A Structural Approach to Boost Performance through Inspiration



Basic Aim of this study paper is to find out the motivational factors in working at Primark (Harrow high street Branch) and to examine whether there is a need of inspiration for employees working at different levels to increase the performance in the Primark Stores Ltd. This research will aim to investigate the need of different encouraging approaches in the Primark depending on the position of the workforce.


In current years the significance of Human Resource has improved; this is the reason of abroad fiscal competitions in present times. According to information some of the countries like Japan, Germany and India, the investment is higher in compare to United Kingdom. In organisation there are many vital areas of focusing for company's growth and one of the central areas is training and development, and the model is worked in many traditions between the training and development. Training is the work of succession better information and ability of workforce for performing the work assigned to him. Teaching is a short term

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process. Expansion is a long term learning course thought it professional personnel are trained conceptual and hypothetical information for worldwide point which also recover the activities of an employee.

Training and development is very key point for any organisation. Training and development is essential for every period of the organisation for example, if there is internal promotion happened than also training become necessary, same ways for new staff, for new project, to recognize new technology. All the stage the Training and development become necessary. The topic of the report is efficient training and development methods can help workforce to achieve well, Case study Primark. Here the main logical to choosing this particular topic is that nowadays many of the organisation avoided Training and development to save time and money, But thought some hypothesis and practical example it explains that to have good Training and development can help workers to present well. And good presentation of workers helps organization and its employee both directly and also indirectly.

The main aspire and Objectives of this swot up are as describe.

The main aim is: To significantly assess alternative training and development methods, and its outcome on employee's performance. And give details the importance of training and development for the workforce, and the objectives are as listed.

2 Objectives of research:-

The main research objectives are as follows:

To study the factors that affects the motivational level of Primark employees.

To study and evaluate whether boost in motivation leads to rise in job satisfaction.

To study whether the workforce are happy with their present job duties and the place they are offered

3 Company Background:-

Subsidiary of Associated British Foods (ABF) and voted as the best value high street fashion, Primark Stores Ltd., is one of the leading retail groups. It owns a total of 192 stores across Ireland, Holland, Spain and the U.K. It employs more than 27,500 people.

The reason behind the achievement of Primark is because of its reasonable pricing policy, market locations, and focus on target market. Primark has developed its dynamic corporate culture which is customer focused which can be seen in its product offerings. Its main target is young fashion conscious under the age of 35 and provides good quality fashion ware at low price.

The HR policies mainly focus on raising the company profile and its reputation which makes Primark an attractive place to work. They do this by tying up links with local communities , job centres, colleges, universities and designing jobs that are flexible, so as to meet the needs of individuals and its company operations. Applicants are selected on the basis of their nature to adapt to fast moving business, data of fashion and who can contribute to the business and have some potential to grow within the organization. Selected applicants undergo an induction and are given training before the opening of a store. This helps to build an energetic and enthusiastic store team who will perform to the high standards of Primark.

Primark has always been fair and sincere in its bond ship with customers and provides standard of product which it has agreed with a price which is value for money. Primark ensures that the goods or services they provide meet the safety and quality standards.

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Being a member of Ethical Trading Initiative (E.T.I.), Primark strictly follows the Ethical strategy. The main intention of this strategy is to encourage value for the people's right in factories all over the world. It has committed to keep regular checks and steadily getting better conditions of work in the factories which provide goods to Primark. It has also implemented an extensive audit program which is undertaken by independent specialists, which is been backed up by Primark's Ethical trading managers who are based in the main producing regions.

3.1 Competitors:-

There are two successful competitors of Primark such as George at Asda, and TK Maxx which are very strong. All three have similar market positioning being in the value segment but the strategies of the two are different as compared to Primark. Tk Maxx believes in selling status brands on deep discount where as George at Asda has shaped its own brand with private-label. Being a high street retailer Primark not just focus on branding it also gives regularly importance on buying supplying and logistic as well.

3.2 Current Scenario (Impact of recession at Primark):-

Primark being a discounted fashion store has benefited by the credit crunch where they have reported a boost up in sales (BBC).Shoppers cannot afford designer cloths and can get a good alternative at this store.

