Achieving the goals of Excellence with Employees

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As per my thoughts motivation actually separates the ordinary doing business company from fast growing business company.

Insight of the performance from an employee perspective.

It is in our nature to allow opportunities and talents to flourish, in order to get the most out of ourselves. Motivated employees can help take an organisation to the next level, in order to make it successful. Motivated employees are also often more satisfied, innovative and productive. It is apparent that satisfied employees try to satisfy company objectives.

In short, motivated employees ensure that within the organisation:

There is a positive work atmosphere…

Where employees are happy to work hard…

Where employees are service-oriented towards customers…

And lastly, all above mentioned factor the organization get better result.

Organizations thus understand the importance of human work force and treat them the essence of their secret success and motivation is the pushing force that ensures the work force will always be energetic and enthusiastic to the organization's success. Therefore by better motivation we can maximise the profit and turnover. Extra profit or turn over leads to extra benefits for the employees. On the other hand with the employee's satisfaction absence level being lowered down.

Description and findings

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"People's needs are arranged in a hierarchy, in which basic needs generally have to be satisfied before higher needs come into play" (Abraham Maslow, 1954). Although his theory was being criticised because of its rigidity and partial applicability but my observations in Pizza Hut bring me close to Maslow, as I have seen the applicability of the theory. For example lower level of staff normally work part time on hourly basis. Pizza hut gives initial hourly pay of £5.75. These people are come under first category according to Maslow. These people want to fulfil their basic needs like money for food. When the basic need being fulfilled they move further for safety and security and so on. (From lit review)

Many researches had already been done with related to staff motivations. A research by White Water Strategies (2008) describes that, "two thirds of staff feels undervalued by not hearing the words 'thank you' enough from their employer".

So, In my opinion this is the easiest and shortest way of motivating employees, to say them 'thanks' and appreciate them when deserve. People needs for appreciation when they make good efforts.

Maslow's theory describes what people need to be done to enjoy themselves. Abraham Maslow (1954) attempted to synthesize a large body of research related to human motivation. Researchers have been focusing separately on some sort of factors which were biological and achievable that can directly energizes the human behaviour, earlier than the Maslow's arrival. As we know that Maslow has split the human needs in two groups like the growth and the deficiency. Fulfilling of deficiency need means the lower need should be satisfied before moving to the upper level. But even after the deficiency has been met if in future its again needed then he must come lower to eliminate the deficiency.

This is describing the model. Reviewing the model is about deciding whether it works, where it might work. What studenes have bee ndone to try and prove or test the model - lots have been done. Hw doe is copare t oother models.

"People's needs are arranged in a hierarchy, in which basic needs generally have to be satisfied before higher needs come into play" (Abraham Maslow, 1954). Although his theory was being criticised because of its rigidity and partial applicability but my observations in Pizza Hut bring me close to Maslow, as I have seen the applicability of the theory. For example lower level of staff normally work part time on hourly basis. Pizza hut gives initial hourly pay of £5.75. These people are come under first category according to Maslow. These people want to fulfil their basic needs like money for food. When the basic need being fulfilled they move further for safety and security and so on. In your review you are not really applying the models to Pizza Hut at this stage. You are looking at ho they have been used in the past. In effect you are presenting findings here. Take this out.

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Maslow's hierarchy theory is based on the assumption that the human being motivates to satisfy his unmet needs. So he moves forward to the next unsatisfied need to be satisfied. Maslow has described different sort of needs which a person can desire until he becomes self actualization person.

In a good working environment the leader or manager of the that place should understand the need of the employees so he can motivated them effectively. As Maslow defined social and fundamental need should be satisfied in order to further increase the productivity of an employee along the line of self-fulfillment. As depicted in the above hierarchical diagram, sometime called Maslow's Need Pyramid' satisfied need don't motivated anymore and then higher level need motivate the employee.

The peak in Maslow's hierarchy to get the position as self actualization but after getting at this position no one can get fully satisfied as new opportunities continually grows at this level. It means that self actualized person can still be motivated with new directions within the level. Truth, wisdom and justice can be motivators for self actualized person;

This is the position where a person gets frequent feeling of happiness and find endless harmony. As per his clarification only few people can get this position. So the viability and opportunity to attain this level is very low.

