A Research Study of Group Behaviour and Teams

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A Research of Group Behaviour and Teams in

Cameron Woo Design Pte Ltd (Singapore)

Table of contents

1.0 Introduction

1.1 The research paper selected

1.2 The structure of the report

2.0 Summary of purposes, rationale, and related literature

2.1 The purpose of rationale in research paper

2.2 The clarity of the research question

2.3 Conceptual foundation

3.0 Research methodology and design

3.1 The evaluation of the methodology adopted

3.1 a. Research site

3.1 b. Methods of data collection

3.1 c. Methods of data analysis

3.1 d. Sampling

3.1 e. Ethical issues

3.2 The suitability of the research project

4.0 Main findings and implications

4.1 Outline the main findings

4.2 Comment the implication of research paper

4.3 Limitations of research paper

5.0 Conclusions

5.1 Summary

5.2 Recommendation

6.0 References

1.0 Introduction

1.1 The research paper selected

The reviewer is going to research and review the journal article titled “National Cultural Differences in the Use and Perception of Internet-based NSS: Does High or Low Context Matter?” in order to obtain more understanding and report it to the reader. For example, how cultural diversity in a team works together, what usually happens during operational activity in a workplace with different cultures, why they want to work together in various civilizations, and what the advantages and disadvantages resulting behaviour of people from different culture.

Moreover, the journal article gives some solutions for what the researchers have done. They want to increase the reviewer and readers understanding about national culture and others in order to facilitate people to work or negotiate with different background. For instance, the researchers propose a web-based system as solution for those who live in different location which causes significant cultural diversity, they provide a communication platform in order to demolish barriers so that people can freely participate in the workplace, and they provide training on decision making and negotiations.

The topic of research paper from the journal article is related to the research title because it is about working together in different cultures and some discussions by the researchers may gives solution in diverse perspectives which will be elaborated in the following paragraphs. Hence, the reviewer can learn from the successes and failures in handling the problems and apply them when encountering similar cases.

1.2 The structure of the report

Section 1: The research paper selected

Section 2: Summary of purposes, rationale, and related literature

Section 3: Research methodology and design

Section 4: Main findings and implications

Section 5: Summary and suitability of the research methodology for adaptation

2.0 Summary of purposes, rationale, and related literature

2.1 The purpose of rationale in research paper

Summary:

The researchers tend to study the impact of the cultures on diverse perceptions, assessments, and use of a web-based Negotiation Support System (NSS). The research was conducted on face-to-face experimental settings and it concentrated on cultural impacts, such as on negotiation processes, strategies, outcomes, and atmosphere.

Comment:

Reviewer agrees that culture is built on shared norms and values. Hence, there will be different culture among every member of groups (heterogeneous).

Therefore, the purpose of the paper is for the reviewer and readers to learn about national cultures as possible sources of differences that impact on international negotiations, negotiation processes and outcomes that are well accepted, and many other purposes that will be elaborated in the next sections.

2.2 The clarity of the research question

Summary:

RQ1: Do users from low-context cultures evaluate analytical support better than users from high-context cultures? Is analytical negotiation support more compatible with thought patterns of users from low-context cultures?

RQ2: Do users from high-context cultures compensate for the lack of visible personal and contextual cues in computer-mediated communication through the additional exchange of contextual information? Do users from high-context cultures exchange more messages than users from low-context cultures?

Comment:

Answer 1. The reviewer thinks that the usefulness of high- or low-context culture depends on what people’s norms and values so that those in heterogeneous group could communicate with each other well, including tolerance and respect with each other in different cultures. People in low-context culture use systematic and analytical problem solving, while people in high-context culture use communication tools frequently, which is indirect communication style. For example, people need to attach messages to offers.

Answer 2. High-context culture is polychronic-time oriented due to sociable structure so that they are more flexible on exchanging messages rather than low-context culture which is task oriented and exchange lesser communication with each other in that group.