There was an increase in profits by 10% despite recession. The reported operating profits were £122m in the six months to the beginning of March and sales of close to £1.1bn, an 18% increase on the previous year. Like-for-like sales were 5% higher. (Guardian.co.uk)

As Primark's garments are sourced in dollars, due to that it has been alarmed against the weakness of sterling pound V/S US dollar. But it doesn't affect their prices in store. According to George Weston, chief executive of parent company (Guardian.co.uk)

3.3 Future Plans of Primark:-

Primark is planning to open seven more stores in second half including in Bristol and Cambridge and relocation in Tooting in London. (drapersonline.com)

3.4 Market Share of Primark:-

Primark has become the biggest value fashion retailer by overtaking George at Asda. (drapersonline.com)

Primark's market share by value rose from 16.5% to 17.7% during 2008. Asda's George clothing business also saw its market share climb slightly, but it rise from 16.9% to 16.94% during the year (According to figures from retail research firm Verdict, reported in The Daily Telegraph today)

Tesco's fashion business overtook TK Maxx to be the third largest low price clothing retailer by value of market share. The report also said that development in the sector will continue to slow in 2009; they are expecting to raise the price by 2010, as the era of price deflation comes to an end

4 Literature review:-

In this literature review we are going to talk about different kind of encouragement theories as well as approaches towards motivation there are various aspects that manipulate employee's level of motivation such as social, cultural, gender and structure of organization.

If we notice in a group which is the stage similar jobs, it is seen that some do it in a better way than others. If we find out there are particular encourage behind these differences in achievement. There are many reasons behind performance of the workers such as knowledge of person and his learn power from experiences. To improve workers performance number of strategies has been developed in many organizations some of them could be training which develop necessary skills of the workers, selection of workers for a particular job who have necessary skills and talents to achieve etc. The differences in the performance of each individual doing similar jobs that reflect differences in their motivational levels. To increase the motivation of a person who acquired high skill to present the job will show the better result than person acquiring low ability. (Victor H. Vroom and Edward L. Deci, 1988)

For motivating people there are several kinds of approaches and strategies. Paternalistic approach is related directly towards job satisfaction and indirectly on employee's decisions to continue or discard with the present organization. Reward and penalties are directly correlated to the employee performance (Taylor, 2002), so we can conclude that rewards are always interdependent on the performance. The challenge of motivating employees is as old as any other organizational activity but the last half century has seen the use of scientific methods to reach the solution. Victor H. Vroom and Edward L. Deci, 1988

4.1 Motivation:-

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Rabey (2001) says that motivating employees is not an easy job. A manger cannot inspire its worker. He only can do is to create a situation and allow people to respond to it. The member of staff will respond to this situation and that will be his/her own call to do. He argues that motivation is not an outer factor. It is within all us to get motivated, provided with a suitable situation. Reis and Pana (2001) agrees with this argument but at the same time also raises a question "how do we create a situation where workforce can be motivated?" They states previously, only two major approaches have been observed to motivate the work staff, by creating an environment of fear within the workforce and being strict with them, on the other hand, taking an attempt to understand them and making things easy for them. Rabey says that the organisations in today's competitive atmosphere are under stable pressure to achieve to its best and make of the resources to its very best. He says that merely by introducing bonus scheme and reward does address the issue. There are some important issues that need to be addressed to introduce such schemes, which would make clear about the standards of the workplace to the employees. Those are:

A Goal- The employee should be made to realize of the work is quite reasonable and why the company has its rules and regulations.

A sense of Participation- He/she should be made realize that s/he is part of team and others in the group depend on him/her. He/She is being listened.

Recognition- The employee be made realize that they are recognized for their good work and gets due credit for their hard work and attempts.

Communication- The member of staff should be taken consideration when any changes are implemented and all instructions and commands should be communicated clearly and precisely.

Fair wages-The employee should be satisfied that the payment system in place is appropriate and is correct with regards to his skill and job.

Learning- The employee is satisfied that they are not stagnant at one place and that their skills and learning's are growing as an individual and as a worker.

4.2 Process theories:-

It clarifies how individual tend to take direct initiatives and work more professionally. Maintaining individuals own motivation is explained in the process theory. Adams equity theory assumes that the input made by an individual and the outcome they obtain from it should be balanced. They also compare their situation with other similar situations of others. If there is inequity or injustice, people try to decrease the inequity by adapting the behaviour. Folger and his colleagues proposed an extension to the equity theory which is called the technical justice theory which takes in to consideration the justice of the decision process. According to the research it is been shown that people react against their organization when they observe injustice which is both distributive and procedural. Vroom developed the expectancy theory, a theory which revolves round the encouraging process. This hypothesis assumes that the people behave sensibly with expected outcomes. There are three factors which are considered by people:

Expectancy that the certain level of performance has been created by an individual's confidence as per his/her hard work.

ii.) Instrumentality i.e. the confidence person will produce particular outcomes, and

iii.) Valence i.e. the value assigned by an individual to the specific outcomes.

Individual's interaction with the environment leads to a process of learning is stands on his/her experience.

4.3 Outcome theories:-

These theories are linked with reinforcement theory of Skinner's. It illustrates different type of consequences that motivate people to work. Organizational Behaviour modification (OBMod) is one of the reinforcement theories which is used to improve performance and offers practical guidelines. This system has an affirmative effect on employee's performance. But there are many gaps in this theory like the fundamental aspect is missing from the theory and empirical studies which were on incentives were taken out without any theoretical environment concentrating only on extrinsic rewards. According to studies the only factor that motivates employees are the extrinsic rewards.

