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1.1Â BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Training in business organizations is said to differ from one organization and industry to another. According to Reynolds et al (2004:1) training is defined 'as a set of activities which react to present needs and is focused on the instructor and contrast with learning as a process that focuses on developing individual and organizational potential and building capabilities for the future'. Training is important because if employees are trained well, there are able to work in the right way which would make profits higher and costs will be reduced, staff turnover will also reduce, and customers would remain happy and satisfied because there receive the goods and services they expect. Training will help to ensure this happens regularly (Zaccarelli 1992). Training and Development is a process that helps organizations to provide adequate human resources to achieve their current and future organizational objectives. Organizations should invest in training and development because a trained staff will promote efficiency and save both the employees' and managers' time. Training should be treated with utmost importance because the management of people determines organizational success. Employee performance will improve when managers and employees realize the value of training at work and take steps to implement it (Zaccarelli 1992). Organizations will become more flexible in adapting to changing environment and will therefore be able to perform its' role in the economic sector of the country's development. If there is lack of training and development in an organization or industry, it would affect the employees in the following ways: lack of ability to perform their jobs efficiently and effectively, no commitment because there are not motivated to work, no skills and knowledge because there lack the necessary expertise to perform the job and no feedback from the management about their performance (Ripley 2002). Therefore, if the staff members of an organization are not properly trained it will ultimately affect the organization and exceptional performance will not be achieved. For example- A bank that does not train a customer service officer will not know how to treat customers and the bank would lose the customer to the competitors that have properly trained their staff.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
All scientific research is brought on by a perceived problem which is why I have set out to research on this topic- 'The Impact of Training and Development on Employee Performance' (A case study on Fidelity Bank PLC Nigeria). Most banks in Nigeria still have major issues in proper training of their employees. Training is supposed to be done on a regular basis because of emerging technologies (new banking software), new customer service skills and general awareness about the banking industry such as fraud.Â Fraud in any form is a veritable threat to the well being of an organization and its implications on the general economy cannot be treated lightly. It is also very unfortunate that the greatest contributors to fraud occurrence in the Nigerian banking industry are the employees. It is assumed that armed robbery is the biggest threat to banks but banking fraud is because criminals come up with better scams everyday so staffs have to be trained on a regular basis to keep them up to date so there would not fall victim to fraud. Also, people that are underemployed in organizations have an excess of capital that has not yet been used in Nigeria. There are many graduates in Nigeria looking for jobs that does not exist while the people that do have jobs are underutilized where they are employed and this has led to the compromise of training and development which used to be the rights of workers in an organization. Therefore, this dissertation will look into proper training and development of employees and how it impacts their performance in the Nigerian banking industry.
1.3AIM OF THE RESEARCH
The aim of this research study is to investigate empirically the importance of training and development of workers in an organization. The study will look at the various activities in the industry that contribute to the development of employees and from there seek to analyze the impact of these activities on their performance.
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH
The objective of this study is to examine the impact of raining and development on employee performance with particular reference to Fidelity Bank PLC Nigeria. The objectives are:
- To determine whether training and development affects the performance of employees
- To explore the relationships that exists between training and development and the performance of employees.
- To examine the variables that affect employee performance.
- To examine the extent to which training and development affects employee performance.
- To highlight and justify the impact of training and development on employee performance in the banking industry in Nigeria
- To evaluate the contribution of employees in the workplace
- To identify the problems associated with training in organizations in Nigeria.
1.5 LITERATURE REVIEW
The world in which organization, managers and human resource professionals operate today would be unrecognizable to their peers 35 years ago. The pace of innovation, development of technology, the turbulence of economic conditions and the professionalization of management and human resource management are just some areas where the "escalating and seemingly impossible demands" (Kanter, 1989) that face organization have had an enduring impact on the context in which they function today. In other words, the way organization develops people has changed over time.
Approaches to learning have shifted as the practice and purpose of training and developing people have grown in importance, broaden in scope and become more sophisticated in method. (Reid, Barrington and Brown, 2004: 9 cited in Beardwell and Claydon 2007)
From a HR focus article (2009) on training and development, it was cited that the smallest companies (those with up to 50 full time staff) have stepped up sending employees to outside training: 45.7 percent of training in organizations of that size is now done that way, compared with 35.6 percent a year ago. This is the only group to increase the use of outside resources. When it comes to specific training methods in use now, the leading ways organizations train include webcasts, Web conferences, and webinars, collectively cited by 84 percent of respondents. A close second is traditional classroom instruction (82 percent). Self-study with books, magazines, and other no electronic means was third at 70 percent. Larger organizations favour classroom instruction: 77.8 percent of those with 1,000 or more full time staff report this is the leading way they train. Other favourites of the largest organizations include computer-based training (independent learning); blended learning (classroom and computer/electronic); webcasts, Web conferences, and webinars; and self-study through non electronic means (all of which were flagged by 66.7 percent of respondents in this group).
The focus on the research design would be in the banking sector of the economy because it is one of the largest industries in Nigeria and has the most number of employees. (Vanguard 2007). Â In an article, Vincent (1992) noted that 'banks and other financial institutions constitute a formidable element in a modern economy, occupying a pivotal position in the credit and cash economy which Nigeria now operates'.
The research design will consist of four bank branches via random sampling method to conduct this research. The research population will be the full time employees of the bank because they are the ones entitled to training in the organization. These branches were randomly selected as there meet the requirements for operations.
The method of data collection is via questionnaire. Questionnaire would be used because generally data can be acquired from a large portion of a group (like the banks) easily and the responses are gathered in a standardised way, so questionnaires are more objective than interviews to some extent. Hundred copies of the questionnaire would be distributed among these branches with an adequate timeframe to respond. The research project would make use of a parametric test. The T-test would be used in the analysis of the data. Data would be presented with use of tables, graphs and bar charts. There would also be use of computers processing with statistical package for social science (SPSS). The potential is not often reached as returns from questionnaires are usually low which is why hundred questionnaires will be used and hopefully eighty would be gotten back which would still enable me to run my SPSS. However return rates can be considerably improved if the questionnaire is delivered and responded to on time.
The limitations of this study would be majorly resources in the forms of money and time, seeing as there shall be cost incurred in the process of the research. While the time constraint comes into play as the research takes place during 2009-2010 which happens to be my final year in school, hence the workload would be combined with the project.
The research method employed in this exercise is the scientific method as it identifies and defines the problem. It then makes use of formulated hypothesis and analysis, interprets and reports the findings. Hence creating a solution based on fact. This method is also employed as it is free from personal bias and ultimately appeals to evidence. The sample size of this research is hundred questionnaires administered to four branches in the case study bank.
The reliability and validity of the data from the questionnaires collected would be guaranteed because the questionnaires would be handed to the branch managers who would enforce that the staff members fill in the appropriate answers.