Word probiotics originally taken from Greek word pro

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

The word probiotics is originally taken from Greek word "pro" meaning "for" and "bios" "meaning life". It is defined as a group of microorganisms which when taken live in sufficient quantity are beneficial to host organisms and providing some health benefits to that host organisms on consuming. Most commonly used microbes in probiotics are lactobacillus and bifida bacteria species. Sometimes yeast and bacilli are also added, which provide additional health benefits. Yoghurt and soy yoghurt are most commonly available probiotics products in the market for human consumption. Probiotics can also be taken in the form of dietary supplements. (Cunningham-Rundles, et al. 2000)

Initially, when probiotics were launched they were mainly used as an immunity booster agent, maintaining intestinal flora and stopping growth of other microorganisms which produces toxins. But now they are also being used in treatment of diseases like diarrhoea, atopic diseases, urinary tract infections, chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases, cancer and irritable bowel syndrome. (Dugas, et al. 1999)

Indications where probiotics are used (Reid 2006)

The above diagam shows different uses of probiotics

Diarrhoea

Infectious type

Some probiotics are used in treatment of gastro enteritis. They act by reducing symptoms, illness and frequency of stool.

Antibiotic associated diarrhoea

It is caused when there is misbalance in colonic mitochondria due to antibiotic therapy or due to growth of clostridium species. Probiotics are mainly used to treat severity and helps in reducing the disease.

Prevents colon cancer

Some of LAB strains show anti mutagenic properties, they can bind to heterocyclic amines which are carcinogenic in nature. Human studies have shown that LAB strains decrease the effect of β-glucuronidase, thus lowering risk of colon cancer.

Lowering cholesterol

LAB strains are used to lower serum cholesterol levels, by breaking bile in gut, causing inhibiting in its reabsorbing back.

Lowering blood pressure

There are some clinical trials which had shown that some strains of LAB helps in reducing blood pressure.

Improving immunity

They act as immunity booster, protecting us from pathogens by the process of competitive inhibition, and also increase Iga cells which help improving phagocytises and increasing number of t-lymphocytes.

Scientific support for their use

This new development is making a new space for food and health industry to make new products which have unique health features for specific population. Use of probiotics for immunity and health benefits are now being supported by strong scientific evidences in which their genetic data and efficacy on humans is given.

Most of the LAB species that are used till date are safe. Till date there are 70 clinical trials done in which >4000 children including infants and new born babies and results obtained are showing that they are safe to use.(Lee and Salminen 1995)

In other case, 12000 patients were taken mostly of them were premature babies and infants which were under weight, on giving them doses of probiotics there were reduction in death rate in that group and also low in deaths due to  Necrotizing Enter colitis (NEC).(Nayak 2010)

In other case study of 588 premature babies and infants of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) there was reduction in number of deaths when probiotics was given to them.

(Lee and Salminen 1995)

In one of the case study 204 unnourished children age between 6-24 months were taken and probiotics were given for 6 days for 15 months show improvement in their health.(Cunningham-Rundles, et al. 2000)

There are also various studies which show enormous increase in useful bacteria when given to premature babies, malnourished babies and infants which are born to mothers suffering from HIV.(Reid 2006)

Also there are many organisations like Probiotics European Scientific League( PESU ) , FDA( Food And Drug Association), FAO(Food Agricultural Organisation) which are there to keep control and check on probiotics that are used in market, so that human health may not get effected by them on consuming.

ISAPP (International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Probiotics) formed in 2000 is a scientific association of academic and industrial scientists, which is concerned in research and applied aspects of probiotics, with a main aim of producing good scientific data in favour of probiotics, so that they can be easily used by humans.

Development of new probiotics

Culture, organism and stain that is being used

I am going to develop a new probiotic which will contain species already being used of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria in it. The species with stains which I am using are B. infantis 35624 and B. lactis Bb12 of genus Bifidobacteria and L. rhamnosus GG and L. acidophilus NCFM of genus Lactobacillus. It will be available in flavoured yogurt which will be single dose bottles containing 107 - 1010 microorganisms per bottle, so that it will be dose specific and right amount of bacteria are consumed when taken.