4.4 Influence of cross culture on motivation:-

As per Miriam Erez described that culture is a mirror of its value system. Motivational goals are expressed by its principles and the meanings of some specific values vary across cultures.

Hofstede has created 5 main values in context of work, there are 2 values namely collectivism versus individualism and high versus low power distance which is appropriate to evaluate the practices of motivation based on the cultural perspective. Motivational practice increases the involvement of employees.

The main 4 motivational training are as below.

Allocating rewards

Involvement in making the decision and setting the goals,

Job enhancement

Quality management.

Person coming from the same culture has a general way of analyzing their contribution towards peculiar state of performance in the sense of their self worthiness. Because of variety of different culture, they adopt different ways which leads them to the organization of different meaning of self-worthiness. E.g., Western culture has their own individual and values. Whereas Far East cultures are interdependent due to their group orientation. The theory of Perez Lopez is combined of 4 motives which include transcendent, extrinsic, relational and intrinsic.


5.1 Introduction :-

Research is something that is undertaken by any person to find out the things systematically and at the same time it increases the knowledge of the person (Walliman, 2005). The two important aspects that are important in this definition are "systematic way" and "to find out things". The term "systematic" over here means that the research is based on logical relationships and not beliefs (Ghauri and Gronhaug 2005).

Research should take into consideration the process for the way of collection of the data and make it significant. In order to "find out things" means that there is more than one method for doing the respective research which includes describing, explaining, understanding, criticizing and analyzing (Ghauri and Gronhaug 2005). Before embarking on a research topic, it is necessary for a researcher to have a clear idea in mind in order to answer the questions.

Easterby-Smith et al (2008) argues on the above definition and mentions that there are a combination of four things, which make trade and management a unique focus for the research. They are   :

Where researcher or the managers find information by various other mediums,

Where Managers won't allow any research unless they see some personal and/or gainful advantage in it.

The fact that Managers are well educated as those conducting research about them.

The research should have some practical results of the findings. 

5.2 Research objectives:-

The main objectives of the research are to discover:

What is motivation?

Which factors motivate the employees of Primark?

What is the importance of the motivation in the organization? 

5.3 Research process:-


The aim of a survey is to enhance the information gained and to expand the limits of the analysis. Surveys can therefore be set with designed interviews and questionnaires. Thus, for this paper, official questionnaires and interview surveys were prepared for discussion. (Creswell, 2002)

Direct Observation:-

In order to gain primary figures, the researcher logged on the example companies' websites to observe the case in the usual environment. Yin (1994) stated that, observation confirmation in given that extra data concerning the subject being considered is regularly helpful. An inspection in itself is a method by which a contestant watch regularly makes controlled intelligence and turn into a division of the success.

 The researcher uses this as an additional information-gathering instrument to facilitate captures a range of communication and to openly find out the internet through witnessing their performance. Through distant, this system is required besides the above mentioned systems due to the causes that

The activities, organizational amenities, or the different ways talked about with the companies and clients in the discussions and survey could also be captured in the usual surroundings, thus given that a comfortable consideration.

To disclose situation, troubles, or models the investigation might be unaware of or not able to describe adequately. Conversely, this observation according to Yin (1994) is at risk to watcher injustice. The awfully achieve of observation also can control the performance being considered. So as to stay away from the business, this system was employed as a helpful process to the survey process to stability the consequence. Because I am working in Primark for last one and half year it is easy to participative observation and to get data from HR department and bulletin as well. So it is time saving as well for data collection. 

5.4 Timescale:- C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\MEDIA\CAGCAT10\j0234131.wmf

Duration: 3.5 Months (July-October)

References:- C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\MEDIA\CAGCAT10\j0298653.wmf

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Website References:-

Primark Background Information [Online] Available from:


Date Accessed: 25/12/2008

Primark Ethical Strategy [Online] Available from:


Date Accessed: 25/12/2008

Primark Competitors Information [Online] Available from: http://www.open2.net/money/briefs_20051206_primark.html

Date Accessed: 24/04/2009

Rise in sales and profits at Primark in recession [Online] Available from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/8009743.stm


Date Accessed: 25/04/2009

Future plans of primark [Online) Available from: http://www.drapersonline.com/news/multiples/primark-sales-hit-%C2%A31bn-in-first-half/5002032.article

Date Accessed: 21/04/2009

Primark overtakes George at Asda [Online) Available from: http://www.drapersonline.com/news/multiples/primark-overtakes-george-at-asda/5000249.article

Date Accessed: 21/04/2009

Market Share of Primark [Online] Available from: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/retailandconsumer/4299950/Primark-overtakes-Asda-as-biggest-low-price-clothing-retailer.html

Date Accessed: 26/04/2009