A Company Profile of Apple Inc


Apple started in 1976 by Steave Jobs, Steave Wozniak and Ronald Wayne, Apple has extended from computer marker to include consumer electronics over the last 30 years,osfficlially changing their name from apple computer, INC. To Apple Inc. In jan 2007.

Amonng the key offering from Apple's Prodct line are, Pro line laptops(MacBook Pro) and desktops (Mac pro), consumer line laptops (Macbook) and destop(Imac), servers(Xserver), Apple TV,S/w, Mac O/s, iPod, iPhone, iPad with amazing touch experience. It apples business more than 80 countries all over the world.

Apple inc, the quirky Silicon Valley company that become an icon of personal computing, has risen to its greatest heights in the year since Steven Jobs returned to its helm and opened horizon beyond the desktop.

With its coveted gadgets and resurgent stock price, Apple inc has cast something of a spell on both consumers and investors.

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The iPod and iPhone were major forces in the music and smart phone industries, respectively. The company's iPad tablet computer an idea that has flopped before drew enormous attention when it presented jan 27 2010. The iPad, with a 9inches multi touch screen.

Marketing Strategies:

APPLE does not have some special place where their marketing secrets are kept, unless of course you count their charismatic CEO's brain. The five secrets I offer here are careful deductions, empirical results and the product of my career as an engineer, sales rep, product manager, marketing executive, parent, son and avid consumer (although not necessarily in that order.) These secrets are super condensed learnings from my nearly decade-long tenure at Apple about how and why people spring to action. Since that time, I've uncovered many ways that can enable any company to tap into people's innate desire to share their passion for products and help create "lift" - the irresistible force of millions of customers selling your product for you. Just as Apple has harnessed this power more than any company in history now you can too. So even though these really aren't Apple's secrets these just may be even better. Here are my proven ideas to help you market like Apple and improve your business and your reputation at the same time. All I ask is that you share this eBook with everyone and please come to MarketingApple.com to share your thoughts, ideas and comments to improve on our collective 'secrets'.

PESTEL analysis of the macro-environment

There are many factors in the macro-environment that will effect the decisions of the managers of any organisation. Tax changes, new laws, trade barriers, demographic change and government policy changes are all examples of macro change. To help analyse these factors managers can categorise them using the PESTEL model. This classification distinguishes between:

Political factors. These refer to government policy such as the degree of intervention in the economy. What goods and services does a government want to provide? To what extent does it believe in subsidising firms? What are its priorities in terms of business support? Political decisions can impact on many vital areas for business such as the education of the workforce, the health of the nation and the quality of the infrastructure of the economy such as the road and rail system.

Economic factors. These include interest rates, taxation changes, economic growth, inflation and exchange rates. As you will see throughout the "Foundations of Economics" book economic change can have a major impact on a firm's behaviour. For example:

               - higher interest rates may deter investment because it costs more to borrow

               - a strong currency may make exporting more difficult because it may raise the price in terms of foreign currency

               - inflation may provoke higher wage demands from employees and raise costs

               - higher national income growth may boost demand for a firm's products

Social factors. Changes in social trends can impact on the demand for a firm's products and the availability and willingness of individuals to work. In the UK, for example, the population has been ageing. This has increased the costs for firms who are committed to pension payments for their employees because their staff are living longer. It also means some firms such as Asda have started to recruit older employees to tap into this growing labour pool. The ageing population also has impact on demand: for example, demand for sheltered accommodation and medicines has increased whereas demand for toys is falling.

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Technological factors: new technologies create new products and new processes. MP3 players, computer games, online gambling and high definition TVs are all new markets created by technological advances. Online shopping, bar coding and computer aided design are all improvements to the way we do business as a result of better technology. Technology can reduce costs, improve quality and lead to innovation. These developments can benefit consumers as well as the organisations providing the products.

Environmental factors: environmental factors include the weather and climate change. Changes in temperature can impact on many industries including farming, tourism and insurance. With major climate changes occurring due to global warming and with greater environmental awareness this external factor is becoming a significant issue for firms to consider. The growing desire to protect the environment is having an impact on many industries such as the travel and transportation industries (for example, more taxes being placed on air travel and the success of hybrid cars) and the general move towards more environmentally friendly products and processes is affecting demand patterns and creating business opportunities.

