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In this essay, I attempt to defend the view that globalism is not a new concept but one that has been in existence since ancient Roman times.In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the concept of globalism and it s time of existence a lot of study shows that globalism is been in existence from only 200 years ago, however Bruce Hitchner (2008) says that the globalization may have started 2,000 years ago.Globalism according to Saul (2005) is defined as the expansion into regional and into international from the local trade.However it s not only the expansion of local trade practices but also adopt their social and cultural ideals.Thus, this study provides an exciting opportunity to advance our knowledge of the globalism and how they have been in existence in roman empire.The main arguments for the essay will revolve around the existence of the system of Homo Sacer , the Trade routes and multiculturalism being in existence during roman period.
This essay argues that the globalism was not just a modern concept though the term was coined just during the 1960 but the practice was in existence during the Roman times. They main arguments would revolve around the practices of the homo sacer, multiculturalism, trade routes ,neo liberalism, imperailism, democaratic globalism and knowledge transfer proving that globalism is not a new concept but one which has been in existence since the Roman empire.
Globalism is described as a centuries long activity, tracing the expansion of human population and the growth of civilization ( Hingley ,2005). Even though the term "globalism" has been coined by economists since the 1980 ,globalism is a phenomenon with ancient roots (Hitchner,2008) .The Globalizations is said to been in existence from the third millenium B.C. . The early types of globalism can be seen in the cultural practices which are multiculturalism and knowledge transfer and education systems ,Trade practices which are spice routes , silk routes which extended from China to the Roman empire, Military practices which is the Homo Sacer and Imperailism . The Roman empire integrated people, culture, technology and ideas on an unprecedented scale.Globalism, at its core, seeks to report and explain nothing more than a world which is specified by networks of connections that span multi-continental distances (Hitchner, 2008).Thus based on these points we ll move on to the arguments how the globalism was in existence in the Roman empire.
The Homo sacer is a concept which was in use during the ancient Roman times , it means life that cannot be sacrificed but only killed (Secor,2007) . The homo sacer is also means life abandoned by law . This does not infer the life not to be subjected by law but a life whic has been caught by law and is trapped by its power, which can seen as included exclusion.Gregory argues that the homo Sacer is also used now a days in the militant globalism for casting out . This kind of spatial contortion has been in existence in militant globalism for a long time. Casting out is defined as the the state which is also the same as homo sacri means placed in a space law of suspension (outside the law) (Secor , 2007). Example In the cases of Afghanistan ,Iraq ,Palestine the same characteristic performances are used in them the casting out means to be killed without any consequences while in Roman period homo Sacer means the person is not subjected to any rights which gives just a mere life not even worthy of Sacrifice and suspended by the law (Secor , 2007) . Homo sacer and Casting out means the same practices in differnet terms the only difference which can be found in them is they mean a person in the terms of a homo sacri and in casting out they mean a country to be exception to the law (Secor,2007).This is a form of militant globalism which is in practice by the US and UK administration. With this we can prove that militant globalism was in practices roman times and not just in the latest political economy.
The Romans had trade links made to many countries around them thus we can say the era of globalism begin with the roman empire (Hitchner, 2008) . Even though the Romans lacked the modern tools of globalism which are including world-wide communications systems, powerhouses , multi-national corporations and wire transfer for fast money transfer systems to transport currency, goods and people - they may well be responsible for introducing the concept to the world ( Hingley, 2005). Market globalism is the concept of providing economic and cultural link throughout the world . The Romans had introduced the the concept of market globalism in these trade practices.For example the common Roman man lived and cooked with african oil and used th pots made in spain and also consumed bread cooked with raw materials got from egypt, and got the fish from the gibraltar. He used the dishes made in French kilns, drank wine got from France. The Roman of money costumed in garments of the wool from Miletus and the linen from Egypt; his wife will wore silks from China using the silk routes, enhanced herself with the pearls and diamonds from India, and made make-up with cosmetics from South Arabia.He will dwell in the houses whose walls are coated with colored marble drilled in Asia Minor; his own furnitures were made of Indian teak inlaid which were traded through the spice routes with African ivory (Jones 2008). They also had a high quality of pottery in the western empire. This pottery is constituted one type of material that passed throughout the empire through trade. The model for the production of terra sigillata was derived from Tuscany, the vessels manufactured in central and the southern areas of Gaul were traded to other provinces of Germany and Britain (hingley ,2005).There were also the existence of silk routes and spice routes between china and India respectively from the Roman Empire.These trades routes are used to carry silk and spices from China and India (Jones,2008). Many of these trade practices were possible only because of the existence of the trade routes between the Romans and other countries. This can be seen as a form of economic globalism.The main point of globalism by Saul is defined as the trade between many countries which had been in existence and practiced by the Romans ,proving that globalism was in existence in Roman times.
There has been a huge advances in the concept of globalism in the past two decades . The important constituent to the globalism has been free information exchange and easy flow of capital (Jones 2008).Multiculturalism is the existence of many cultures with many of their traditions are existing independent without the support of any other culture (Epstein ,2009).The important prospects of globalism or multiculturalism is the prospect of having a single culture and the same Hollywood movies and Mc donalds adapting to local tastes with little variations in the world which mainly requires cultural tolerance with the people . The Romans also in the other hand existed with many cultures and had a greater amount of cultural tolerance to themselves ( Hitchner ,2008).This can be seen as a form of cultural Globalism.Thus these practices prove that the globalism has been in existence in the form of multiculturalism in roman period .
