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Motivation leads an organization to conclude that their employees aim to carry out their precise function more prominent than the standards and will certainly urge to do so. It is a managerial challenge to motivate the behaviour of employees with many options. Managers can set goals, assign particular benefits like stock options, promote state of acknowledgement to absolve motivation, and even fortify everyday behaviours. An efficient management needs to make sure that resources are not misused and there is no dissatisfaction between company members, for this the management wants to understand what positively enhances their workers. Supervisors need to estimate how to motivate employees to reach high peak performance. Increasing employee motivation is not an easy task as employees respond in different ways to their organizational practices.
There are some strategies which can be used to motivate employees. Firstly Salaries, Wages are used as important means for motivating workers. The managers should take into consideration the components of salary structures. These are known as job rate, which associates the significance the organization attaches to every specific job, payment, which encourages the employee to perform better by rewarding him according to his performance, and providing him allowances and developing him in a particular skill. Secondly staff training is an essential approach for motivating as it improves the skill and knowledge of the employee and also increases the satisfaction and morale of the employee. Communication and availability of information is another strategy in which the managers give relevant information on the consequences of the employee's actions on others.
Any job consists of five dimensions: variety of skills, Identification of tasks and its significance, Autonomy and Feedback. Varity of skills can be defined as the extent to which the job requires a variety of altered activities so the employee can apply his different skills and talent. Task identity is known as the extent to which the job desires completion of a whole and identifiable task or work. Task significance refers to the extent to which the job has a substantial contact on the lives or occupation of the other people. Autonomy refers to the extent to which an individual provides considerable information, independence and judgement in appointing the work and deciding the procedures to be used in carrying it out. Feedback is the degree to which conducting those activities required by the job results in the employee's obtaining direct and clear information of his or her performance.
Furthermore, Organizational goals in one or the other way help in the process of motivation of an employee. Goals specify in which activities the employees should direct their efforts. Goals advocate how much effort an employee must put for the performance of a specific given task. It stimulates the development of strategies and action plans. Rewards are the main key concept used by organizations to motivate their employees. There are two types of rewards: Extrinsic rewards and Intrinsic rewards.
"Intrinsic rewards are valued outcomes within the control of an employee, such as feelings of satisfaction and accomplishment. Extrinsic rewards are valued outcomes that are controlled by the manager such as recognition, promotion and pay increases." (David A Buchanan, Andrzej A.
Huczynski, 2010, p. 280). Intrinsic motivation takes place in an employee when he is honestly concerned about his work, seeks for enhanced ways to do it and is motivated by doing it well. The benefit an employee obtains from intrinsic motivation comes from the work itself, rather than extrinsic factors like increase in pay or compliments from the manager. There are some rewards that increase intrinsic motivation in an employee. Firstly sense of choice in an employee increases his intrinsic motivation. It is the opportunity in order to select what one will do and perform it in any way he thinks best. Secondly is the sense of competence. It is the feeling of accomplishment in an employee for performing a specific task. Thirdly is the sense of meaningfulness. It is the opportunity of an employee to perform worthwhile tasks. An employee feels good and believes what he does matters. Fourthly is the sense of accomplishment. It is the sense of accomplishment in an employee that he is making progress and is moving ahead. Employees get a feeling that they are spending their time wisely by doing their specific task.
Incentives are another method which increases the motivation in the workplace. It means all ways which are utilised to motivate people to increase their performance. These incentives are categorized into financial and non financial incentives. Financial incentives refer to incentives which are either in direct monetary form or measurable in a monetary term and which motivates people to perform better. The financial incentives used in organizations are as follows:
Pay and allowances: For each employee, salary is the basic financial incentive. This measure includes basic pay, dearness allowance and other grants.
Premium: Premium is referred to as an inducement offered over and above the salary of an employee.
Revenue sharing: Revenue sharing is referred to as giving a certain share of profits to the employees. This helps to motivate the employees to improve their performance and increases their contribution to organizational goals.
Co-partnership / stock option: Under this method, workers are proposed shares at a set price which is lower than the market price. This allotment creates a sense of ownership in the employees and makes them contribute towards the growth of the organization.