Legal factors: these are related to the legal environment in which firms operate. In recent years in the UK there have been many significant legal changes that have affected firms' behaviour. The introduction of age discrimination and disability discrimination legislation, an increase in the minimum wage and greater requirements for firms to recycle are examples of relatively recent laws that affect an organisation's actions. Legal changes can affect a firm's costs (e.g. if new systems and procedures have to be developed) and demand (e.g. if the law affects the likelihood of customers buying the good or using the service).

Different categories of law include:

consumer laws; these are designed to protect customers against unfair practices such as misleading descriptions of the product

competition laws; these are aimed at protecting small firms against bullying by larger firms and ensuring customers are not exploited by firms with monopoly power

employment laws; these cover areas such as redundancy, dismissal, working hours and minimum wages. They aim to protect employees against the abuse of power by managers

health and safety legislation; these laws are aimed at ensuring the workplace is as safe as is reasonably practical. They cover issues such as training, reporting accidents and the appropriate provision of safety equipment

Typical PESTEL factors to consider include:


Could include:


e.g. EU enlargement, the euro, international trade, taxation policy


e.g. interest rates, exchange rates, national income, inflation, unemployment, Stock Market


e.g. ageing population, attitudes to work, income distribution


e.g. innovation, new product development, rate of technological obsolescence


e.g. global warming, environmental issues


e.g. competition law, health and safety, employment law

By using the PESTEL framework we can analyse the many different factors in a firm's macro environment. In some cases particular issues may fit in several categories. For example, the creation of the Monetary Policy Committee by the Labour government in 1997 as a body that was independent of government but had the ability to set interest rates was a political decision but has economic consequences; meanwhile government economic policy can influence investment in technology via taxes and tax credits. If a factor can appear in several categories managers simply make a decision of where they think it best belongs.

However, it is important not to just list PESTEL factors because this does not in itself tell managers very much. What managers need to do is to think about which factors are most likely to change and which ones will have the greatest impact on them i.e. each firm must identify the key factors in their own environment. For some such as pharmaceutical companies government regulation may be critical; for others, perhaps firms that have borrowed heavily, interest rate changes may be a huge issue. Managers must decide on the relative importance of various factors and one way of doing this is to rank or score the likelihood of a change occurring and also rate the impact if it did. The higher the likelihood of a change occurring and the greater the impact of any change the more significant this factor will be to the firm's planning.

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It is also important when using PESTEL analysis to consider the level at which it is applied. When analysing companies such as Sony, Chrysler, Coca Cola, BP and Disney it is important to remember that they have many different parts to their overall business - they include many different divisions and in some cases many different brands. Whilst it may be useful to consider the whole business when using PESTEL in that it may highlight some important factors, managers may want to narrow it down to a particular part of the business (e.g. a specific division of Sony); this may be more useful because it will focus on the factors relevant to that part of the business. They may also want to differentiate between factors which are very local, other which are national and those which are global.

For example, a retailer undertaking PESTEL analysis may consider:

Local factors such as planning permission and local economic growth rates

National factors such as UK laws on retailer opening hours and trade descriptions legislation and UK interest rates

Global factors such as the opening up of new markets making trade easier. The entry of Bulgaria and Rumania into the European Union might make it easier to enter that market in terms of meeting the various regulations and provide new expansion opportunities. It might also change the labour force within the UK and recruitment opportunities.

In analyzing the macro-environment, it is important to identify the factors that might in turn affect a number of vital variables that are likely to influence theorganization's supply and demand levels and its costs (Kotter and Schlesinger, 1991; Johnson and Scholes, 1993). The "radical and ongoing changes occurring in society create an uncertain environment and have an impact on the function of the whole organization" (Tsiakkiros, 2002). A number of checklists have been developed as ways of cataloguing the vast number of possible issues that might affect an industry. A PEST analysis is one of them that is merely a framework that categorizes environmental influences as political, economic, social and technological forces. Sometimes two additional factors, environmental and legal, will be added to make a PESTEL analysis, but these themes can easily be subsumed in the others. The analysis examines the impact of each of these factors (and their interplay with each other) on the business. The results can then be used to take advantage of opportunities and to make contingency plans for threats when preparing business and strategic plans (Byars, 1991; Cooper, 2000).....

