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Every organization has a problem of unscheduled and unauthorized absenteeism which result the unnecessary burden on the other employee of the organization which is unfair, ultimately hinder the satisfaction of the customers and affect the country's economy. Experiences shows that if any organization has a better attendance it results in better quality and. Lower cost and better productivity. Survey shows if the manager of an organization controls the unnecessary absenteeism it helps to increase the productivity. At the 50% of the absenteeism of the employees is not caused by the reason of illness or any other genuine reasons.
The rate of absenteeism is higher in the manufacturing industries among blue collar worker then the white collar workers. So the absenteeism is higher among the union setting other then the nounion settings. The rate of absenteeism is higher in women then the men because they are much more sensitive to the family needs rather then the men. On the other hand married person are less absent then the single person because married person have a responsibility of his family and he has to fulfill all the requirements of it where as a single person work for his self which doesn't bother him or her a lot for the job. Generally there are two types of absenteeism approved and unapproved so every organization has to determine that which category they falls in and how to deal with the unapproved absenteeism.
CONTROLLING DISRUPTIVE ABSENTEEISM:
The first question which needs to be asked by the management is concerning absenteeism is whether to use a punitive or reward system in controlling the absenteeism. Large manufacturing firms showed increase in the rate of the attendance by offering good incentives and the funds to the employees of the organization to get the good attendance of the employees. But the latest report shows that the employees who abuse the sick time didn't motivated by the incentives. Rewarding the good at tenders with the incentives and cash bonuses has been ineffective because the sick time abusers away from work more then money so they are not much motivated with all that incentives which is provided by the organization. Most employees have a good attendance record but most of the employee exploiting the rule of the organization by taking more then there allowed sick leaves. So a result company has to use there policy to "use it or lose it".
A "no-fault" absentee program approach disregards the reason why an employee is absent. The employer sets a limit of unscheduled absences and holds the employee accountable. Once the employee uses the allotted number of days allowed, a system of progressive disciplinary actions is activated ending in discharge. This type of system is designed to punish abusers, not reward good attenders.
WHY EMPLOYEE GET ABSENT:
There is a lot of factor which result the absent of the employee in an organization few of the reasons which are as follows:
Poor employee morale.
Personnel conflict between the employees.
Unsatisfactory Compensation and benefit programs.
Unrealistic job expectations
Unsafe or stressful workplace conditions
There are also other personality characteristics that are related with the absenteeism including, among others, reliability, freedom from disruptive alcohol use, and dependability. Employees often cite, child or parent care and the need to take care of certain personal business during normal working hours as reasons for their absence. The employees who works in a scheduling system they are most absent form the work because they have to attend there personal business. Employee like that needs a proper schedule work so that there commitment with the work increases to the organization. Scheduling of the work may increase extrinsic motivation because the working condition are improved on that basis so the commitment of the employee increases with the work by scheduling the work.
Every organization has its own policy for absenteeism that how they control the leave time and how they manage there staff accordingly. The process for managing employee attendance can be achieved in five simple steps which are as follows:
Educate: explain the company attendance policy to all the employee of the company. Meet the employee who have genuine attendance problem and keep the record of each meeting.
Monitor: keep all the record up to date and accurate and observe all the employees time of arrival and what time they leave the job or are absent and ask the reason that why they are late or absent.
Counsel: try to meet the employee privately to discuss the attendance problem they are having tell then about your expectation regarding the attendance and keep record of each talk.
Follow up: after the private meeting with the employee if the behavior occurs again does another meeting and when you find out why confer with your human resources department for guidance and support.
Corrective Action: Take the progressive steps according to the company's policy verbal warning, written warning, suspension and then termination and keep the record of everything.
Attendance policy is useless unless it is strictly enforced by the management and have to be followed constantly. Employer has to keep all the record of the attendance of the employees who abuse sick leave and these records are to show the exact pattern of the absentee.