Retirement benefits: These benefits include provident fund, pension and gratuity. These provide financial safety to employees after their retirement.
Fringe benefits: These benefits include car allowance, housing, medical insurance and educating the children. These measures help in the motivation of an employee so that the employee enhances his performance.
Non Financial incentives are psychological, social and emotional factors that are used in an organization to motivate employees. Some of them are as follows:
Status: Status is referred to as the authority, responsibility, rewards, recognition and prestige of a job given to an employee having a high post in an organization.
Career advancement opportunity: This includes providing opportunity to employees to advance their skills and be promoted to higher level jobs. When employees feel that they are being promoted, they develop a feeling of compulsion to remain in the organization.
Job security: An employee wants his job to be stable. He wants certain security about his future income and job.
Employee support: It means involving employees to help the management in decision making. Employees must feel that they are a part of the organization and that their ideas do matter for the organization.
Employee acknowledgement: This scheme refers to giving more autonomy to subordinates. This arises a feeling of being motivated in employees and they perform better to achieve organizational goals.
Furthermore there are some circumstances of reward systems. Firstly Employees are incapable to break out of old ways of rewards and recognition practices. This suggestion is displayed when management relies on quantifiable behaviours, to the exclusion of non quantifiable behaviours i.e. when management is unwilling to change the existing performance system.
Organizations generally do not look at the big picture of their performance system. Therefore rewards are given to subunit levels, with the result that units frequently compete with each other.
Management and shareholders both generally focus on short-term results. They do not reward employees for longer range planning
However rewards are not the only scheme to increase motivation in the workplace.
Job design is another important method to increase work motivation. Managers need to create an atmosphere which motivates employees to contribute their efforts to achieve organizational objectives. One such technique is job enrichment. It is "a technique for extending the experience of work to improve employee satisfaction and to enhance motivation and performance." (David A Buchanan, Andrzej A. Huczynski, 2010, p. 279). An enriched job organizes tasks in such a way so that an employee completes a specified task effectively and efficiently. This develops employee's ability and independence, increases responsibility and provides necessary feedback, so employees will be able to evaluate and correct their own performance.
Identify individual differences. Employees in an organization have different needs and must not be treated alike. Managers should spend sufficient time to understand what is important for and to each employee and then associate goals, level of engagement, and rewards with individual needs.
Use goals and feedback. Employees in an organization must have hard, particular goals, as well as get proper feedback on how well they perform on achieving these organizational goals.
Allow employees to involve in decisions that are related to them. Managers must allow employees to contribute to various decisions that affect them such as placing work objectives, selecting their own work packages, solving productivity and quality problems. This advances employee productivity; guarantee to work towards the goals, motivation and job satisfaction.
When rewarding the employees, the manager must ensure that these rewards are suitably related to the desired performance for the achievement of the given objective. It is necessary that an employee understands the link between rewards and expected performance. If employees perceive that there is little relation between rewards and desired performance, the results will be poor performance, undesired job satisfaction and increase in turnover and non-attendance.
Test the structure for even-handedness. Employees must be able to receive rewards in correspondence to the endeavour they put in the job. This means that experience, talent, skills, abilities, efforts and other contributions must define alternatives in an employee's performance and thus in his pay and job assignments.
Motivation is a very important factor for the success of an organization. Without work motivation, business firms will undergo from lack of effectiveness and efficiency. This is for a reason that the employees have no incentives in performing the tasks according to the standards. Hence it is important that the managers offer the employees with a reward for their high level of performance.
All employees are being motivated by different things and a major part of these are not only money oriented, rather the employees respond more effectively to incentives that offer personal recognition and achievement. Rewards are offered to employees in tangible as well as intangible form. This means that employees are motivated not only through monetary forms of rewards but also through non-monetary forms of rewards such as transfer or appraisal in the employee's position.
Motivation provides the key benefit for enthusiasm among employees. When employees are happy, it leads to better organizational performance through their increment in the performance of work, usage of creativity and knowledge. They are able to apply what they have learned before, through their education and experience in the specific field of activity. When an employee is motivated, he performs his task well. Repetitive performance of a task leads to his specialisation in that field of work, which in turn benefits the organisation because Specialisation is a very important human resource.
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