Comment:

The reviewer believes that all the different levels of mental programming are useful depending on the cases. As an example of collective programming, cultures are distinguished based on people's norms and values. Thus, there are several ways of communication. One of them is the web-based communication that has advantages and disadvantages. The advantages are people can communicate easily from different areas geographically and less time spent on arranging meetings.

The disadvantages are people might not know the opponent’s cultural background and self-presentation process that may increase personal confidence.

In order to measure the success of implementing the information system, the researchers utilize measures of perceived usefulness and perceived ease-of-use. The reviewer believes that perceived usefulness will facilitate people to contribute their best performance and perceived ease-of-use can simplify people’s effort to attain something.

Therefore, the reviewer believes that the researchers are well enough in criticizing national culture, especially in discussing the various types of cultures.

3.0 Research methodology and design

3.1 The evaluation of the methodology adopted

There are some methodologies that are adopted by the researchers. First, the communication platform, which means negotiators exchange offers consisting of values for the four issues: price, delivery, payment arrangements, and the return of defective parts as exemplified in Cypress Cycles. Second, inspire system, which is attached text messages to offer or exchange messages without offerings. This opportunity is to enrich the communication not only to exchange the information, but also to enhance the ‘contexting’ negotiation situation for both parties. Third, analytical negotiation support, which is decision making that consists of three parts: pre-negotiation, negotiation, and post-settlement. Pre-negotiation is used to analyze scenario and evaluate visible alternatives. Negotiation is the phase where the system provides utility values of the decision alternatives considered by the user and of the offers submitted by both parties. The positive side from negotiation phase is it records the process and provides a negotiation history as well as a graphical visualization of the negotiation dynamics. During post-settlement phase, the system computes and suggests alternatives which would increase at least the utility for one party without reducing the utility for the other party. Therefore, the usefulness of methodology depends on people's need to negotiate with others, including people from different cultural background.

3.1 a. Research site

This article is based on collected data between 1996 and 2000, from 1102 negotiations, and between 2204 users from 55 countries, including Ecuador, Hong Kong (China), Taiwan, India, USA, Canada, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Finland, and Russia.

The companies are suitable for research in US and European countries rather than Asian countries due to their cultures. The people can communicate directly and can arrange meeting times quickly they can come on time. It influences the way they think when filling in the questionnaire form.

Therefore, the reviewer believes that face-to-face communication will result in more understanding of other’s cultural background. In contrary, people using web-based communication ask single questions to all respondents without considering their cultural background.

3.1 b. Methods of data collection

Summary:

The researchers were using survey (questionnaire) and online data collection. For instance, through five and six-point Likert scales which are represent the data using ranging from 1 to 5 and 1 to 6 respectively and also through AMIS model. The table below shows the data collection in some countries.

https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/5vlFbd0Oi2u7RMGB9mU83Y6DuRACHmZtzy-K2PM6pkcivs20KEK7miSclhwpPxD55UluZ5fVednx4AnsobztU0mypQFGgg6C3jwxYMsaTo3IVffZCeB2S_hYVQ (Koeszegi, S., et al, 2004)

AMIS model states that 66.4% of all users were students, 18.7% identified themselves as “professionals,” and 14.9% represented various small groups. The average age was 28.2 years.

Five-point Likert scale states that the average experience of users was 3.67. Only 12.7% of users referred to themselves as “very experienced” or “experienced,” 26% had never negotiated before.

Six-point Likert scale states that only 5.4% of users answered that they “almost never” accessed. 85.2% of which never used an NSS (Negotiation Support System) before.

3.1 c. Methods of data analysis

Qualitative data analysis

(interviews, observations, focus group)

Quantitative data analysis

(survey/ questionnaire)

-

- Descriptive statistics (mean, mode, median) (see Table 3 and the explanations below it)

- AMIS model (Assessment Model of Internet-based Support)

- Five- and six-point Likert scale

- Emphasis on testing and verification

- Logical and critical approach

- Controlled measurement

The researchers use process logs for web-based communication and questionnaires for the methodology for controlling the measurement. In summary, the researchers are using quantitative data.

