Modelling and analysis of jit purchasing system

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Scope for Future Research - 10%

One of main future directions is modelling and analysis of JIT purchasing system from the perspective of supply chain management. Furthermore, the application of information technologies such as EDI and EFT play a significant role in achieving JIT purchasing.

Changing lifestyles are prompting changes in the business environment. Lack of time and an increase in disposable incomes have created a need for new types of SCM. This means that manufacturers, retailers and suppliers will have to become better at knowing their customers and predicting their needs and wants. .

There are still clear opportunities for growth and improvements within the SCM literature. For example, the academic literature has multiple studies focusing on one link in the supply chain, e.g., focal firm to customer or focal firm to supplier. In essence, is SCM just a new label for relationship management? Further, critics in the practitioner realm generally argue that researchers fail to investigate the true dynamics of the field, with little effort being exerted toward understanding the day-to-day challenges practitioners face (Gulati 2007; Markides 2007; McGahan 2007; Tushman and O'Reily 2007).

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One of the objectives of this study was to identify some recent trends in the SCM field across a wide spectrum of scholarly thought. Additionally, we offer some suggestions for future research, identifying existing gaps in the literature as well as isolating key challenges SCM researchers face and offering possible suggestions to overcoming these barriers. As seen from our results section, we have outlined the various subject categories that have increased and decreased throughout the last 10 years in supply chain research. It is our hope that researchers will use the gaps identified herein to generate much needed conceptual and empirical work in the SCM literature, thereby creating a body of literature that is more heavily influenced by a deeper analysis of the supply chain on a chain wide or network basis as opposed to the more popular dyadic studies. Certainly, there is ample opportunity for a wide range of methodological tools to analyze such chain wide or network phenomena. Rich detailed qualitative methodologies using approaches such as grounded theory and snowballing to delve deeply into a supply chain can prove to be valuable additions to the literature. Qualitative studies focusing on networks and using analogies to social networks in the consumer literature could serve as a point of entry to better understand these complex interdependent network relationships.

Other research opportunities involving the unit of analysis and types of analysis were uncovered. Among the top three categories researched during the 10-year period analyzed, the vast majority of articles fit within the firm and dyadic units of analysis. Also, the majority of the articles in the top three categories used empirical analysis techniques. Despite the large frequency with which re-search falls into these categories, the categories themselves are not fully developed. Therefore, we propose that researchers place an emphasis on filling these voids by studying whether or not previous and future findings hold at extended levels of analysis, such as chains and networks. Also, performing research that utilizes various non-empirical methods may help round out the quality and understanding of the topics being researched.

We do hasten to add that despite our identification of several gaps in the literature we are well aware of the unique challenges faced by SCM researchers in their day-to-day activities. Tanner (1999) outlined a number of challenges experienced by organization behavior researchers, indeed these challenges are very similar to the numerous challenges faced by researchers in the SCM field, and include (1) low response rates, (2) limited access to research samples, (3) funding, (4) time for studies and (5) poor theoretical integration. He also offered some solutions to these barriers that include building relationships with trade associations to facilitate networking and greater access to national populations as they may be avenues toward decreasing data collection time periods and associated expenses. Tanner (1999) also suggests borrowing classical approaches and findings to supplement new studies and develop new theory specific to the SCM field. However, even in light of suggestions by Tanner (1999) as to overcoming existing barriers, there are existing shortcomings in SCM research that cannot be addressed simply by these recommendations.

Based on this research we offer a compilation of some of the historical shortcomings in the SCM literature, as well as some possible solutions to overcoming these issues and improving the overall quality of SCM research. These include the following categories: (1) small sample sizes, (2) one-tier investigations, (3) limited methodological analysis, (4) incomplete findings presented, (5) lack of longitudinal studies and (6) limited global supply chain analysis.

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Some of these findings, particularly those related to sample size and methodology, are generally mentioned in operations management methods based literature. However, these issues are not discussed in the context of SCM. Meanwhile other findings, such as one-tier investigations and limited global analysis are critical to SCM.

How this research would help me and the company

I have decided to develop my career in supply chain management because I saw that the field was new and growing. There is a huge need for it right now. Companies are recognizing that strong supply chain management is essential to good performance It is such a wheel rounded profession supply chain is not just a procurement but also transportation and operations. There are just so many different opportunities for me to build my career on. I have done my dissertation in supply chain management because I think it will be an excellent resource for me to gain to exposure to the industry, to the network and to further my training as I build on my MBA degree. Having a dissertation in supply chain management, which in today's turbulent economic environment, firms are striving for ways to achieve competitive advantage. One of the approaches is to manage the entire supply chain to reduce costs and improve performance to create competitive advantage and business success. This dissertation explores and investigates how the Supermarket Companies and Organized Chain Stores use supply chain management to gain competitive advantage and increase business success. The research objective was to determine critical success factors and limitation of recent innovation of Supply Chain Management.

This dissertation provides a theoretical framework to understand a firm's performance and argues that supply chain management will help a firm to be competitive and successful, will be a symbol to all my colleagues to my professionalism and my expertise in my chosen field of practice. And I have also learnt from my dissertation that how companies make every effort to improve market share, grow corporate profit, and gain strategic advantage. In order to achieve these goals, supply chain capability must be placed at the heart of a company's business model. Firms realize that the competition is driven by customer demand. Effective supply chain management can offer customers high quality products and services with low prices.

