What are the changes that Mangroves endured to adapt to their wet and dry environment?

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What are the changes that Mangroves endured to adapt to their wet and dry environment?


The process of evolutionn in plants has resulted in an increasingly high level of complexity. Starting from just the earliest algal mats, through to bryophytes, lycopods, ferns and even to complex gymnosperms and angiosperms of today. Many of the groups that appeared in earlier times still thrive, particularly within the environments within which they evolved, for a time each new grade of organization became more "successful" than its predecessors. Land plants evolved from chlorophyte algae at an estimated 475 million years (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algae , 1/02/14) ago. Most forms of Algae are photosynthetic because they lack most of the distinct cell organelles and cell types found in land plants. Before land plants existed there were only different types of Algae witch were situated in various wet environments. Eventually they evolved and made their way onto land which encountered some advantages and challenges. The following 5 major steps where what helped the development of the Algae to evolve into land plants and it also helped plants like Mangroves survive. For e.g. mangroves have adapted to living in the harshest conditions. A quarter of the plant is submerged in salt water twice a day when the tide comes in and heavy, stinky mud with no oxygen for its roots.

Advantages for the land plants compared to algae.

Challenges and problems of land colonization

2 major problems for land colonization were that there was less water so plants needed to avoid drying out and no support against the gravity. Algae does not have roots, leaves or stems making it hard for the algae to survive on land without these things. The first formed land plants were small, had alternation of generations,, lacked a vascular system. The following 5 adaptations were what made it possible for algae t o evolve into land plants.


The first major problem for evolving plants was how to regulate water loss within the cells as they were now situated in mostly drier land. Firstly the plants produced a waxy covering on top of their leaves (epidermis), this is known as a plant cuticule, which evolved on the surface of leaves to reduce water loss. Explaining why leaves are shiny and when wet the water rolls off due to the waxy layer as shown in figure 1.1.

Transport systems:

Xylem and phloem are the main contributors to the big transportation system of vascular plants. E.g. As humans grow and build; it makes it more difficult for the body to transport vital nutrients, water, and sugars around and through your body. This is why we have a circulatory system as it allows us to keep on growing. As plants evolved they also grew larger, they to have developed their own special kind of circulatory systems.

All trees and plants have a top part and a bottom part. The top could either have a trunk, branches or leaves while the bottom consists of a system of roots. Both need each other to survive. Roots hold the plant steady and attain moisture and nutrients from the soil. Top of the plant remains in the sunlight, conducting photosynthesis and helping the plant reproduce. This is where xylem and phloem come in. The xylem of the plant is the system made up of tubes and transport cells in which they circulate water and dissolved minerals. The xylem is made up of tiny vessels that connect end to end which maximize the speed in which water moves around. The Phloem system transports sugars and other molecules produced by the plant. Phloem is always alive whereas xylem dies.

Root Systems:


The leaves on a plant are vital for its survival. Leaves on a plant collect sunlight which is than transformed into sugar which the plant used for energy. Structures within a leaf on the plant convert the energy obtained in sunlight into chemical energy (food for the plant). Chlorophyll is a molecule in leaves and it is uses the energy in the sunlight to turn water known as (H2O) and carbon dioxide gas known as (CO2) into sugar and oxygen gas (O2) which is in fact called photosynthesis.

As shown in “Figure 1.3” which shows the "Leaf cross section diagram" Leafs are made up of many layers which are compressed between 2 layers of robust skin cells (called the epidermis). These layers protect the leaves. Each pair of guard cells (above the upper epidermis and below the air space) forms a pore (known as stoma). Gases enter and leave the leaf through the stomata. Food production takes place in elongated cells named palisade mesophyll on diagram. Gas exchange occurs in the air spaces between cells of the spongy mesophyll. The Veins help support the leaf which is filled with vessels transporting food, water, and minerals to the plant.

Reproductive structures and strategies

Plant reproduction consists of Asexual or sexual reproduction. The Sexual reproduction is the process of creating (producing) offspring by the gametes fusing, resulting in the offspring being genetically different from the parent or parents. Whereas the Asexual reproduction process produces new individuals without fusion of the gametes being genetically identical to the parent plants and each other, (one exception is when mutations occur). Mangroves reproduction process is quite unique in that they disperse propagules(bud, seed, spore) via their surrounding water using varying degrees of vivipary (germinating) or embryonic development while the propagule is attached to the parent tree

Plant Diversity part 2


This phylogenetic tree shows the origin of plants 500 million years ago and how they have evolved into complex angiosperms of today. From this Phylogenetic tree we can gather lots of information. The branching pattern of the phylogenetic tree indicates that angiosperms are most closely related to gymnosperms. Both gymnosperms and dinosaurs were dominant during the Mesozoic. Charophyceans are green algae which are most closely related to plants.

Annotated Bibliography:


Biology 4 Kids is owned and run by Andrew Raders Studios. Andrew Raders Studios own and run many reliable scientific websites. They employ qualified scientists to publish on their website making the data reliable. The content is about Plants Vascular systems. It explains about the Xylem and Phloem and how they work. The main argument is about how the Xylem and Phloem have helped plants to become what they are today and how they have evolved. The website is called Biology4Kids but in their website they state that the information isn't just for kids and that it's for everyone. Its just presented in easy to read text without all the extra non-sense information on sites like Wikipedia. As mentioned above the information is produced by scientists making it somewhat reliable. This info relates well to my ERT as it helped me learn about the Vascular system of a plant.

2. http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/lecturesf04am/lect17.htm

The author of this information comes from qualified lecturers from the University of Illinois at Chicago. The content shown in this article is of the structure and function of a plant. It goes on to talk about root systems and shoot systems. The main argument is to show that plant cells are an important part of a plants makeup. It talks about the different cells in the plant along with the different organs etc. The intended audience is to those studying Biology at university. But the university makes the information free to the public which is great. The information is very reliable as it's coming from a qualified university in America. The information was both reliable and useful from my ERT. It helped me grasp the concepts of the cells and how those cells effected the plants everyday life.

3. http://bhort.bh.cornell.edu/conservatory/cpage8.html

The website is owned and ran by Cornell University's Liberty Hyde Bailey Conservatory. The author of this specific web page is by Rebecca Rose Leitten. The content shown is about plant evolution. It then goes to explain algal mats, through to bryophytes, lycopods, ferns and even to complex gymnosperms and angiosperms of today. The main argument is to explain how plants evolved over many years of complex changes. The intended audience is to those who attend university or who just want to know a bit more about how plants evolved. Because this information came from a trusted university it means that the reliability of the text is pretty high because they wouldn't be giving false information to university students. Information was useful for me as it helped explain how plants have evolved over many years.



Algae. (2014, August 2). Wikipedia. Retrieved February 13, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algae

Algae to Angiosperms. (n.d.). Algae to Angiosperms. Retrieved February 15, 2014, from http://bhort.bh.cornell.edu/conservatory/cpage8.html

Evolutionary history of plants. (2014, December 2). Wikipedia. Retrieved February 13, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolutionary_history_of_plants

Mangrove Reproduction. (n.d.). Mangrove Reproduction. Retrieved February 15, 2014, from http://www.nhmi.org/mangroves/rep.htm

Plant Structure and Function. (n.d.). Plant Structure and Function. Retrieved February 15, 2014, from http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/lecturesf04am/lect17.htm

studios, A. R. (n.d.). PLANTS VASCULAR SYSTEMS. Biology4Kids.com: Plants: Xylem and Phloem. Retrieved February 12, 2014, from http://www.biology4kids.com/files/plants_xylemphloem.html

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