Yeasts Eukaryotic Unicellular Microorganisms Classified In Kingdom Fungi Biology Essay

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Yeasts are the eukaryotic unicellular microorganisms classified in kingdom fungi. These are commonly remains in the human gastrointestinal tract and at the moist and warm areas of the body like oral cavity, mucus membrane. Yeast infections are commonly called as thrush or Candidiasis. Mainly the yeast named Candida Albicans causes the infection in throat as well as other parts of the body. These microscopic germs do not harm the body when their populations are kept controlled by healthy immune system and the beneficial bacteria (Bifidobacteria bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus) found in the body. Candida is the part of ecological balance in the human body. When the immune system is not strong the no. of beneficial bacteria get reduces due to some underlying factors, during this time the yeasts are multiplied rapidly in the body which leads to yeast infection. This Candida infection may spreads several parts of the body.

RIVIEW OF LITERATURE

Throat infections can be caused by virus, bacteria and fungi or yeasts. When the throat infection causes by yeast or fungi then it is called as thrush or candidiasis. This candidal infection commonly affects when there is deficiency in immune system in the body. It is a communicable disease. Highly it is transferable during the oral sex. So the person affected in candidiasis should stay far from sex otherwise his/her partner will also suffer in same disease. [5.2, 5.5]

The symptoms of this disease are ranging from mild to severe such as:-

Reddening in throat.

Swelling of throat that persists for a long time.

Slightly raised whitish or yellowish lesions in the throat which are painful and may bleed.

Experiencing soreness in throat.

Difficulties during swallowing food.

Patient suffering from this disease may also suffer in stomach upset.

People with weakened immune system, diabetes and other metabolic disorders, as well as those taking more antibiotics, steroid drugs and undergoing cancer treatments like, chemotherapy have a greater risk of developing yeast throat infection. This is why the HIV/AIDS patients are more likely to have the severe yeast throat infection. Immune deficiencies in body occur due to several physical disorders, rapid taking of steroid drugs and antibiotics. Taking of more antibiotics kill the beneficial bacteria which leads to rapid growth of yeast, so yeast infections occur [5.4]

The cure for a throat yeast infection can be done by the antifungal medicines. Also, adding good bacteria is crucial in the treatment of throat yeast infection. This is done to help both the immunological response and get the best out of beneficial bacteria.

MECHANISM

Mainly the yeast infection cause in throat due to the deficiency in immune system and rapid taking of antibiotics, steroid drugs etc. Deficiency of immune system occurs due to the many physical disorders in health such as stress, lack of sleep, taking steroid drugs etc. As long as the immune system is healthy and strongly functioning Candida albicans growth is regulated and kept under control by some beneficial bacteria. When there is deficiency in immune system the environment of the beneficial bacteria (Bifidobacteria bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus) becomes imbalance so there occurs in reducing the no. of beneficial bacteria which leads to rapid growth or multiplication of the Candida albicans. Candida albicans produce the endotoxins during their reproduction and death which is virulent in nature. Due to the virulence nature of endotoxins cause local irritations and damaging of tissue surfaces which allow the penetration of monilia into the dip of the tissue and blood this causes the infections in throat or candidiasis.[5.1, 5.3].

Deficiency in immune system

C. albicans present in body under control growth.

Rapid growth of C. albicans

Rapid taking of steroids and antibiotics

Production of endotoxins by reproduction and death of c. albicans

C. albicans penetrate into the dip of tissue and blood.

Endotoxins damage the surfaces of throat tissues.

candidasis

Pathway of C. albicans causes throat infection or candidiasis

Conclusion

From the above study this is concluded that the yeast throat infection or candidiasis is mainly caused by Candida albicans yeast during their rapid growth due to the poor immune system and more taking of antibiotics, steroids.

Reference

Throat yeast infection [online] (updated 15th march 2010) Available at: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/throat-yeast-infection.html [accessed 7th October 2010].

SarahLeaRhodes, 2010. Yeast Infection in the Throat â€" Dangerous Illness You Cannot Ignore, Health and Fitness.

Seelig, M.S., 1966, Mechanisms by Which Antibiotics Increase the Incidence and Severity of Candidiasis and Alter the Immunological Defenses, American Society for Microbiology, 30(2), pp. 442-454.

Yeast Infection of Throat - Causes and Symptoms [online] Available at: http://ezinearticles.com/?Yeast-Infection-of-Throat---Causes-and-Symptoms&id=707657 [accessed 7th October 2010].

Throat Yeast Infection Treatments, Causes and Symptomshttp [online] Available at: www.articlehq.net/throat-yeast-infection/

sore throat

INTRODUCTION

Sore throat is a common symptom of many physical disorders and it can be caused by virus, bacteria and yeast. Sore throat is the inflammation in mucous membrane linings which may be painful. It is a transferrable disease and it is common in winter season because the upper respiratory infections are more frequent due to cold. This infection may occur in a group of people or members of one family at a single time. Sore throat may be acute or chronic. When sore throat is caused by bacteria then it is called as strep throat. The difference between the viral and bacterial sore throat is that the viral infection doesn’t respond to antibiotics where as the bacterial infections can be cured by antibiotics.

Review of literature

The main causes of the sore throat are common cold, flu, mononucleosis, continuous breathing by mouth, chronic tonsillitis, diphtheria, sinusitis, smoking etc. Medically sore throat is known as pharyngitis. Sore throat may be of 2 types such as acute and chronic sore throat. When the sore throat lasts for less than 7 days or cures within 8 days than it is called as acute sore throat and when the sore throat remains up to 3 weeks or more then it is called as chronic sore throat [3.1].

The symptoms of the sore throat are:-

Causes pain during swallowing and breathing.

Pus formation on the surfaces of the tonsil.

Reddening in oropharynx.

Throat dryness.

Swelling in throat.

WBCs help to fight against the bacterial infection. When the bacterial infections occur in throat, it creates pocket like structures which are known as crypts. Bacteria lyses the WBCs which mix with the cell debris and form the pus in crypts, so the surface of throat looks whitish or yellowish in color. This bacterial infection can be cured by antibiotics.

During the viral infection, viruses lodge and irritate the surfaces of throat due to which the throat looks red. As the virus doesn’t respond to the antibiotics, the patient should wait for the immune system of the body to work [3.3]. Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) present in human saliva mainly causes the infections in throat which is highly contagious during oral sex. So the person suffering from this infection should stay far from oral sex. Sometimes the viral sore throat leads to pneumonia and death.

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