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In any organisation, the aim is to ensure that the goals of the organisation are achieved. This can be possible through ensuring that resources are managed effectively and ensuring that these resources are at their optimum use. Human resource is an important component in an organisation, and this resource should be motivated to ensure that their benefits are maximised. ABCD Training Solutions provides training resources to numerous organisations within and outside location of this company. This means that some employees have to visit clients' towns and provide the training solutions. Thus, motivation is a major issue and through the analysis of the company with the help of a number of motivational theories including Vroom's Expectancy Theory, Hertzberg's Two-Factor Theory, Maslow Theory of Need and Alderfer's ERG Theory exemplifies motivational shortcomings illustrated by the company (Frey and Osterloh 2002). The major motivational and de-motivational factors within the organisation are money, recognition, family time and amenities. The major concern that demoralises the employees is the minimal time that the employees are given to spend with their families result in high employee turn over. Some recommendations include ensuring that the potential employees understand the operations within the organisation, providing means in which employees can air their grievances and develop a culture of collectiveness in accomplish the tasks of the organisation resulting in achievement of goals set for the organisation.
2.0 Terms of Reference
The organisation that is been studied is ABCD Training Solutions, a popular company within the confines of Chennai. Moreover, the company has numerous branches throughout India brining together many individuals who work as trainers for the organisation. The organisation main duties are to obtain outsourced training contracts from major corporate companies and sometimes send some of their trainers to organisation sites, if required, to do any necessary training needs analysis, provide appropriate training and support for the employees (Beck, 2000). Some motivational strategies that the company beliefs contributes towards individual's been motivated are recognition (job promotions) and financial (incentives and increments). The trainers took long periods on site to ensure that the organisation employees achieved the aim of the trainers and fulfil effectively the requirements of the organisation. The company usually pays their employees on time and provided them with appropriate professional hierarchy, which the organisation assumed that it provided sufficient requirements to create job satisfaction (Latham, 2006).
However, these motivational strategies were not working since the company profits, revenues and consumer base continued to fall every month. Some trainers left the organisation for greener pastures and generally, few trainers will likely be left in the organisation within the next six months . The human resource department whose responsibility was to ensure that the employees stayed and the employees were provided with all basic requirements that will ensure that they played fully their goals. However, the department were not aware on the factors that made the employees to play erratically, or the actual reason why the employees were leaving. Thus, what are some of the challenges that were or are faced by the employees within the organisation? What contribute to the loss making of the organisation?
3.0 Investigation of the Problem
Some of the trainers (some who left and others who are planning to) were interviewed concerning their difficulties in accomplishing their tasks and duties in ABCD Training Solutions. Some of the comments that the employees contributed include:
I have been working for the past six years in the company. He said that their working environment is good doubled up with the appropriate incentives. However, the employee said "but they are pretty poor in identifying what we (employees) really require"
Second employer said the relationship with my colleagues is very good because often we work as a team. He said that he was initially happy working with the company due to numerous benefits and incentives that the company provide. But, this change when someone is marriedâ€¦
Third employer said that the difficulties is working under pressure. She said that she had worked hard contributing all she can to the organization and at the same time, she was getting all that she wanted. This continued until she realised that there were things that she was missing, and these things were dear to her life
He said that work is life because for him, work was just a tool that was used to enjoy the elements of life that he wanted. Nevertheless, when the environment or incentives are not the same as per my internal desires, I quitâ€¦
Third employer said that there is no difficulties in job. When someone works within specified conditions, some needs should change. Thus, if the company does not change with the changing environmental requirements, the company has generally failed in retaining their employees resulting in high employee turnover.
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These were some of the comments that the employees had when the answered some questions pertaining their organisation.