This is very important that different people motivate by different needs. The succusful manager ascertains the individual need to accomplish the overall objectives of the organization. For improving the performance the manager should also understand the employees need. This is all descrition and not review. it was lit review.

Finding, Discussions and Conclusions

The above model of Maslow determined how people need are categorised. This hierarchy tells that the human beings are motivated by lower factors need before higher needs.

Physiological Needs : Staff can take different sorts of break at different interval according to the need and the manager on duty manage it for the staff. Similarly they have to be paid properly so they can be able to buy the stuff of their need. Some other types of physiological needs are food, air, sleep, drink, sex etc…

Safety Needs : Pizza Hut provide a safe working environment for the staff members and give them holiday pay entitlement and pension plan. There is a sense of security and stability among the staff.

Social Needs : All of the team members work like a family. Pizza Hut management always appreciate the good and understandable relationship among the staff. Further examples are love and affection.

Esteem Needs : There is lot of rewards based activities within the business. Team members are recognised when they work hard for the company. High street vouchers and other complementary gratitude always play as good motivators for them and rest of others. Higher salary and fringe benefits create sense of status, prestige and dominance on one side and self-esteem on another.

Self-Actualization : Pizza Hut also provide challenge and opportunity to the deserved

people. Only few people come on this stage as this is the top most position.

As I mentioned needs is to be satisfied according to the hierarchy of it. Let's assume the situation, if someone is very thirsty so the first thing he wants is water. When this need being satisfied then he can move his 2nd need and so on. Again compleely descriptive it was deleted

Some of the managers I met in Pizza hut believe in this theory and have an opinion that tough policies and procedures play a better role. In their opinion be very strict with the staff get good results. At this stage you are not applying it to Pizza Hut - you are reviewing the literature and not presenting findings. It was deleted

For e.g if I work for Pizza hut and I am being paid on hourly basis sometime I work there without charging for my time. This example can also be fit on any other place or organization.

Just assume a situation if we take water to the horse and want he drinks, he will drink only if it is thirsty but we cannot force it to drink. On the other hand, if it is a human being we can force even though the person doesn't want. The force that will induce him to do something or not to do something is motivation.

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Abraham Maslow categorized the need in two types, deficiency and growth needs. Lower level of need classified as deficiency needs while upper level is growth needs. In Pizza hut both need must be satisfied to grow company. Lower management keep their concern normally to fulfil their lower level needs. By motivating them upper management need to ascertain their deficiency and then give them different rewards to work them for the bigger goals of the company.

Koestner & McClelland (1990) describe, "research on intrinsic motivation has led to the conclusion that intrinsic motivation will be greatest under conditions that foster feelings of challenge, competence, and self-determination". They further explain that "if external events enhance feelings of competence, as when someone is told he or she has done a task very well, intrinsic motivation is likely to increase".

In the view of F.W Taylor (who is called father of Scientific Management), money is a primary incentive. Punishment (especially in form of withdrawal of benefits or threat of dismissal) is a proper part of motivation.

Some of the managers I met in Pizza hut believe in this theory and have an opinion that tough policies and procedures play a better role. In their opinion be very strict with the staff get good results.

Just assume a situation if we take water to the horse and want he drinks, he will drink only if it is thirsty but we cannot force it to drink. On the other hand, if it is a human being we can force even though the person doesn't want. The force that will induce him to do something or not to do something is motivation.

J STACEY ADAMS - EQUITY THEORY ON JOB MOTIVATION

In 1963, a behavioural psychologist (John Stacey Adams), brought 'Equity Theory' on job motivation. This is very similar with Maslow, Herzberg and Charles. According to him, "When people feel fairly or advantageously treated they are more likely to be motivated; when they feel unfairly treated they are highly prone to feelings of disaffection and de-motivation". He argues on sense of fairness in his Equity Theory.

Same comments as before - you are not applying to Pizza Hut. You should be commenting on the model as a whole. Whrere has it been applied to date and did it work. What were its plus and minus points?