Supply chain management (SCM) is also an important component of extended enterprise applications. SCM serves as the back-end application by linking suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, and resellers in an organized production and distribution network. Beyond the persistent adoption of ERP systems, which aim to facilitate internal operations and to increase productivity, firms are generating explosive demand for SCM applications. The network economy combines enhanced, transformed, and new economic relationships that are based on computer networks and human knowledge. Its connectivity is mainly realized through the intranet and extranet that exists within and across firms. SCM applications utilize these networks aiming to control costs, reduce paperwork, lower inventory, and shorten product cycles. Nowadays, the Internet and the World Wide Web are widely accepted since they become wider the scope of connectivity among individuals and businesses. Web technologies allow firms to collaborate with business partners to gain the benefits of reducing costs, enhancing customer satisfaction, and retaining competitive advantages. It has often been suggested that technology should not be implemented merely for technology's sake, but rather to meet a specific business need. Then, the implementation of the technology can be closely aligned with business needs and the greatest advantages obtained.

CONCLUSIONS

Now a days supermarket companies are under pressure in order to meet customers' expectations. Firms try their best to shorten product development, reduce costs and prices, improve quality, and expedite distribution. SCM utilizes a growing body of tools and techniques for coordinating and optimizing these key processes. Every companies trying to improve the efficiency of their internal processes by adopting new business practices and use of information technology as much as possible.

The dissertation reveals that supply management is, at best, still emergent in terms of both theory and practice. Few practitioners were able - or even seriously aspired - to extend their reach across the supply chain in the manner prescribed in much modern theory. The research identifies the range of key barriers and enablers to supply management and it concludes with an assessment of the main trends.

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They have recognized the need for better coordination with upstream firms that supply inputs and the network of downstream firms responsible for the distribution of their products to consumers. This has resulted in the emergence of the concept of supply chain management (SCM). Today, firms compete not only on their end-products or services, but also on the strength of their supply chains.

They have discovered that they can differentiate their product offerings and provide better value to their customers only when they make improvements in all the supply chain processes.

Supply Chain Management examines the role of SCM in developing quality products and meeting customer demand faster and better than the competitors. It adopts a process view of SCM, which advocates the mixing of various business processes performed across the supply chain to provide better value to the end customer.

The business environment changes rapidly. Therefore, the focus of SCM must evolve accordingly. The Internet represents a powerful technology for commerce and communication at the buyer-supplier interface. The Internet offers the supply chain enormous potential and entirely new methods for streamlining coordination between supermarket companies and their customers. The Internet provides a tool that allows supply chain activities to be carried out in a synchronized, instantaneous manner, facilitating maximum supply chain performance. The positive benefits of integrating the Internet into management of the supply chain generally outweigh the risks and associated costs, and firms who have completed such integration hold a current competitive advantage over those that have not. Use of Internet is not a means to an end in and of itself, but is rather a supply chain management tool that can be used to improve customer satisfaction, reduce costs, smooth production flows and shorten cycle times. The Internet enhances SCM's performance and it is an essential part of e-Commerce. As the SCM evolves in the information age, the network supports coordination between supermarkets to make all the information, transactions, and decisions flow through the network.

Successful SCM requires a change from managing individual functions to integrating activities into key supply chain processes. An example scenario: the purchasing department places orders as requirements become appropriate. Marketing, responding to customer demand, communicates with several distributors and retailers, and attempts to satisfy this demand. Shared information between supply chain partners can only be fully leveraged through process integration.

Generally speaking, in an environment where the competition is increasingly based on supply chain efficiency, firms need to put SCM at the heart of their business model to be successful. They must take advantage of the Internet and Web technology to achieve higher-quality and lower-cost collaboration with trading partners.

High volume malls, shopping outlets, supermarkets and organized chain stores, requiring the application of modern management techniques to run them efficiently and effectively. Success in today's competitive environment is all about getting the right product to the right place at the right time, at the lowest cost possible. This requires managers to be adept at planning, merchandising, pricing, and promotion.

In supermarket companies and organized chain stores, the subject of retailing from both academic and pragmatic points of view. It discusses new SCM concepts and practices through contemporary examples to provide insights to students and managers.

Information technology refers to the collection of tools and technologies that make it easy for individuals, businesses and other organizations to use, create, manage and exchange information. New developments in information technology have fundamentally transformed the way in which business is carried out. The increasing power and falling costs of computers have made information storage, analysis and distribution faster, easier and less expensive than at any time before in human history.

The Internet has removed geographical barriers, making it possible for companies to source material from one country, process it in another country, package it in yet another country and sell the final product globally. Consumers have information on products and services at their fingertips; they can compare different products, services or manufacturers to choose the best or the cheapest option. The Internet is now the most significant medium of entertainment, communication and commerce for many people. Consequently, electronic commerce is fast becoming an important component of the world economy.

Given the importance of information technology for businesses, managers need to understand the concepts and upgrade their knowledge in the field.

Information Technology examines issues in information technology and discusses how managers can use its power to remain competitive in this era of globalization.