This version of PESTEL analysis is called LoNGPESTEL. This is illustrated below:





Provision of services by local council

UK government policy on subsidies

World trade agreements e.g. further expansion of the EU


Local income

UK interest rates

Overseas economic growth


Local population growth

Demographic change (e.g. ageing population)

Migration flows


Improvements in local technologies e.g. availability of Digital TV

UK wide technology e.g. UK online services

International technological breakthroughs e.g. internet


Local waste issues

UK weather

Global climate change


Local licences/planning permission

UK law

International agreements on human rights or environmental policy

In "Foundations of Economics" we focus on the economic environment. We examine issues such as the effect of interest rate changes, changes in exchange rates, changes in trade policy, government intervention in an economy via spending and taxation and economic growth rates. These can be incredibly important factors in a firm's macro-environment. The growth of China and India, for example, have had massive effects on many organisations. Firms can relocate production there to benefit from lower costs; these emerging markets are also providing enormous markets for firms to aim their products at. With a population of over 1 billion, for example, the Chinese market is not one you would want to ignore; at the same time Chinese producers should not be ignored either. However, the relative importance of economic factors compared to other factors will depend on the particular position of a business. Exchange rate fluctuations may be critically important to a multinational but less significant to a local window cleaner. Rapid economic growth or economic decline may be very significant to a construction business that depends heavily on the level of income in the economy but may be slightly less significant to a milk producer whose product is less sensitive to income. So whilst the economy is important to all firms on both the supply side (e.g. unemployment levels affect the ease of recruitment) and demand side (e.g. income tax affects spending power) the relative importance of specific economic factors and the relative importance of the economy compared to, say, regulation or social trends will vary. Whilst we hope this book provides a good insight into the economy and the possible effects of economic change on a business these must be considered in the light of other macro and micro factors that influence a firms' decisions and success

The Macro Environment Analysis is traditionally the first step of a strategic analysis; it is sometimes referred to as an external analysis, a pest analysis or a pestle analysis.

The purpose of the Macro Environment Analysis is to identify possible opportunities and threats to your industry as a whole that are outside the control of your industry. (Note: You will often be forecasting trends - like "interest rates will remain static" which may or may not be the case)

When completing a macro environment analyses you will be seeking to answer the questions "what will affect the growth of our industry as a whole" and "What is the likely impact of all of the things that affect the growth of your industry"



For example: An aging population is a demographic trend in many western counties, which will result in an increase in the total number of caravans sold - if you are in the caravan industry you should expect to see growth in the total size of your industry.

These opportunities and threats may affect many industries, such as possible interest rate rises, but you should only be interested if interest rate rises will affect your industry.

For example: If you are in the greeting card industry and fluctuations in interest rates will not affect the size of your industry then you do not need to consider interest rates in your macro environment analysis. (However if you are heavily geared or have large borrowings you will need to consider interest rates in your internal analysis)



Strategic Leadership and the Macro Environment Analysis

Once you have grasped the macro environmental analysis, as a good leader you will be continually scanning for macro factors in your daily life, activities such as watching or reading the news, reading management magazines and when in conversation with other industry leaders will all lead to a greater understanding of the macro environment. In addition there are a number of things you can do to improve the depth of your understanding of the macro environment.

Networking with senior leaders in your industry

Networking with political parities

Source strategic analysis information prepared for your industry typically by a third party provider (Normally through subscription)

Read the financial papers

Read management magazines

Surf the Web for trends



How to do a Macro Environment Analysis

A macro environmental analysis can be completed alone or in a brainstorming session, however you may like to do some research before starting.

To simplify the Macro Environment Analysis the following 6 broad heading will provide some structure, a good start is to list all of the trends you can think of or can find and indicate whether they will have a positive impact or negative impact on the size of your industry.


