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1.1 ABX is a leading ICT institute in Sri Lanka. Having 15 branches all over the country, Among the 15 branches 3 of them are franchise. ABX facilitate the education programs starting from KIDS and goes up to the Msc level.
Bellow shows the structure of the ABX institute.
Board of Directors
IT Training Program
Organizational chart is the diagram which shows the structure of an organization and the relationships and the relative rank of its parts and positions who make up an organization. Further it shows relationship between organization's staff members.
Different types of organizational charts are following,
Flat(Also Known As Horizontal)
As per the above ABX Institute follow the flat base organizational structure. Most top level of the structure. Most top of the structure is Board of Director. Under Board of Director there are branch manager. As per ABX there are 15 branches. Each division of the branch having its own division manager who responsible to the branch manager.
When compare the flat structure with hierarchical structure there few differences ,
Hierarchical structure consist of many layers.
Decision making is difficult.
Decision making takes long time.
Lack of close relationship.
Personality of the organizational is called culture, in other words culture is consist of assumptions, values, norms and tangible signs of organizational members and their behaviors.
More specifically we can define the cultures
"the specific collection of values norms that are shared by people and groups in an organization and that control the way they interact with each other and with stakeholders outside the organization"
Types of organizational cultures
Power culture - Control is the key element.
Role culture - Organization split into various functions, with in the function each individual are assigned to particular role.
Task culture - Team based approach to complete a particular task.
Person culture - Forces on individual or particular aim.
Forward and backward looking culture - Always embrace change and listen to staff and customers.
The above ABX institute comes under Role culture.
An overall function of the institute is divided into separate divisions and divisional managers are responsible for their own division. So that divisional manages are specialized to particular area. Based on the above behavior of the organization this come under Role culture.
1.2 ABX institute offers verity of education services to its customers. Explain how the relationship between the ABX organizational structure and culture effects to its success.
1.3 As island wide ICT education provider, ABX broaden its human resources, explain the term individual behavior and what are the facts that influenced the individual behavior at work
Employees are differing from one to another in much respect. Manager need to understand each and every individual to take efficient performance from them. It is not easier to understand employee behavior. Because, human has very hostile behavior which is complex to understand and cannot be predict in advance. Therefore managers' responsibility to first analyse the task, determine the required skills and assemble a team that complement each other skills.
These are several factors that influence the individual behavior at work of employee.
Personality can be defined as, "Personality is the particular combination of emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral response patterns of an individual." (Wikipedia) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personality
Clearly personality can be shown as a unique insofar as each of us has our own personality, differ from any other person's. It doesn't change day by day. Identifying the personality of each and every employee is important because of these reasons. In an organization every individual matters. For an organization human resource would be the most valuable resource they have. Therefore investing in human capital could generate more and profits to the organization. Therefore understanding the values, attitudes and abilities is important to understand the personality of the employee in order to take maximum output from him.
Attitudes can be described as evaluate statements or judgments concerning objects, people or events. Attitudes are coming from the child-hood of a person. Through time these attitudes can become our beliefs and values. Measuring attitudes are important in two different ways,
Measure one's attitudes to work
Impact that one's attitudes can have on others
Attitudes are collaboration of three parts such as, affective, behavioral, and cognitive. Therefore attitudes also can influence the individual behavior at work.
Ability and Intelligence
This is also very important fact that influences the individual behavior. Most of the managers are more concern on this because of the importance it has. Because, managers know nothing can be accomplish without having necessary skills and abilities.
Ability can be defined as, "the quality of being able to perform; a quality that permits or facilitates achievement or accomplishment" (google.lk) and skill can be defined as, "an ability that has been acquired by training" (ibid). Therefore as mentioned above there should be right combination of skills and abilities for a successful performance of task.
2.1 identify and explain what are the organizational theories that ABX higher management implemented to achieve its success.
2.2 Organization to organization the management theories can be differs, identify and explain the management theories implemented for ABX and compare those with another organization's management theories.
Management theories which are presently used by companies can be categorize in to majorly four such as,
Classical Approach - Scientific Management, Administrative Management
Human Relations Approach
Classical approach refers to a formal hierarchy of authority which focuses on the tasks, machines, and systems needed achieve the task efficiently. This approach again divides in to two sub categories.
This is focuses on improvement of operational effectiveness (productivity) through the systematic and scientific study of work method, tools and performance standards.
3.1 different divisional heads at ABX maintains different types of leadership qualities, & achieves their business targets. Demonstrate how the leadership styles & approaches affect to the organization effectiveness.
Many people believe leadership is simply becoming the first, biggest or most powerful. Leadership in organizations has a different and more meaningful definition. Very simply put, a leader is interpreted as someone who sets direction in an effort and influence people to follow that direction.
Leadership can be defined as follows,
"Leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal." (about. com)
The role of leadership in management is largely determined by the organizational culture of the company. It has been argued that managers' beliefs, values and assumptions are of critical importance to the overall style of leadership that they adopt.