When these two species are given through oral route, they have excellent results on human immunity. Both the species have shown measurable growth as early in first week, thus changing unfavourable conditions inside the body into favourable ones. Yoghurt containing these species is consumed annually in tonnes and till date no adverse reactions are reported and I am introducing this product in yogurt form because it is to be used for children and infants, also it is not used for therapeutic use so no need to be given in tablet or capsule form. Also yogurt can be easily given to babies for a long duration of time to increase their immunity. (Dugas, et al. 1999)

Benefits of this product

Can survive during cultivation, processing and storage before consumption.

Provide health benefits on consuming.

Remains alive in gastric, pancreatic and bile secretions.

Induce host cells when it comes in contact with them.

Reduces pathogenic effects by producing acids like H2O2, which stops growth of clostridium species.

Helps to maintain natural flora.

Non carcinogenic, safe, non pathogenic and non invasive.

Shows antimicrobial activity.

Survive through stomach passage thus helps in reduction of free amines present in intestine.

Doesn't cause resistant to antibiotics.

Boosts immunity levels.

Mechanism of action (Nayak 2010)

GI tract is one of the important organs which play a major role in function of probiotics. It mainly consists of 10 trillion organisms in it. Intestinal epithelial cells, present in GIT can distinguish between pathogenic and non pathogenic bacteria.

Its mechanism include

Change in GI immunity by cytokinesis or in stain specific manner.

Gas producing organisms are removed.

Change in flora by changing acidic nature of colon.

Epithelial barrier is enhanced.

Target users

The combination which is used is more beneficial to children, it helps them to increase their immunity levels, which helps them to fight with pathogens present in their body and stay healthy and fit.

The target customers will include

New born babies

Premature babies

Under weight born babies

Infants

Children under age of 15 years

Babies born to mothers suffering from HIV

There are many case studies which prove that this combination of probiotics when given to above group is beneficial for them. By giving this combination to premature babies there has been an increase in number of good bacteria in them which finally improves their health. Also this combination had increase weight in babies which were born underweight. This combination of bacteria is beneficial for infants and children, by boosting their immunity levels. This combination is also good to increase immunity in babies which are born to mothers suffering from HIV. In short, this combination of bacteria will help these groups of babies and children to boost up their immunity levels to fight with the infections in them and to live a normal life.(Cunningham-Rundles, et al. 2000)

Guidelines which have to be followed before getting this product in market

There are several guidelines provided by different organisations which one has to follow before launching this product in the market.

WHO Guidelines

The guidelines provided by WHO which is accepted all around the world has to follow before making the probiotics useable in market by humans. They are

Company has to provide literature of safe use of species

No antibiotic resistance should be there

No virulence characters should be present

No toxins should be formed

Checking of haemolytic activity

Side effects that can occur in humans

Examining of metabolic activities, for instance checking for production of lactase and deconstruction of bile salt

Post market survey for adverse effects

European Food and Safety Authority (EFSA)

This association had following criteria for use of probiotics in Europe

Organism should be full identified that its genus, species and stain should be fully known.

Data about organism's history, its use in industry, and its doses in humans should be known.

Should be fit for uptake

Should be non pathogenic, non carcinogenic and non degrading

Does not cause antibiotic resistance

Should survive in intestinal tract

One phase 2 study should be in its support

Should stay viable at time of processing and storage

In vivo/ animal study should be done

Strains that are used are to be kept at international culture centre

Pulse field gel electrophoresis should be used for stain typing

Its DNA should be identified and also 16 RNA sequences should be known.

End products which are formed should be known

Should stop pathogens growth

Should posses antimicrobial activity

PROSAFE

With the guidelines mentioned in EFSA this community had provided certain more guidelines for evaluation of lactic acid for human use

DNA sequencing should be done by some expert lab

Animals model mostly rats should be used to check its safety

Human study should be done randomly, double blind and with placebo control

Labelling of probiotics

This is one of the most important concerns in launching of probiotics. It should contain

Genus, species and stains that is used

Minimum number of viable bacteria that will present at the end of shelf life

Storage conditions

Company contact details

Side effects if there are any

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.