Download your free strategic planning template for the Macro Environment Analysis here


Economic Trends: The macro economic environment analysis will identify trends such as changes in personal disposable income, interest rates, inflation and unemployment rates.

Political Trends: The macro political environment analysis will identify changes in the position politicians take on issues. A current example is a shift towards greener policies in the developed world.

Technological Trends: The macro technological environment analysis will identify changes in the application of technology. A current example is a shift towards online transactions and in some areas a shift away from online transactions.

Legal Trends: The macro legal environment analysis is closely linked to the political environment (politicians tend to make the laws), but also includes trends in court decisions - such as liability compensation.

Social/Cultural Trends: The macro social/cultural environment analysis will identify trends in societies beliefs, behaviors, values and norms. Such as the number of part time workers, attitudes towards global warming, make up of the family structure.

Demographic Trends: The macro demographic analysis will identify trends in population growth at relevant ages for your industry (There maybe zero population growth in general but high growth in the number of people over 65), the population location.

(I tend to combine political and legal trends) The final step of the macro environmental analysis is to summarize the opportunities and threats to determine if you should expect growth, stability or decline in the size of your industry.

You may find that you have some trends that have the potential to have a significant impact on your industry - such as an interest rate rise may cause a drop in demand for the building industry - for these trends it is worth completing scenario planning or contingency planning and keeping a watchful eye on the progress of the trend. 

Knowledge for the good leader: Pest analysis and Pestle analysis (sometimes misspelt as Pestal Analysis)

These two have only been included so that if anyone asks you if you know how to do a pest analysis you will know that is has nothing to do with mice, cockroaches or ants.

The P.E.S.T. analysis is the same as the macro environment analysis but used the acronym P.E.S.T. to help you remember the headings





And the P.E.S.T.L.E Analysis is same as the macro environment analysis but used the acronym P.E.S.T.L.E. to help you remember the headings (sometimes people misspell pestle analysis and write pestal analysis - now you can correct them)






Environmental (Environmental issues, global warming, pollution etcetera)



your specialist marketing expertise.

a new, innovative product or service

location of your business

quality processes and procedures

any other aspect of your business that adds value to your product or service.


a developing market such as the Internet.

mergers, joint ventures or strategic alliances

moving into new market segments that offer improved profits

a market vacated by an ineffective competitor



a new competitor in your home market

price wars with competitors

a competitor has a new, innovative product or service

competitors have superior access to channels of distribution

taxation is introduced on your product or service

It is very important that an organization considers its environment before beginning the marketing process. In fact, environmental analysis should be continuous and feed all aspects of planning. The organization's marketing environment is made up of:

1. The internal environment e.g. staff (or internal customers), office technology, wages and finance, etc.

2. The micro-environment e.g. our external customers, agents and distributors, suppliers, our competitors, etc.

3. The macro-environment e.g. Political (and legal) forces, Economic forces, Sociocultural forces, and Technological forces. These are known as PEST factors.

Political Factors.

The political arena has a huge influence upon the regulation of businesses, and the spending power of consumers and other businesses. You must consider issues such as:

1.How stable is the political environment?

2.Will government policy influence laws that regulate or tax your business?

3.What is the government's position on marketing ethics?

4. What is the government's policy on the economy?

5. Does the government have a view on culture and religion?

6. Is the government involved in trading agreements such as EU, NAFTA, ASEAN, or others?

Economic Factors.

Marketers need to consider the state of a trading economy in the short and long-terms. This is especially true when planning for international marketing. You need to look at:

1. Interest rates.

2. The level of inflation Employment level per capita.

3. Long-term prospects for the economy Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, and so on.

Sociocultural Factors.

The social and cultural influences on business vary from country to country. It is very important that such factors are considered. Factors include:

1.What is the dominant religion?

2.What are attitudes to foreign products and services?

3.Does language impact upon the diffusion of products onto markets?

4.How much time do consumers have for leisure?

5.What are the roles of men and women within society?

6.How long are the population living? Are the older generations wealthy?

7.Do the population have a strong/weak opinion on green issues?