There are several different leadership styles that can be identified within each of the management processes.
The Laissez-Faire Manager
The autocratic leader demonstrates team-members, using unilateralism to achieve a singular objective. This approach is to leadership generally results in passive resistance from team members and requires continual pressure and direction from the leader in order to get things done. Generally, an authorization approach is not a good way to get the best performance from a team.
There are, however, some instances where an autocratic style of leadership may not be appropriate. Some situations may call for urgent action, and in these cases an autocratic style of leadership may be best.
The Laissez-Faire Manager
The Laissez-Faire Manager exercises little control over his group, leaving them to sort out their roles and tackle their work, without participating in this process himself. In general, this approach leaves the team floundering with little direction or motivation. Again there are situation where the Laissez-Faire approach can be effective. The Laissez-Faire technique is usually only appropriate wen leading a team of highly motivated and skilled people, who have produced excellent work in the past.
The democratic leader makes decisions by consulting his team, whilst still maintaining control of the group. The democratic leader allows his team to decide how the task will be tackled and who will perform which task.
The good democratic leader encourages participation and delegates wisely, but never loses sight of the fact that he bears the critical responsibility of leadership. He values group discussion and input from his team and can be seen as drawing from a pool of his team members' strong points in order to obtain the best performances from his team.
However, the democratic can also be seen as being so unsure of himself and his relationship with his sub-ordinates that everything is a matter for group discussion and decision. Clearly, this type of "leader" is not really leading at all.
Bernard Bass, a leadership expert, concluded that "leaders manage and managers lead, but the two activities are not similar". There are about numerous approaches of leadership, or about carrying out the role of leader.
early research on leadership was physiological focus of the day, which was of people having inherited characteristics or traits. Attention was put on discovering these traits, often by studying successful leaders, but with the underlying assumption that if other people could also be found with these traits, then they too, could also become great leaders. Simply it says leaders are coming from their birth.
Behavioral theories of leadership do not seek inborn traits or capabilities. Rather they look at what leaders actually do. If success defined in terms of describable actions, then it should be de relatively easy for other people to act in the same way. This is easier to teach and learn then to adopt the more ephemeral traits or capabilities.
This theory emphasize that the best action of the leader depends on variety of situational factors. When a decision is needed, an effective leader does not fall in to a single favorite style. Factors that affect situational decisions include motivation and capability of followers. Thus, in turn, is affected by factors within a particular situation.
Note: according to the given scenario the ABX Company has delegated each and every branch controlling power to its branch managers and they are supervised by the regional heads. Each branch is having five different divisions controlled by each divisional manager. Therefore, sole responsibility on retaining customers and fulfill their needs up to the maximum is depend on the each divisional managers. As I discussed in the above paragraphs managers (leaders) can have different types of style and approaches when they involve in controlling people.
3.2 Discuss different varieties of employee motivation theories. Identify and state what are the most suitable set of motivational theories that can be practically implemented to the internal staff of ABX.
Effective employee motivation is been one of management's most difficult and important duties. Success in this attempt is becoming more challenging in light of pressure to increase the productivity and consumer satisfaction while reducing cost. Since motivation influence productivity, supervision need to understand what motivates employees to reach peak performance.
Motivation can be defined as set of processes that moves a person towards a goal. Thus, motivated behaviors are voluntary choices controlled by the individual employee.
Theories of Motivation
Many methods of employee motivation have been developed. The study of work motivation has focused on the motivator as well as the motivatee. Implementing motivation theories are important for the managers to become effective leaders.
We can identified several motivation theories such as,
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
This theory identifies five levels of needs. Starting from very basic needs and ending with very sophisticated needs. According to this theory people are starting from the very first level of the hierarchy and moves forward. In other words when one stage is achieved next stage is activated it can be shown as follows
According to the Maslow's theory after person reach to the top of the hierarchy he becomes self-actualized and after words there is no other way of motivating him. With evolve of time people made contradictory ideas on Maslow's theory and it origins many other theories by different people.
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory
According to Herzberg motivation can be done in two different ways. He said motivation is two ways process of first provides hygienes and then motivators. Satisfaction comes from motivators that are job content, such as achievement, recognition, advancement, responsibility, the work itself, and growth responsibilities. Most of the time motivators are involve with nonfinancial benefits nonetheless hygiene factors involves financial benefits. Hygiens are not like motivators. They act as preventers. Basically hygiene factors use to encourage employees to stay on a particular job. It can be shown as follows,
Note: it's clear motivating is important to move person towards company goals. Also as discussed above, there are several motivation theories originated by several people. It is company policy is to find out what is the best method that they can use to motivate people. According to the given scenario I think the best way of motivation is could be achieve through by using the Herzberg's two factor theory. Because, specially, in peoples in countries like Sri Lanka could be motivated by financial benefits (hygiene) and company can use that initial advantage for long-term success of the company. After the employee is established in the organization company can use other motivation factors to upheld his performances.