Once employees are educated about the attendance policy and management keeps accurate records, management then has evidence if an employee is abusing the policy. When this occurs, appropriate disciplinary procedures or corrective actions, as defined by company policies, should be implemented.
CARROT AND STICK APPROACH
In the participatory management the approach of carrot and stick is quite simple in terms of controlling the absenteeism the approach tells that how u manage your staff to control the absents in the organization. Suppose an organization having a problem of absenteeism and they want to control that what they have to do?
By issuing the stricter attendance policy.
By distributing the memo to encourage the supervisor to confront the missing employees.
Helping employees in solving problem of their work and family.
In an organization the 90% of the employee have much absents who are having the problems in their families and it can be control by flexible scheduling of the work which can control the rate of absent up to 30%.Recent findings such as those signal a change in the way employers are controlling behavioral risks, which include such disparate problems as absenteeism, workplace violence, accidents, theft, substance abuse, excessive health care utilization, and even lawsuits filed by employees. "Positive strategies [for dealing with] problems lead to more positive outcomes. So the employer has to be flexible with the employee and give them pathway to solve their problem which is blocking their work.
A FOUR PRONGED STATEGY:
Some of the management experts suggest some strategies controlling the absenteeism in an organization. These strategies fall along in preventing on one end, to early intervention in the middle to late stage intervention on the other stage. These strategies are:
Work team and employee
Supportive programme and services.
Organization development depends upon the total quality management which helps to improve the motivation of the employees. These kinds of approaches used such as empowerment and work teams which help to give power to the worker about the daily operations.
In participatory work environments, training employees to assume responsibility for behavioral problems is vital because command-and-control approaches are no longer considered appropriate. "Stern disciplinary policies in a team environment don't work because they are contrary to the idea of self-directed activities. Quality auditor who helps employers implements self-directed work teams. But even enlightened employers still have problems of what to do with people who "don't want to work in a very responsible and accountable way.
Work Team and Employees:
Another problem which is quite common in the organization is about those people who are old employees in the organization and try to intimidate the others by their loudness and that thing lead to confrontation and those people who are passive and unassertive leads to withdraw from the team. These kinds of behavior problems can overcome while getting the training sessions in which the tolerant and unacceptable behavior is defined to the employees of an organization.
Supportive Program and Services:
Employee assistance, wellness and conflict management programs provide workers with tools for resolving their own problems. Employee assistance programs encourage requests for help with work-related behavioral problems by conditioning continued employment on meeting standards of conduct and work performance.
MONEY AS A MOTIVATOR:
Earlier writers such as F.W. Taylor believed that in economic needs motivation. Workers would be motivated by obtaining the highest possible wages through working in the most efficient and productive way. Performance was limited by physiological fatigue.
For Taylor motivation was comparatively simple issue what the workers wanted from their employers more than anything else was a high wages. This approach is the rational economic concept of motivation the idea and the rational economic need the concept of motivation and subsequent approaches to motivation at work have fuelled the containing debate about the financial rewards as a motivation and their influence on productivity.
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
There are many competing theories which attempt to explain the nature of motivation. These theories may all be at least partially true and help to explain the behavior of the certain people at certain time. However the search for the generalized theories of motivation at work appears to be in vain. A major determinant of behavior is the particular situation in which individual workers find themselves. Motivation varies over time and according to circumstances. It is often most acute for younger people starting on their careers. For people at mid careers position or for those who find limited opportunities for promotion or further advancement. For employers there may be difficulties in motivating staff both in the longer terms as well as in the short run.
MASLOW HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEROY:
Maslow identified eight innate needs incliding the need to know and understand aesthetic needs and the need for transcendence. However the hierarchy is usually shown as raging through five main levels form at the lowest level physiological needs through safety needs love needs and esteem needs to the need fot self actualization at the highest level. The hierarchy of need shows the series of steps but is usually in the form of pyramid.
