Over the years relationship between bonus issues or stock splits stock prices has been the subject of much empirical discussion within the finance literature. According to theory, bonus issues increase the number of equity stocks outstanding but have no effect on stockholder's proportional ownership of stocks. The bonus issue or stock splits date is known well in advance and therefore should contain no new information. As such, one would not expect any significant price reaction on bonus issue or stock splits announcement. Contrary to this theoretical prediction, however empirical studies of bonus issues and stock splits have documented a statistically significant market price reaction. It is therefore a matter of concern that firms announcing bonus issues & stock splits experience rise in their stock prices on an average supporting semi-strong form Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH).
Generally the investigation of semi-strong form market efficiency has been limited to the study of well-developed stock markets. The aim of this paper is to examine the stock price reaction to information release of bonus issues or stock splits with a view of examining whether the Indian stock market is semi-strong efficient or not. The event study methodology (Dolley 1993, Fama et al. 1969 and Brown & Warner 1980, 1985) has been used to contribute further evidence on the efficiency characteristics of the Indian stock market.
Definition of an Electrical Vehicle
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An electric vehicle (EV), also referred to as an electric drive vehicle, uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. Three main types of electric vehicles exist, those that are directly powered from an external power station, those that are powered by stored electricity originally from an external power source, and those that are powered by an on-board electrical generator, such as an internal combustion engine (a hybrid electric vehicle) or a hydrogen fuel cell. Electric vehicles include electric cars, electric trains, electric lorries, electric aero planes, electric boats, electric motorcycles and scooters and electric spacecraft..
Today the world's automobile population is growing at a much faster rate than the human population. In 1950, there were about 50 million vehicles on Earth. By 1994 the vehicle population had grown to almost 600 million, and if the present trend continue there will be over 3 billion vehicles on Earth by the year 2050. Besides granting vehicle users freedom, privacy and convenience, usage of the automobile also threatens our environment. Particularly, by dumping increasing amounts of carbon dioxide and other climate-altering greenhouse emissions into the atmosphere. Internal combustion engine vehicles (ICVs) cause severe harm to both environment and humans.
To reduce the harms of automobile usage, cleaner fuels have been developed and fuel catalysts have been implemented. However, these measures do not affect the emission of carbon dioxide, the major contributor to the greenhouse effect. Dealing with the problems associated with the increasing number of vehicles worldwide without curtailing peoples' freedom of movement and choice - a basic value of a democratic society - is one of the greatest challenges of our time. Substituting current automobiles with an environmentally sounder fleet seems to be an unavoidable element in a realistic solution. This could either be done by increasing the efficiency and reducing the emissions of ICVs, switching to less noxious fuels or by finding less polluting propulsion systems. The first two alternatives seem most obvious and closest at hand, but in practice disappointingly little has happened in terms of achieving environmental benefits along these routes. This is one of the reasons why increasing interest gathers around developing vehicles with a less polluting propulsion system, which could reduce local pollution as well as greenhouse emissions from the transportation system. However, compared to ICVs, current electric vehicles (EVs) still have disadvantages that make them less attractive. Current battery technology, not allowing unlimited driving ranges, relatively long recharging times and high initial purchase prices are some of the EVs' major disadvantages. On the other hand, fuel for EVs is inexpensive, electric motors last significantly longer than internal combustion engines and motor maintenance is minimal. If the full costs of current environmental pollution were taken into account, EVs would compare more favorably to ICVs. Hence, an important challenge for marketers and policy-makers wanting to create a global market for EVs is to assure that the market is adequately informed, not only about the disadvantages, but also about the advantages of this new technology. Seen with the eyes of a potential customer, the EV technology is a new (and unknown) propulsion system, which mainly removes one of the many non-market disadvantages of traditional ICVs (local emissions) and reduces significantly a second (greenhouse gas emissions). However, these societal benefits come at high costs to the individual owner user of the EV: higher price, limited driving range, shorter availability on a daily basis (due to re-charge time), less loading capacity (because of the batteries) and lower speed and acceleration. In addition, the usability of an EV is hampered by the lack of an infrastructure for refueling (recharging). On top of this, the EV does not solve other social ills connected with private transportation: congestion, traffic accidents and the need for a dense lattice of paved roads.