4.0 Findings and Analysis
To understand why the employees were not satisfied it is important to understand some background literature on motivation requirements. Thus, some of the motivational theories that reflect human behaviour include:
4.1 Maslow's Hierarchy of Need
Bolles (1975) states that in the 1970s, especially viewing on the numerous motivational theories providing an example of Maslow stated "The psychologist Abraham Maslow suggested that people are motivated by a hierarchy of needs"
Maslow hierarchy of needs model utilised five levels in describing the way that an individual can be motivated. These five levels included, at its lowest, physiological needs (e.g. heat, water, workspace and basis pay), safety or security needs (e.g. safety regulations and job security), and social needs (e.g. peers, customers and supervisors), esteem needs (e.g. recognition, office location and important projects) and at its top level of needs is self actualization needs (training and challenging projects). The fundamental principle of this structure or levels is that the low level needs have to be satisfied before going up the ladder to ensure that an individual is motivated (Apter, 1989). Therefore, comparing Maslow principles with the ABCD Training Solution philosophy:
Self-actualisation needs - the organisation usually gave the employees assignment and duties but the management failed to determine whether these assignments were creative or whether these assignments contributed towards motivating the employees.
Esteem needs - the management provided their employees with impartial treatment in that they provided regular recognitions, prestigious office space and job promotions (Freyberg-Inan, 2003).
Social needs - the social needs are within the 'love needs' in which the organisation has not address and thus it is the foundation of many concerns stated by the employees. In most instances, may people work to fulfil their family or social requirements, but this is not addressed by this organisation. For example, the company requires that the employees visit different regions to accomplish their organisation duties at times taking months to accomplish a single task. These few months make the employees to stay away from their families and usually this makes the employees to quit from their positions and generally the organisation (Morgan, 2006).
Security/ safety needs - the company provided the employees with appropriate safety and security as per their position.
Physiological needs - these are the needs that have been fully embraced by the organisation and have provide them to their employees, which include workspace, water, heat, basis pay and company cafeteria (Latham, 2006).
4.2 Hertzberg's Two-Factor Motivation Theory
Hertzberg theory is based on hygiene and motivational factors that employees feel towards their job and are mostly related with their job experiences and job content. Negative feelings are associated with job context factors and the factors that are not directly associated with their job that has an effect on their working environment. Moreover, job satisfaction is also associated with job content while job dissatisfaction is associated with job context (Bolles, 1975).
Therefore, comparing Hertzberg theory with the approach and policies of ABCD Training Solutions illustrates some complexities that the employees face. Forty percent of the employees in ABCD Training Solutions, in perspective of job content stated that they were not happy with the content of their positions and termed their view as 'monotonous'. Nevertheless, most of trainers appreciated their jobs and generally said that they were satisfied (Apter, 1989). The job context requires tuning because the employees at ABCD Training Solution, especially those who were doing outside assignments (not within the organisation building environs) proposed that it could be better if the management reduced period that individuals could be working on distant assignments. From this analysis, the important motivational factors are clear achievable goals, the work itself, career growth, giving adequate responsibilities to the employees and appreciation. Hence, the job content and job context played a major role in the way that the organisation fared and contributed towards high employee turnover (Masden, 1968).
4.3 Alderfer's ERG Theory
Alderfer's theory is based on categorising of needs and understanding that there is a clear distinction between lower level and higher level needs (Huczynski and Buchanan, 2007). According to views of Alderfer, the categorising can be in three groups, which are existence needs (E); these needs are directly associated with physiological and survival of individuals, relatedness needs (R); these needs champion the importance of interpersonal and social relationships, and growth needs; these are the internal push towards development and personal growth. This means that an organisation should satisfy and fulfil the requirements of existence, relatedness and growth to ensure that the employees are motivated (Denison, 2001).
The company ensured that the growth needs and existence needs were provided but the relatedness needs were not provided. This is because the trainers were supposed to complete onsite assignments (client companies) thus reducing the time that the trainers could spend with their families and friends. According to Alderfer theory, cultural environment or individual's background may make the relatedness needs to predominate existence needs and the intensity of growth needs will be proportional to the way that these needs will be embraced by the organisation (Beck, 2000).
4.4 Vroom's Expectancy Theory of Motivation
Vroom theory also refereed to as VIE theory is based on three variables, which are valence, instrumentality and expectancy. Thus, from Vroom's theory, effort-performance relationship shows an individual perception towards the relationship between an input and output of an individual (Frey, 1997). Hence, the greater the input the higher the probability of output. In addition, performance-reward relationship is based or perceived in terms of amount or level of performance that an individual exerts in accomplishing a given task; the higher the performance the better desired are the outcomes. The rewards-personal goals relationship is the individual appreciation on the relevance of individual's goals, and whether they are satisfied with the rewards that they receive after meeting laid down goals.
