What Is Hiv Where Did It Come From Biology Essay

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Genetic research indicates that HIV is originated in West Central Africa during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. This disease is first recognized by U.S Center for Disease Control and Prevention in early 1980s. It was estimated that 33.2 million peoples lived with the disease world wide, including 2.1 million people was killed by this disease.

AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that is caused by a immunodeficiency virus and it is commonly known as HIV. This virus has the capability to reduce the effectiveness of the immune system of human body, which leads individual susceptible for opportunistic infections and tumors.

The HIV virus is commonly transmitted through direct contact of the mucous membrane or the blood stream with

AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)

the bodily fluids such as blood, semen, vaginal fluids, preseminal fluids and the breast milk.

The transmission of the virus is commonly done by contaminated hypodermic needles, any type of sex, or by the blood transfusion. In case of pregnancy, if the mother is suffering from AIDS, then the baby is also HIV positive, because of exchange of fluids between both of them and also in case of breast feeding.

Mostly the symptoms of AIDS are caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites that are normally controlled by the immune system that HIV damages. The common symptoms of AIDS are those which are not normally occur in a normal person, who has proper immune system like fever, sweats, swollen glands, chills, weakness and weight

lost. These are the systematic symptoms of AIDS on the human body. Beyond this, some opportunistic infections that AIDS cause depend upon the geographic area in which the patient lives. Sometime, it will cause some tumors like Kaposi's sarcoma, cervical cancer and cancers of the immune system known as lymphomas.

The most common pulmonary infection, which is caused during the HIV infection, is "tuberculosis." It is a unique type of infection associated with HIV, because it is transmissible to immunocompetent people by the help of respiratory route, is not easily treatable once identified.

In case of gastrointestinal infection, the most common infection is "esophagitis" (inflammation of the lining of lower end of the esophagus).

The tumors and malignancies during the AIDS infection is due to the co-infection with an oncogenic DNA virus, especially Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and human papillomavirus (HPV).

The main cause of the AIDS is HIV virus. It is a retrovirus that has the capability to primarily infect vital organs on the human immune system such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. It directly and indirectly destroys CD4+ T cells. These all are the basis of human immune system, which protect us from various infections or kills the microorganisms that are present in our body and cause infections. Older people have weaker immune systems, and therefore have a greater risk of rapid disease progression than younger people.

Although the symptoms of immune deficiency characteristics of AIDS do not appear for years after a person is infected, the bulk of CD+ T cell loss occurs during the first weeks of infection. The reason for the preferential loss of mucosal CD4+ T cells is that a majority of mucosal CD4+ T cells express the CCR5 co-receptor, whereas a small fraction of CD4+ T cells in the bloodstream do so.

HIV seeks out and destroys CCR5 expressing CD4+ cells during acute infection. A vigorous immune response eventually controls the infection and initiates the clinically latent phase. However, CD4+ T cells in mucosal tissues remain depleted throughout the infection, although enough remain to initially ward off life-threatening infections.

The virus has cytopathic effects but how, it is still not quite clear. It can remain inactive in thee cells for long periods, though. The most prominent effect of HIV is T-helper cell suppression and lysis. The cells is imply killed off or deranged to the point of being function-less i.e. they do not respond to foreign antigens. The infected B-cells can not produce enough antibodies, thus the immune system collapses leading to the familiar AIDS complications. AIDS dementia complex caused by the infection of Central Nervous System.

For the diagnosis of this disease clinical and laboratory data uses in developing countries. The patient who is suffering from this disease or HIV positive has CD4+T cell count below 200 per uL of blood or 14% of all lymphocytes. Venous blood is commonly use for the HIV tests, commonly fourth generation screening test is use for the detection of anti-HIV antibody and the HIV antigen. If the patient is positive on the first test, then the test will be repeated on second blood sample to confirm the results. The results which are positive obtained by PCR are confirmed by the help of antibody tests.

It is very important thing to know how to prevent from this lethal disease. This disease caused by sexual contact, exposure to infected body fluids or tissues, and from mother to fetus. In case of sexual contact, only condoms can reduce the chance of infection from any sexually transmitted disease or to become pregnant. Exposure to infected body fluids is reduced by health care workers by employing precautions to reduce the exposure of contaminated blood. Gloves, masks, protective eye wares or shields are commonly use. Frequent washing also helps to reduce the chance of infection after the exposure of infected blood. Use of the intravenous drugs also cause the infection, so for that purpose the syringe would be discarded after the use or the needle cut by the help of cutter.

At that time, there is no vaccine available for the HIV or cure for HIV or AIDS. The current treatment for AIDS consists of highly active antiretroviral therapy. This treatment is introduced in 1996. This treatment consists of combination of at least two types or classes of antiretroviral agents. The regimens used commonly consist of two nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors plus with a protease inhibitor or a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. Standard goals of the regimen includes the improvement in the patient's quality of life, reduction in complications, but it does not cure the patient of HIV, of high level of HIV in blood. The progression from HIV infection to AIDS is between 9-10 years, and after that the development of AIDS the survival time is only 9.2 months. By the use of the drugs, we can increase the survival time between 4-12 years.

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