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Electric vehicles promise large energy and environmental benefits. They are quieter and will likely have lower operating and maintenance costs than internal Combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). Electric vehicles will also be capable of being recharged at home, work and other unconventional, but convenient, locations.
At least initially, electric vehicles are using batteries to store electrical energy. But batteries have low energy density, which results in greatly reduced driving ranges. Also, typical battery recharging times are measured in hours, not minutes. Limited range (mileage) and long recharge times create uncertainty and skepticism about the possibility of selling battery electric vehicles (BEVs) to consumers habituated to long driving ranges and quick, ubiquitous refueling.
However, there are some barriers that hinder the widespread adaptation of EV's.
Consumers lack knowledge or are misinformed about electric vehicle facts, from the basics of how the vehicles operate, to their comparative safety and reliability
Consumers need to be convinced that PEVs meet their driving needs, especially regarding range and recharging convenience.
Consumers tend to have a poor understanding of how "green" electric cars are. Despite PEVs being far more environmentally friendly than traditional vehicles, consumers are still concerned about the environmental impact of the car batteries and the effect of coal-sourced power on a PEV's carbon footprint.
New infrastructure like charging stations need to be setup in order to facilitate the shift in technology and change the consumer attitudes towards EV's.
Widespread consumer adoption is crucial to the success of electric cars. Without sustainable commercial success of PEVs, automobile manufacturers will have little motivation to continue producing electric vehicles, let alone develop second generation designs or more advanced batteries.
Thus it is crucial for car manufacturers to understand the consumer perception of electric vehicles and induce mass adaptation.
This research paper would focus only on products that fall under the food supplements categories which include Protein Powders, Health Drinks & Shakes, Pediatric Nutrition Products, Protein Bars, Herbal Extracts, Enteral Nutrition Products, anti-oxidants, and multivitamins.
The awareness of electric vehicles in India has been low, mainly due to the lack of options available to customers. But in the wake of ever increasing fuel costs, electric vehicles have become more and more desirable in India over the last few years. The scope of this research deals with understanding the vehicle usage and commuting patterns among daily commuters and developing insights that would provide information on switching behavior and preferences about electric vehicles.
To identify various factors leading to purchase of an electric vehicle
To study various factors that are hindering the adoption of electric vehicles
To understand and create the demographic and psychographic profile of consumers who are willing to purchase an electric vehicle
Statement of the Problem
The immense surge in concern for global warming has raised questions on today's consumer perceptions about the internal combustion engine that is the primary contributor to global warming. The ever increasing cost of fuel has further pushed consumers to think about alternatives to the IC engine. The electric car looks to address these problems. The problem for the marketer is to understand the consumer behavior towards electric vehicles and evaluate readiness of the market that would eventually lead to the success of electric vehicles.
Understanding the consumer behavior of Indian commuters who travel daily in terms of various factors that lead to purchase of Electric vehicles and affect the consumer perception, by collecting responses using the research instrument (questionnaire)
Variables of the Study
The different variables involved in studying the consumer perception of electric vehicles include their Availability, Safety concerns, Affordability, Warranty period, Feasibility for daily use based on commuting patterns.
H0: The mileage (range) of EV influences the consumer purchase decision
H1: The mileage (range) of EV does not influence the consumer purchase decision
H0: The cost of EV influences the consumer purchase decision
H1: The cost of EV does not influence the consumer purchase decision
Design of the Study
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A Quantitative Research design shall be used since the statement of the problem was clear and the research work was conducted for a definitive purpose, studying the responses about their perception of electric vehicles.
Primary data would be collected through structured questionnaires deployed online as well as offline
Secondary data collection shall be done using news articles, magazines, industry reports
A structured questionnaire with closed-ended questions would be used to collect relevant information regarding this study.
Residents of Bangalore who commute with their own vehicle (car or bike)
Members of groups on social media sites, friends and family
Sample Unit/ Profile
Every unit of the sample should be over 18 years of age and should possess a valid driver's license, either that of a 2 wheeler or a 4 wheeler or both.
This research would use convenience sampling and collect information pertaining to students, adults and older populations across both genders, with respect to use driving patterns, daily travel distance.