I am agree with Adam's theory as I already mentioned in Pizza Hut my subordinates give their maximum output when they work with me while my other colleague (he is also support manager ) tells me team members don't co-operate with him. And I know that he is bit tough lad and doesn't listen to our subordinates. While I always try to motivate my team members and some time when it is possible give them extra time without working if labour cost is in good control. I personally recognise team member's efforts by mentioning on display like ''star of the month'' and stick in our notice board. So the sense of recognition being built among team members. I also thank them when they finish their work. The effective manager must know what motivates someone to perform and how to satisfy the needs of the employee (Ferguson 1987, 149). Take out Pizza Hut refs here asthese are findings.

3.1 Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic motivation

The intrinsic and extrinsic motivation theories been created by Gardner, Deci and Ryan in 1985. They argue "learners who are interested in learning tasks and outcomes for their own sake (Intrinsic) rather than for rewards (extrinsic) are likely to become more effective learners". Further more; intrinsic motivation actually is the activity that makes enjoyment and satisfaction while extrinsic motivation refers as earning rewards or avoiding punishment.

I believe on intrinsic motivation rather than extrinsic, but this stage normally develop after long period of time. It is actually the sense of loyalty. For e.g if I work for Pizza hut and I am being paid on hourly basis sometime I work there without charging for my time. This example can also be fit on any other place or organization.

Positive Motivation : It is a response which includes enjoyment and optimism about the tasks that you are involved in. For example in Pizza Hut when a team member provide with good results to the management then he/she is likely to be appreciated and announce in intranet news within the company.

Negative Motivation : It involves undertaking tasks for fear that there should be undesirable outcome failing subject if tasks are not completed. If a team member is given any special assignment or task which could not be done by him/her so will likely to be reluctant to show it to others.

Motivation is such an important factor of improving productivity in Pizza Hut, every other business whether food or non-food need to have a firm understanding of how it relates employee job satisfaction and rewards system. So understanding job satisfaction and work motivation can be the key element to improve Pizza Hut productivity. This productivity gives the line of action to the specific direction. Therefore Russell (1971) has commented "Motivation is actually an internal force that energizes for action and also determines the direction of action" (Russell 1971, 5).

Motivation - Daft (1997) states that motivation generally comes from internal or external forces that either awaken or increase a person's enthusiasm to pursue a particular action, whether it may be related to his academics, employment or personal life. Similarly, motivation is also defined as an individual's ability to change his behaviours and attain a specific life goal.

In all these activities human involvement is compulsory so motivation is all about human behavior. Motivating to anyone in a desired way is intellectual work and Pizza hut normally uses following techniques for improving one's performance or wish for performing;

Performance Review: Discussion between the employee with the line manager with the purpose of performance improvement and their chance of promotion should be there in order to get maximum results.

Interviews: Open ended questions with qualitative data ascertain one's productivity. During this interview with the team member barriers to good performance can be discussed.

Customer Feedback: Regular/permanent customers are the great source of Pizza Hut success. Champs checks allow the company to find about their work force.

Audits: Pizza Hut owns code of conducts which can be analyzed and employees can be checked against it.

Goal Setting Theory

By setting goals, we're able to persist with the list of tasks and are compelled to develop strategies in order to reach our objective. This is the strong and wise procedure to motivate people. This theory has very close link with Management by Objectives (MBO). Goal setting is proved to be a very effective, powerful and useful approach in all types of organizations or even group of people. But it should bear in mind that the goals should be SMART. SMART means the goals are to be specific so one must clear in his mind what to do. It also to be measurable and should not force to do any impossible thing. It can be challenging but possible. It should be link with the organization objectives. Lastly there should be time limit to accomplish such goals. Impossible objectives de-motivate the moral of the people.

One thing is important we have discussed the reliable goals but bear in mind reliable goals does not mean easy task because very easy tasks are not really motivate. Challenging goals more motivating than easy and soft goals because of one must try to do a different thing which is difficult for others.

As per Don Hamachek (1989), "if individuals are machines, motivation is as the very engine that powers and directs individuals' behaviour. Motives serve three important functions: 1) energizing us (i.e., turning the key and starting the motivational engine), 2) directing us (i.e., pointing us in a particular direction), and 3) helping us to select the behaviour most appropriate for achieving our goals" (Don Hamachek, 1989, p.262).