These include homeostatic such as satisfaction of the hunger and thrust the need for oxygen and to main the temperature regulation. Also sleep sensory pleasure activities maternal behavior and sexual desire.
These include safety and security freedom from pain or threat of physical attack protection from danger or deprivation the need for predictability and orderliness.
These include affection, sense of belonging social activities, friendship and both the giving and receiving of love.
These include both self respect and the esteem of others. Self respect involves the desire for confidence, strength, independence and freedom and achievement. Esteem of others involves reputation or prestige.
This is the development and realization of one's full potential. Maslow sees this as what human can be they must be or becoming scarily a creative urge and may take many forms which vary widely from one individual to another.
ALDERFER'S MODIFIED NEED HIERARCHY MODEL:
A modified need hierarchy has been presented by ALDERFER'S this condenses Maslow's five level of needs in to only three levels based on the core needs of existence, relatedness and growth.
There are the concerned with sustaining human existence and survival and cover physiological and safety needs of a material nature.
They are concerned with relationship to the social environment and cover a love or belonging, affiliation and meaningful interpersonal relationship of a safety or esteem nature.
Are the needs with the development of potential and cover self esteem and self actualization.
A CONTINUUM OF NEEDS:
Like Maslow Alderfer suggest that individual progress through the hierarchy from exsistence needs to relatedness nedds to growth needs as the lower level needs become satisfied. However Alderfer suggest these needs are more continuum than the hierarchy levels of needs. More then one need may be activated at the same time. Individual may also progress down the hierarchy. There is a frustration regression process.
Alderfer proposed number of basic proposition relating to the three need relationship. Some of these proposition followed by the Maslow theory some were the reverse of the theory. A number of studies were undertaken to test these proposition that the less existence needs are satisfied the more they will be desired received constant support from all six samples.
SATISFACTION OF NEEDS:
Unlike the Maslow theory the result of Alderfer work suggest that lower level needs do not have to satisfied before a higher level of need emerge as a motivating influence. The result however do support before the idea that lover level needs decrease in strength as they become satisfied theory states that an individual is motivated to satisfy one or more basic sets of needs. Therefore if a person needs at a particular level is blocked then attention should be focused on the satisfaction of needs at a other level. For example if a subordinate growth needs are blocked because the job does not allow opportunity for personal development then the manager should attempt to provide greater opportunities fot the subordinate to satisfy existence and relatedness.
THEORY X AND THEORY Y:
Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human motivation created and developed by Douglas McGregor at the MIT Sloan School of Management in the 1960s that have been used in human resource management, organizational behavior, organizational communication and organizational development. They describe two very different attitudes toward workforce motivation. McGregor felt that companies followed either one or the other approach. He also thought that the key to connecting self-actualization with work is determined by the managerial trust of subordinates.
In this theory, which has been proven counter-effective in most modern practice, management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work if they can and that they inherently dislike work. As a result of this, management believes that workers need to be closely supervised and comprehensive systems of controls developed. A hierarchical structure is needed with narrow span of control at each and every level. According to this theory, employees will show little ambition without an enticing incentive program and will avoid responsibility whenever they can.
The Theory X manager tends to believe that everything must end in blaming someone. He or she thinks all prospective employees are only out for themselves. Usually these managers feel the sole purpose of the employee's interest in the job is money. They will blame the person first in most situations, without questioning whether it may be the system, policy, or lack of training that deserves the blame.
In this theory, management assumes employees may be ambitious and self-motivated and exercise self-control. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. According to Papa, to them work is as natural as play. They possess the ability for creative problem solving, but their talents are underused in most organizations. Given the proper conditions, theory Y managers believe that employees will learn to seek out and accept responsibility and to exercise self-control and self-direction in accomplishing objectives to which they are committed.