3.3 Briefly explain the importance of implementing motivation theories to work place in managers point of view.
It obvious motivation is essential activity for an organization success. Therefore almost all the organizations are involved in this process. There are several advantages that managers can gain by motivating employees.
Profit Maximization - the primary objective of almost all the commercial organizations is to maximize their profit. To maximize profit efficiency of the organization is much needed which could be achieve through efficient work force. If the workforce is motivated and perform well this could be an easy task for the managers. But, If the employees are dissatisfied then it leads to the low performance of employees and ultimate to the low profits.
Less Internal Conflicts - this also another big problem facing by the most of the present companies which directly hiders to the company performance. Most of the time conflicts between employees accrue due to their dissatisfaction on work. To avoid the dissatisfaction on work motivation is needed.
Minimize Employee Turnover - this in the sense reducing the number of employee who left the organization. If the employees are dissatisfied they tempt to leave the organization which will badly effect on the organization future endeavor. To avoid this motivation of employees is needed.
These are some of the advantages that can achieve by managers by doing effective motivation practices which ultimately help to achieve company objectives.
4.1 Describe the common nature and behavior of groups in organization
The word of groups have defined by several people by several ways,
"Two or more persons who interact regularly to accomplish a common purpose or goal" (Ricky W Griffin)
"Two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives" (Robbins)
Therefore there is no universally accepted definition to describe the word group. Simply it is collection of people who works together to achieve a common goal.
To understand the behavior of a group it is important to understand the individual behavior of that group in advance. To understand the organizational behavior properly it is important to identify the group behavior in that organization. With the development of globalization team work or group work has gained more attention. Today importance of team working is essential in most organizations. Countries like Japan has taken more advantages from group work when compared to many countries. In an organization people are getting in to groups for different reasons. To obtain job security, to obtain self-esteem, because of power can be shown as some of the criterias which encourage employees to enter in to groups.
Security - such groups always works on securing the job security of the group members and the other employees in the organization. When management brought any hindering action on the job security of the workers they fight back to stop it.
Power - getting in to groups means is generating more power than in alone. Therefore most of the employees like to from groups which they receive high bargaining power.
4.2 Identify, explain about the facts affect to effective team work & describe what kinds of threats are possible to the success of the organization.
The effectiveness of the team work can be determined by many organizational, individual and environmental factors. Followings are some of the factors which affecting the effectiveness of the team work
Cohesiveness - group Cohesiveness is very important aspect need to consider when analyzing the group effectiveness. Group Cohesiveness means extent to which the group members are attracted to each other and to the group. Cohesiveness is the sum of forces acting on the members to remain in the group. It is determined by several factors such as, time spent together, group size, previous success.
Leadership - leadership is another factor which directly impact on the success of group work. Though the team is capable of achieving the intended tasks given by the organization it could be hinder by a poor leadership. Leader should understand the nature of the group members and provide full support to achieve the goals.
Environment - in here it discuss about the organizational culture. If the organizational culture motivates team work and workers there is huge tendency of succession in that team. If the company is having hostile culture towards team working that badly effect on the effective team work inside the organization.
Threats on Success
Achieving tasks as a group becomes easier to achieve organizational goals. But there are some factors that hinder this process. Following factors are some of them which can threat to the success of team work.
Social loafing - this means when people works together there is tendency of lowering the individual performance or in the other words tendency in reducing individual effort to the group. This will directly effect on the overall performance of the group.
Asch Effect - this means distortion of the individual judgment by various common but incorrect positions. Because of these hindrances individual person want be able to take effective decision and ultimately it will leads to employee distraction on team work.
Group think - this refers to some of faulty decision-making in a group. This could be accrue due to following reasons,
Few alternatives in decision making
No further information
No supports for experts
Because of these facts the effective teamwork could be threatened.
4.3 Briefly describe what source of an affect that the technology can give to the team function factor.
Technology is playing vital role in each and every action in the concurrent world. Therefore, it has made considerable involvement to the team functioning process also. Because of this new types of teams have evolved.
Virtual teams are teams of people who mainly interact through some kind of electronic media and meet face-to-face occasionally. Virtual teams can be defined as follows,
"is a group of individuals who work across time, space and organizational boundaries with links strengthened by webs of communication technology." (Wikipedia)
These type of groups are now been popular because of vast advantages they have. Some of the advantages are categorized as follows,
People can work from any ware and any time
Peoples' competencies can be consider than physical location when recruiting
There is no travel time
This means with the development of the technology, companies have been able to consist of staff from four corners of the globe. Multi-cultural groups can be formed either in the same office or across borders. When people work from across boarder different types of cultural and social aspects need to be considered. Lack of underrating creates problems. Therefore proper way of communication is needed for these type of teams to carry on their works.
Note: in the given case ABX company is an ICT provider to the community can have the advantage of forming virtual and cross-cultural teams. By that they can communicate their goals and values to different people groups easily. Not like in other organizations, since, they have the sources (infrastructure) of communication they will be able to have competitive advantage over other ICT providers.