According to motivation that is provided by ABCD Training Solutions, the motivation only meets effort-performance and performance-reward relationships. This means that the employees should have framed their personal and professionals goals before joining the organisation. Some of professionals goals include reaching a given position in the company structure plus been paid appropriate reward e.g. salary and recognition. Personally, the goals may include building a dream home, schooling for children and recreation/ vacation for the family. Conversely, the rewards that ABCD Training Solutions provide to their trainers do not fulfil personal goals and thus are not able to balance and maintain their personal life. Since, it was not achieved it subsequently leads to discontent and it may result in some of the employees not been satisfied (Frey, 1997).
Motivation is an important factor in ensuring that an organisation fulfils the requirements stipulated within the vision and mission statements. ABCD Training Solution has experienced an increase in employee turn over, which has also contributed to poor quality of tasks/ goals that are set. According to Maslow's theory, ABCD Training Solution have embraced some factors within this theory but not conclusively; these factors include social, safety, self-esteem, physiological and self-actualisation needs. However, social needs and self-actualisation needs have not been conclusively addressed. Hertzberg's theory factors into consideration job context and job content. However, some of constituents within content and context have not been fully addressed. Relatedness needs in the Alderfer's ERG theory is not fully employed because there are problems related in sending the employees to outside missions and thus far from their families. Moreover, according to Vroom's theory, ABCD Training Solution rewards did not balance with personal goals, since the issue of outside training requirements are not considered (Frey and Osterloh 2002)).
Competition is a major ingredient in today business requirements and thus dependency should be reduced to its minimal. It is paramount for employers and employees top align their goals with each other and the entire organisation to ensure that the environment is favourable for exchanging of information and understanding each other's preferences with respect to their working environment. In the case study of ABCS Training Solutions, the company has strong philosophies and beliefs but were based on monetary value and appreciation e.g. reward. Thus, the organisation maximised the use of monetary benefits to ensure that the goals are achieved and providing means in which the employees will be motivated. Since, they based their motivation strategies on money, there are some aspects of motivation that they did not factor e.g. interrelationship. After the analysis and understanding the motivational factors for ABCD Training Solution, four factors were identified that determined the way that the employees were motivated and factors that altered their ego making them to feel happy, content and refreshed at work. These motivational factors include recognition, money, time with the family and training. Therefore, to ensure that the employees' turnover is reduced, it is imperative for the employers and organisation to share their philosophies and aspirations of the company. This could be possible through sharing the organisation vision during recruitment time, understand the goals and requirements of employees, ensure that the employees understand the company's work strategy and profile of positions within the organisation, ensure that the employee concur with the requirements of the organisation including clearly understanding the goals of the organisation. Thus, clarity in advance will ensure that the candidate have prior knowledge concerning the position of the organisation, whether the provisions can be accepted by the individual employee and whether the environment can provide means in which the employee will be motivated.
ABCD Training Solution is many that experiences difficulties in understand motivational factors and strategies to ensure that their employees are motivated. Since, the problems and challenges facing this organisation has been identified it is important to state some of the changes that should be embraced by the organisation. The recommendations are:
It is important to understand the views and perspectives of all the people within an organisation. Thus, it for ABCD Training solution to develop a culture in which employees and employers can share the difficulties or joys. This will provide means or mechanism that will ensure that the employees air their grievances in advance e.g. through employee forums or suggestion boxes.
Training is an important credential that will improve the capacity and capability of the employees in fulfilling their tasks. Strategies such as certifications and internal training will improve the capacity of employees to fulfil tasks and contribute towards the development of the organisation.
The company should develop a policy that will ensure that some employees who are onsite duty are offered certain benefits. Additionally, development of means in which all the employees will have to go to onsite duties should be set to reduce chances of monotony and improve on job satisfaction.
Ensure that employees will be within their hometown or family resident at least seven months in a year. This will ensure that employees will have favourable time with their families.
The management should develop a framework that will improve the working position of the employees e.g. sense of ownership, belongingness and togetherness. This will ensure that the employees are committed to the duties that are set by the organisation achieving specified goals.
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