A Theory Y manager believes that, given the right conditions, most people will want to do well at work. They believe that the satisfaction of doing a good job is a strong motivation. Many people interpret Theory Y as a positive set of beliefs about workers. A close reading of The Human Side of Enterprise reveals that McGregor simply argues for managers to be open to a more positive view of workers and the possibilities that this creates. He thinks that Theory Y managers are more likely than.
HERZBERG TWO FACTOR THEORY:
Herzberg original study consisted of interviews with the accountants and the engineers chosen because of their growing importance. The two factor theory by Herzberg consist of the factor which, if absent cause dissatisfaction. These factors are related to job contents. They are concerned with job environment and extrinsic to the job itself. These factor are hygiene and maintenance factor they both serve to prevent dissatisfaction. The other set of factor are those which if present serve to motivate the individual to superior effort and performance. These factor are related to job contents of the work itself they are motivator or growth factor. The strength of thses factor will affect feelings of satisfaction or no satisfaction but no dissatisfaction.
MCCLELLANDS ACHIVEMENT MOTIVATION THEORY:
McClelland's works originated from investigation into the relationship between hunger and needs and the extent to which imagery of food dominated thought process from subsequent research indentified that there are four main arousal based, socially developed motive.
The achievement motive
The power motive
The Affinitive motive
The avoidance motive
The first three motive correspond roughly to Maslow self actualization, esteem and love needs. The relative intensity of these varies between individuals. It also tends to vary between different occupations. Managers appear to be a higher in achievement motivation than in affiliation. McClelland saw the achievement need as a most critical for the country economic growth and success. The need to achieve is linked in entrepreneurial spirit and the development of available resources.
PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION:
Process theories and extrinsic theories of motivation among the dynamic variable which make up motivation and the action required to influence behavior and action. Many of the process theories cannot be linked to a single writer but major approaches leading writer included
Expectancy theory (vroom and porter and lawler)
Equity theory (Adam)
Goal theory (Locke)
Attribution theory (Heider, and Kelley)
VROOMS EXPECTANCY THEORY:
Vroom was the first person to propose an expectancy theory aimed specifically at work motivation his model is based on three key factors which are valence, instrumentally and expectancy
The feeling about specific outcomes is termed as valence. This is the attractiveness of or preference for particular outcomes to the individual. Vroom distinguished valence from value. A person may desire an object but gain little satisfaction from obtaining it.
There are two level of instrumentality which leads distinction between these two levels
The first level outcome performance: This is related to the quantity of output or to the comparative level of performance. Some may seek to perform well for its own sake and without thought to expected consequences of their action.
The second level of performance: they are derived through achievement of first level outcomes that is through achieving high performance many need related outcomes are dependent upon actual performance rather than effort expected.
When a person chooses between alternative behaviors which have uncertain outcomes the choice is affected not only by the preference for particular outcomes but also by the profitability that such an outcome will be achieved. People develop a perception of the degree.
THE PORTER AND LAWLER EXPECTANCY THEORY:
The theory explains about the model which goes beyond the motivational force and considers performance as a whole. They point out that effort expended does not lead directly to performance. They also introduce reward as an interviewing variable. Porter and Lawler see motivation, satisfaction and performance as separate variables and attempt to explain the complex relationship among them.
Value of reward: is a similar to valence in vroom model. People desire various outcomes which they hope to achieve from work.
Perceived effort-reward profitability: is similar to expectancy. It refers to a person expectation that certain outcomes are dependent upon a given amount of effort.
Effort: is how hard the person tries, the amount of energy, a person exerts on given activity.
Abilities and traits: porter and Lawler suggest that effort does not lead directly to performance but it influenced by individual character.
Role perception: it refer the way in which individual view their work and the role they should adapt. This influence the effort they exerted.
Performance: depends upon the amount of effort exerted but also on the interviewing influence in the person's capabilities.
Reward: are the desirable outcomes intrinsic reward derive from the individual themselves and include a sense of achievements.
Perceived equitable reward: this is the level of reward people feels they should fairly receive for a given standards.