Technological Factors.

Technology is vital for competitive advantage, and is a major driver of globalization. Consider the following points:

1. Does technology allow for products and services to be made more cheaply and to a better standard of quality?

2.Do the technologies offer consumers and businesses more innovative products and services such as Internet banking, new generation mobile telephones, etc?

3.How is distribution changed by new technologies e.g. books via the Internet, flight tickets, auctions, etc?

4.Does technology offer companies a new way to communicate with consumers e.g. banners, Customer Relationship Management (CRM), etc?

The PEST or PESTLE Analysis templates

PESTLE analysis template

Other than the main headings, the questions and issues in the template below are examples and not exhaustive - add your own and amend these prompts to suit your situation, the experience and skill level of whoever is completing the analysis, and what you aim to produce from the analysis.

The context upon which a PESTLE analysis is undertaken can help to determine how to interpret facts and information discovered.

PEST/ PESTLE Analysis on ____________________(organization name) SWOT

SWOT Context        ____________________ SWOT

Date of Analysis     ____________ view

PESTLE Analysis factors

Your notes

Potential Impact:

Implication and importance

The list below is just to get you started. Remember to put these, and others that you add in the context of your organization or business.

For example if you are a small private company the behaviours of a Wall Mart / Tesco or other large international player may well impact on you.

If you are a local authority, government changes will change your priorities. In the NHS changes to treatments and public attitudes will also impact etc.

About your organization.

How might the factors listed on the left impact your business or part of the organization?

H - High

M - Medium

L - Low

U - Undetermined

Time Frame:

0 - 6 months

6 - 12 months

12 - 24 months

24 + months


Positive +

Negative -



Increasing >

Unchanged =

Decreasing <


Relative Importance:





Political - SWOT

Trading policies

Funding, grants and initiatives

Home market lobbying/pressure groups

International pressure groups

Wars and conflict

Government policies

Government term and change


Inter-country relationships/attitudes


Political trends

Governmental leadership

Government structures

Internal political issues

Shareholder/ stakeholder needs/ demands























Economic - SWOT

Home economy situation

Home economy trends

Overseas economies and trends

General taxation issues

Taxation changes specific to product/services

Seasonality/weather issues

Market and trade cycles

Specific industry factors

Market routes and distribution trends

Customer/end-user drivers

International trade/monetary issues

Disposable income

Job growth/unemployment

Exchange rates



Interest and exchange rates

Consumer confidence index

Import/export ratios

Production level

Internal finance

Internal cash flow




























Social - SWOT

Consumer attitudes and opinions

Media views

Law changes affecting social factors

Brand, company, technology image

Consumer buying patterns

Major events and influences

Buying access and trends

Ethnic/religious factors

Advertising and publicity

Ethical issues

Demographics (age, gender, race, family size,)

Lifestyle changes

Population shifts







Living standards

Housing trends

Fashion &role models

Attitudes to work

Attitudes to people doing certain types of work

Leisure activities


Earning capacity

Staff attitudes

Management style

organizational culture

Changes to education system
































Technological - SWOT

Competing technology development

Research funding

Associated/dependent technologies

Replacement technology/solutions

Maturity of technology

Manufacturing maturity and capacity

Information and communications

Consumer buying mechanisms/technology

Technology legislation

Innovation potential

Technology access, licensing, patents

Intellectual property issues

Global communications



New discoveries


Energy uses/sources/fuels


Rate of obsolescence

Health (pharmaceutical, equipment, etc.)

Manufacturing advances

Information technology





Waste removal/recycling




Collaboration tools

Software changes





































Additional split of information if doing a PESTLE analysis rather than a PEST analysis:

Legal - SWOT

Current legislation home market

Future legislation

European/international legislation

Regulatory bodies and processes

Environmental regulations

Employment law

Consumer protection

Industry-specific regulations

competitive regulations





















Environmental - SWOT


Environmental issues




Environmental regulations

Customer values

Market values

Stakeholder/ investor values

Staff attitudes

Management style

organizational culture

Staff morale

Staff engagement

Global factors

EU based factors