downs, borrowing, etc, loss affect of one employer, main industry institution, barriers to rebuilding like zoning and climatic needs are some of the economic circumstances which effects the employees (Ontario, 2010). For example decreasing prices have not allowed decreasing nominal pensions in a way of prevailing monetary circumstances. So for the time being undoing the move from payment to price indexation would result in the level of pension waiting, comparative to national income, anticipated for the year 2008 was attained in 2002. This is presented by Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (2004).
Motivation during economic instability:
An organizational decline is a frequent happening in the economic crisis time. From the author Leonard Greenhalgh (1983), organizational declines takes place when the customers no longer use the companies' products or services. Shrinkage generally entails minimizing the work force to cope up with the declines. Besides this uncertainties arises due to lack of communication in between employees and managers so many managers suggests that the discretion is best in economic crisis times and they also added that announcing cuts will cause disorder and depreciation to the employees and it often makes difficult situations worse. So some of the employees will face some problems like showing angry, absenteeism, difficulties in concentrating, become forgetful etc (Greenhalgh, 1983). So these impacts on employee will effect on the growth and productivity of an organization. Hence proper motivation will be given and according to Helzberg (2003), macro management is better than micro management for organizational development. Author added by saying that ability recognition, goal setting, allowing freedom to express their individual ideas and positive reinforcement will give good results even in a tough economy. For this the manager ought to be motivated and optimistic. From Motivating, (2003), managers get more from their employees or staff if they treat them as partners or associates but not employees. It also suggests that managers should encourage staff supports to each other. Hence if the manager follows above points then he can easily motivate his employees even in economic downturn.
Perception or awareness is a process through which people choose, systematize, understand and react to data from the world in the region of theirs. This is the data which is collected from the 5 senses like hearing, seeing, touching, tasting and smelling. It responds to the psychological process whereby people take data from the atmosphere and make sense of their particular worlds (Don Hellriegel and John W. Slocum, 2007). Perceptual process permits management to test their present level of perceptual expertise. Perception engages several sub-processes like Stimuli, attention, translation, recognition, behavior, performance and satisfaction etc are some of the things which takes place only after giving some attention to them (Perception, 2010).
This perceptual process is influenced by the perceivers such as past experiences, personality, attitudes & values, motives/needs etc.
According to C.W cook and P.L Hunsaker (2001), perception process is critically important process to help people in defining the world and providing clue for directing their (employee) behavior. Main perception process will relate to their personal reality whether they are objective or not. Finally it concluded that the perception process determines own behavior because they behave in accordance with what they (employee) perceive. Hence Sumudra Techonologies pvt ltd has to know and understand all these procedures and processes to motivate and to sustain their existing employees.
Employee engagement is vital for managers to develop given that disengagement or division is central to the problem of workers lack of dedication and motivation. For any individual meaningless work is regularly related with apathy and detachment from one's own work. Other research using a various source of employee involvement and enthusiasm has associated it to variables like customer satisfaction- trustworthiness, employee turnover, productivity, security and to a smaller degree, profitability criteria (Nitin Vazirani, 2007). Any organization's growth or productivity cannot only measured by using employee satisfaction but it should also focus on employee engagement. Employees in the firm are said to be engaged when they perform positive attitude towards the company and expressing their commitment to be consistent.
Some of the employee engagement aspects include employees and their individual exceptional psychological makeup and knowledge. Management and its capacity to make the conditions that endorse employee engagement and finally Communication among employees at every level are equally important for the employee engagement (Nitin Vazirani, 2007).
Hence employee engagement shows the positive attitudes held by the employees towards the organizational values and it is quickly gaining its popularity by focusing on giving importance to the employee communication on firm success. Therefore employee engagement has to be a continuous process of learning which should be properly maintained by the organizations.
Rewards of Employee:
Employee reward is all about payment for the contribution paid by working for an organization. It is a system which contains companies incorporated policies, processes, practices etc rewarding their employees according to their work contribution, expertise and competence and also market worth. Basic pay and contingent pay are the two elements of employee reward system. Basic pay is a fixed salary or wages that comprises the rate for the work. Contingent pay is an additional monetary reward which is associated to performance, contribution, proficiency, expertise and experience. These are not considered as basic pay because the rewards offered are the extra pay for the extra work contributed by the employee in the form of bonuses, incentives, commissions etc. Sumudra Technologies can use both of the elements which can help to satisfy employee both in paying fixed salary and also by paying more for the extra work done (Michael Armstrong, 2002) and they have to be encouraged to work for more time to complete the task in the allotted time slot.
Job designing is a classification of responsibilities, duties and tasks of an organization into productive unit of work. It is the designation of effect and the content of jobs on employees and recognizing the job components is also an integral part of the job design (Tammi Sufficool, 2009).
Three major reasons for the job design are:
Job designing influences the job performance particularly employee motivation which could make a considerable difference. The second reason would be job satisfaction where employees get satisfied with certain job configurations compared to other employee (or other jobs) and the last reason would be physical and psychological effects of employees to influence on job designing (Tammi Sufficool, 2009).
Fig: Fulfilling the drives to motivate employees (Nitin Nohria et al., 2008, p.4)
According to Nitin Nohria et al., (2008), drive is to understand best addresses of job designing which are interesting, meaningful and challenging in an organization. This movement not only addressed the company's success in fulfilling the drive but also challenges the employees to think more on their contribution towards making a difference for customers, co workers and investors.
Motivational styles in IT (information technology) industry especially HR policies:
HR is a most critical function in an IT industry for its internal activities as well as for its development and growth. It plays a key role in providing motivation levels which is necessary for the success of an IT industry. As these characteristics are very closely enclosed to the nature of work, HR function is still facing some challenges very different depending on various IT industries.
Here the innovation and creativity by the human resource functions will make a best differentiation in how an employee can be motivated, attracted, influenced and retained. Motivation, retention and attraction will defines the essence of HR deliverables of an organization based on HR sub functions (Tejas IIMB, 2008).
In the present market motivating workforce has become a key challenge in an IT industry and companies have to walk for extra miles to ensure the employee does not walk out in the competition era.
Summary: From the above literature review Motivation is considered as a main important factor in making employees upbeat and down to business resulting in increasing organizations output, decision making on how committed and dedicated will be an employee towards the company will totally depend on the performance of individual employee. Motivation can be done through the help of best communication to achieve their organizational goals correctly to the employees. Actually any employee can be motivated if an organization recognizes his efforts, appreciation at their work place will be effected on employee behavior and hence they can think and work like they are the main part of an organization or team. The organizations have to adopt some theories like job based theories, behavior theories, cognitive etc to make an employee motivated towards the work.
It has to maintain some ability recognition, goal setting, allowing freedom to express their individual ideas and positive reinforcement will give good results even in a tough economy and organizations have to expand their resources like health care, entertainment, education, housing, training etc would be helpful to the employees as well as management to maintain sustainability even in the tough economy. In addition to this job designing and IT (information technology) HR policies will also encourage an employee to be motivated for the achievement of goals. For this close supervision, motivational work groups and some discussion forums will help them to create a vibrant work place.