Globalism and Imperialism
The recent studies has shown that the globalism through imperialism is one of the important ways through which globalism has been happening. The imperialism is defined as the process of expanding the countries power and influence through colonization (Hingley ,2011).Thus the globalism can seen as a process of expansion of social and cultural ideas , so imperialism is also in a way helping globalism. The Bush s administration in America has seen as US imperialism in many ways trying to control and influence other countries through the militant globalism (Secor ,2005). The study of Roman Empire for imperialism becomes, not only a consideration but also a way to see how the Rome expanded across such a vast area, incorporating people along the way, also trying to put their culture among the colonies while controlling them (Hingley, 2005). The violent imposition of the new world order ,genocide ,deportation ,exploitation of the societies are the methods with which the countries and empire tried to control and enslave the people did miltary recruitment is by which imperialism was in existence during the roman and modern times (hingley,2005).This will want us to think critically about how the Roman empire expansion across such a vast territory and also the means by with the societies across the Roman world was held together which is an similar way through which the Bush s administration also did in Afghanistan ,Iraq (Secor,2005).This can been seen as a form of political globalism. Thus these things also helps us to see that globalism was a concept which was in existence during Roman empire.
Globalism and Knowledge transfer
Globalism has been a easy process because of the knowledge transfer between the people though the internet.Global historians such as Tony Hopkins and Christopher Bayly have also stressed the importance of the exchange of not only trade but also ideas and knowledge during periods of pre-modern globalization. A common roman child would learn Latin from the schools.Ambitious Jews and Gauls were taught to speak Latin in schools just as children in Jakarta and Sio Paulo from the middle-class learn English today ( Hitchner , 2008). The adoption of latin and writing of the common language has helped the people in two major areas they are a common language through which a knowledge transfer can occur and it bought the people closer because of the common language (Hingley 2005).For Example There were many authors in the first century BC, they mainly spoke about the ideas of being in relationship with the people and their ideas to be recorded to future references (Hingley , 2005). These ideas served to assist Western colonial adventurers, from the sixteenth century on wards, in understanding the exotic places that they explored. Thus the Romans had given a huge importance for the knowledge transfer and learning of languages leading to globalization (Hingley , 2005). Additionally, they also had a similar development in roman empire ,while columned temples and amphitheaters sprang up everywhere as office blocks and cinemas are springing up today in the cities (Jones 2008). Thus the importance given by the Romans for knowledge transfer and development which is also a important aspect of globalization is seen in day to day lives now.This can be seen as a form of cultural globalism. Thus proving that even though it was in a smaller scale but the start of the globalism has been since the Roman Empire.
Neo Liberal Globalization
The globalism can be defined as an end result which is being obtained by the process of neo liberalism (Kotz ,2000). There are many important concepts in neo liberalism they are free trade - no restriction by the government in import and exports , deregulation the removal of laws which affect the trade practices ,privatization - private enterprises doing the work done by the state owned enterprises (Kotz,2000) . In Rome the neo liberalism can be seen in mainly two practices they are Zetema and Bufalotta ( Violante & Annunziata , 2011). The first one represents the quasi-autonomous non-governmental organization .The second one is an urban development project which is an exceptional procedure to the form the pact between the business community and the urban political elite ( Violante & Annunziata , 2011).For Example The Bufalotta was the Private organisation that provided housing supply to the people in Rome in many neighborhoods. This is a form of privatization of government work which occurred in Rome ( Violante & Annunziata , 2011).They are common practices in Rome for the welfare of the people in the empire leading to better trade and which is also a form of economic globalism.These practices show that neo liberalism in the roman community proving that globalism is in existence during the Roman era.
Democratic Globalization can be defined as a institution of global democracy to the world that is giving a common say to all (Hardt , 2005). It s always known that democracy was a part of globalism which gives the citizens a chance to express their opinions .Rome had a extensive, powerful and well organized world-empire(hingley ,2005) .Rome is said to have a mixed constitution of all the three forms of governments which are monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy (hardt , 2005). While the first two represents the control of the empire by the ruler and control of the empire by a set of people . The third represents the people . The Roman empire is said to the first one to implement the concept of democracy.The Roman empire had the simple concept of democracy they always assemble to take decisions and check the expenditure of the officials (Jones , 2008).ÂÂÂ For Example They once found the great Pericles annually claiming the gigantic sum of ten talents for ‘expenses’. They turned a blind eye towards it because they believed him when he said he was using it to buy off their great rival Sparta. But the important point to be seen is that the people knew. It was their decision to approve or not (Jones 2008). Thus we can see that democracy which is a form of globalism has been implemented in the Roman empire proving that it has been in practices.
During the past two decades the globalism has been of huge importance and been a growing research in the field of business.Researchers have reported alarming findings in the field of globalism and its existence and practices during the pre historic era . The arguments in the essay are mainly based on the practices of Homo Sacer a process of militant globalism , Trade practices a method of economic globalism , multiculturalism - a method of cultural globalism, Imperialism which is also a form of political globalism, Knowledge transfer in the pre historic era which is also a form of economic globalism ,these practices in the roman empire show that globalism is not a new concept but one which was found in the pre historic times .In addition to this a lot of research has been taking place in the field of globalism to find out more about the concept of globalism.