Satisfaction: this is not the same as motivation it is an attitude an individual internal state. Satisfaction is determined by both actual reward received.
LAWLER REVISED EXPENTANCY THEORY:
Following the original porter and lawler model further work was undertaken by the lawler. He suggest that in deciding on the attractiveness of alternative behavior there are two types of expectancies to be consider.
The first expectancy (Eïƒ P): is the person perception of the profitability that a given amount of effort will result.
The second expectancy (Pïƒ Q): is the person perception of the profitability that a given level of performance will actually lead to particular need related outcomes.
EQUITY THEORY OF MOTIVATION:
Equity theory applied to the work situation equity theory is usually associated with the work of Adams. Equity theory focuses on feelings of how fairly thet have been treated in comparison with the other treatment received by the others. It sis based on exchange theory people evaluate their social relationship in the same way as buying or selling an item. People expect certain outcomes in exchange of certain contribution. Most exchanges involves a number of input and outcomes according to equity theory people place a weighting on these inputs and outcomes according to the total input equal to the perceived ratio of the other people total outcomes to total inputs there is equity.
Another theory of motivation is the goal theory ot the theory of the goal setting by the LOCKE. The basic premise of goal theory is that people goals or intention play an important part in determining behavior. Locks accept the importance of perceived value as indicated in other theories. Goal theory has a number of practical implications for the managers.
Specific performance goals should be identified and be set.
Goals should be set at a challenging but realistic level.
Complete accurate and timely feedback provides in terms of checking progress.
Goal can be determined either by superior or by individual themselves.
A more recent approach of the study of motivation is attribution theory. Attribution is the process by which people interpret the perceived cause of behavior.
Upon completion of this task, reflect on how organisational behaviour theory in general relates to everyday practice.
RELEVANCE OF THEORIES ON THE DAILY LIFE:
Given the most major theories of the motivation date back many years it is inevitable that question will be raised about the relevance. However we have seen form the discussion about that there is still appear to be general support for the theories and perhaps ironically particularly the for the early theories of Maslow and Herzberg and McGregor. By the fact and the research it is carried out that the person working in an organization needs a reward for their performance of the work. In every origination the only way to motivate the worker is to make they realize that they are only the asset of the organization and give them reward for their performance in term of money or any other incentives.
Staff and management should realize that the reward are multi faceted and usually come in bundles that combine money achievements personal and professional growth. What manager should do is create a reward bundles for the employees who are working with them. In our daily life there is a lot of things which we have to face while working in an organization but to achieve our goals and aim we have to face there things courageously. This may take the form of specific creative outcomes new knowledge disseminated. Meeting the targets and deadlines and solving the critical problems which contribute the customer added features. A basic understanding of their main principles will be invaluable for building a climate of honesty, openness and trust, the use of management in technical organization found the work of Maslow and McGregor the most popular motivational theories which lead to the successful implementation of quality system.
Organization majority of the people are not satisfy with the environment and the condition of the work most of the people are fed up with the attitude of the people of the upper level who don't care about the employee of the bottom level and make the decisions by them selves without considering the employees . the manager of an organization should be aware of every need of its employee and try to full fill them to get the attention of its employee toward the work and make them 100% sure about the benefit and reward which they will get if they work hard because now a day's people are much more attracted toward the reward they just think what they will get if they complete their work and they don't think about the professionalism. So for an organization all the need and wants of the employee should be kept on the top priority if they want to get the best from them and don't let any worker away without paying attention toward them because little things make a big difference and that difference can create the big thing for an origination. So after discussing all the theories it is concluded that the worker of any organization is the back bone of it so they should be treated well.
Management and Organizational behavior (Laurie Mullins edexcel)
Essential of Organization Behavior (Laurie J Mullins)
While working in organization few of the things are added by myself of my own personal experiences and ideas and try to put them in to my words to make my assignment more effective and knowledgeable.