Therefore, the reviewer thinks that both qualitative and quantitative data is useful based on what the researchers needs to collect the data. In qualitative data the researchers can collect the data by asking the respondents about something beyond question forms, whereas through the quantitative data, the researchers can collect the data and elaborate the data from the numbers they have collected.

3.1 d. Sampling

The researchers are using judgment sampling, which means the characteristics of respondents have been targeted before. For instance, the researchers asked 531 females and 759 males for their respondents to fill the questionnaire.

3.1 e. Ethical issues

There are no human rights issues on the research paper.

3.2 The suitability of the research project

People in Cameron Woo Design Pte Ltd that the reviewer analyzes could know and learn to adjust the behaviour in order to negotiate or working together with people in different cultures. The company can learn how to use survey (questionnaire) online, like Assessment Model of Internet-based Support (AMIS) model, and five- and six-point Likert scale in the research paper. The company can be facilitated to consider either using qualitative or quantitative methods to analyze and collect the data based on what is suitable for respondents. The company can have an insight to use judgment sampling in order to get specific respondents according to the reviewer’s intents.

4.0 Main findings and implications

4.1 Outline the main findings

Through AMIS Model, five- and six-point Likert scale, the researchers can evaluate and analyze users’ or respondents’ characteristics in order to influence them through actual use of communication tools and analytical tools.

4.2 Comment the implication of research paper

The examples of the researchers’ suggestions for the companies are Itex Manufacturing and Cypress Cycles. For example, the negotiators and opponents in Cypress Cycles are using their own decision regarding their own preferences, tactics, and strategies.

The researchers arrange the Inspire system in order to offer users a communication platform to conduct negotiations and also to offer analytical and visual tools to facilitate negotiation processes. By exchanging communication systems, the negotiators can create a positive negotiation atmosphere and develop personal relationship based on mutual understanding and trust.

4.3 Limitations of research paper

There is no qualitative data analysis on the research paper that could have produced more specific and in-depth data according to the cultural backgrounds of the respondents. Therefore, the reviewer recommends that the researchers use qualitative methods of data collection.

5.0 Conclusions

5.1 Summary

The research paper analyzes the national culture and negotiations with different cultures, which is similar to what the reviewer’s elaboration about people communicating and working together with different background in a group. What usually happens for operational activity in a workplace among different cultures is arise of conflicts among people with different values and norms.

In addition, the researchers propose some tools in order to facilitate people to negotiate with each other. The tools are the communication platform, national support system, web-based communication tools, and so on.

The researchers in research paper mention the impact of cultures on diverse perceptions, assessments, and use of a web-based Negotiation Support System (NSS) and also they want to conduct the face-to-face experimental settings. On the other hand, people in different cultures can know, respect, and tolerate each other’s culture and can learn to negotiate with others by the tools that the researchers have provided.

5.2 Recommendation

In conclusion, the company should understand that people negotiate in different ways according to their backgrounds. People in high-context culture need more face-to-face interaction because they are concerned on the way people communicate, such as Indonesian and Filipino workers. However, the leader in CWD and the Australian workers have low-context culture which are concerned on the content of the information and communicate it directly. Therefore, the leader needs to learn from the research paper in order to communicate effectively with the workers based on their culture.

Checklist:

-ucd coversheet

-cover page (research title, research paper selected, student name&ID, class code, word count) checked

-table of content

-references (in the text citation) + with reference support

-plagiarism certificate

-safe assign report (1st page)

-max 2,500 words

-double-side printed

-write in the third party perspective

-use the reviewer

-upload only section 1-5 and references to the blackboard

-update table of contents

6.0 References

Bryman, A., and Bell, E. (2011). Business Research Methods. 3rd ed. The United States: Oxford University Press.

Koeszegi, S., Vetschera, R., and Kersten, G., (2004). ‘National Cultural Differences in the Use and Perception of Internet-based NSS: Does High or Low Context Matter?’, Journal of International Negotiation, 9(1): 70-109.

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