Personal factors in motivation

The factors that can influence to motivate the person are his behaviour, the working environment and several personal factors. The role of personal factors to motivate someone is vital because if a person has not effect either with his status or his wealth any theory will be failed to move him to certain direction. The personal factors that can affect one's performance could be arousal (stimulating icon), personal beliefs, personal and family needs and goals.

Arousal

For taking idea on an arousal we can take the example from Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak (1994) which is self explanatory:

"Arousal is a physical and psychological reaction to the environment, including anxiety and curiosity motivation. An optimum level of arousal is needed for peak performance. So an appropriate arousal assists in enhancing motivation".

Need

What people desire for leading their lives is actually their need. In other sense it is the lacking of necessary thing. The need for achievement drives individual to fulfil their goals. The employees who have very intensive need for achieving and performing will be well motivated by challenging and hard tasks. Need will motivate to a person to achieve goals.

Belief

It is all about what people think. The belief also affects the motivation power in certain situations. It is the belief who actually force individual to work in a specific direction. My belief is on wise working rather than very hard or non stop. For example during working in Pizza hut I managed my work in a way that in a busy time I would able to handle the situation comparatively easier than others.

Goal

With learning goal, employees work purposefully and throw great effort to get organizational goals. It is very effective to help employees in order to motivate them set achievable and realistic goals. Goal setting theory is very important in relation with the productivity and efficiency.

Summary and Analysis

Key performance Indicators (KPI's) Pizza Hut

According to (wikipedia, 2007), "it is evident that KPI is used to reflect the strategic performance of an organization by measuring financial and non-financial metrics; ultimate target is to quantify the objectives. It is basically tied with the strategic aspect of any business".

For instance: Balance scorecard.

Pizza hut is also measuring KPIS by individual hut as well as area performance of different huts in the area. Here some of KPIS from operational point of view will be discussed for a brief picture of how Pizza hut is doing that, their impact, why they doing that etc.

Individual performance:

Operational strategic management in Pizza Hut has been implementing in terms of analysing different types of operations within the area and then compare it with other areas those are more profitable. These figures are largely published and communicate to whole of the company. Usually the performances are share with all huts and winners normally get appreciation and different sort of rewards in return. As it is already discussed employees willingness to work and enthusiasm actually caused by proper motivation and brings good results. KPI can be measure at any interval of time but in Pizza hut it usually happens on period wise. In every period this is to monitor the business performance in hut to hut level in the area. In this regard, employee performance measurement helps to understand the difference between the target and actual results so that in the following month the performance can be controlled for smooth operations, hence at the end of the year the individuals can see the impact of motivation on the whole.

Group performance:

On the basis of individual performance by ranking individual huts in terms of different KPIS, company not only highlight the success of huts but also develop sense of competition among the different huts within the region for the company benefit. This also allows them to work as good team among different huts and so they share their own individual success and shortcomings. All this is the part of business strategy of the company to remain outstanding among the competitors. The area manager regularly visits the huts and collects daily nightly figures on daily basis. If there is any thing need to get some clarifications he then contact to the particular hut for clear understanding.

Staff Benefits

From the Key performance Indicators (KPIs) analysis in primary research, it has already been cleared that how Pizza hut has been focussing on staff benefits other than regular pay in terms of human resource management. Also Pizza hut is managing people by following their own policy about recruitment, training and hiring people from outside. Pizza hut believes in flexible colleague a relation i.e. when the employees will be happy, he/she will do the best performance. Pizza hut is trying to get the job done by creating a friendly atmosphere by trusting the employees. But in other establishments, especially small pizza outlets like perfect pizza, one pizza and many others have been forcing extra pressure to finish their job, no matter what position the individual has got. As a friendly relationship among team members makes the whole company's environment friendly, as a result the employees are motivated automatically to help to the customers. Different sorts of staff benefits is provided by the company for example team members are allowed to have food if they work for 5 hours. Beside of the food some other fringe benefits are also there. The biggest benefit in my thought is the flexibility of working hours and accrual of holiday pay. The holiday pay can be taken even if the employee does not go on holiday. So he/she can encash his/her holiday for the sake of monetary benefit. These successful employees been tagged by the Pizza hut the secret of their success.