Water hyacinths obtain the necessary nutrients for their growth and development from the water in which they are located. Thus, the level of nutrients in the water directly affects the growth and development of the plants. Water weevils (Neochetina eichhorniae and Neochetina bruchi) are used as agents in the biological control of the water hyacinths. The weevils obtain the necessary nutrients by feeding on the water hyacinths, thus they damage the plants, affecting their growth and development as well. Both of these factors affect the growth of the water hyacinths. This research task will determine if these factors affect on another.
How does the concentration of nutrients (phosphates and nitrates) in the water, in which water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) are grown, affect the amount of feeding by the weevils (Neochetina eichhorniae and Neochetina bruchi) on the hyacinths?
Higher levels of phosphates and nitrates in the water will result in an increased amount of feeding by the weevils on the water hyacinths.
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To determine if higher concentrations of phosphates and nitrates in the water will increase the amount of feeding by the weevils on the water hyacinths.
According to the University of the Witwatersrand, in South Africa, water hyacinth has a steep exponential growth as it is able to grow in a wide range of environmental conditions (2013). It can be thus considered as one of the most invasive alien water weeds that threaten South Africa's waterways. According to the University of the Witwatersrand, it blocks the waterways, thus preventing drainage and navigation and it also impedes the growth of indigenous aquatic life in the waterways (2013). The aquatic weeds grow in mats that cover the surfaces of the bodies of water. This prevents sunlight from reaching the aquatic plants beneath the surface, which results in their inability to photosynthesise. Water hyacinth has a widespread distribution across South Africa, thus resulting in many environmental and economic impacts, as well as difficulties with the control of the aquatic weed.
The purpose of this research task is to determine if the levels of nutrients in the water affect the amount of feeding by the weevils on the water hyacinths. Water hyacinths obtain the nutrients that are necessary for their growth from the water in which they are situated. The National Eutrophication Monitoring Programme of South Africa states that many of these nutrients accumulate in the water as a result of the leaching of unused nutrients in fertilizers from commercial farms, as well as the drainage from sewerage stations (n.d.). This research task will determine if the levels of phosphates and nitrates in the water are increasing the amount of feeding by the weevils on the water hyacinths. It will thus indicate if methods need to be introduced to further control the concentrations of nutrients that are leaching into the water, and if the control of these nutrients will aid in reducing the difficulties in the biological control of water hyacinths. Some of these difficulties include the promoted growth of the water hyacinths due to the increased concentrations of the nutrients in the water ways (Coetzee et al.). This increases the numbers of the plants, as well as the density of the mats that cover the surfaces of the water bodies. This increases the difficulty of biological control, as well as costs required to fund the programmes. This research task will aid in making South African's aware of their contributions, which are mostly indirect, to the growth of the water hyacinths.
The findings of the research should be useful to:
The management of the commercial farms and sewerage stations, who should be made aware of the impacts that the drainage of nutrients from these establishments has on the biological control of the water hyacinths. This would aid in encouraging these establishments to take a greater interest in the control of these nutrients.
The experts and researchers who are involved with the biological control of the water hyacinths.
Civilian South Africans who are passionate about the preservation of South Africa's waterways and indigenous aquatic life, so that these civilians are made aware of the impact that they have on the environment.
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Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a free-floating aquatic plant that is widely considered as one of the world's most invasive water weeds. It is a magnificent Amazonian plant with beautiful and fragrant purple flowers (Joubert, 2009). According to the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service, the leaves of the water hyacinth are dark green with an elliptical shape and are attached to easily identifiable swollen petioles, which aid in keeping the plant afloat in the water (2013). The plant was introduced into South Africa because of these aesthetic qualities. Water hyacinth first appeared in South Africa on the Cape Flats in 1908, and was almost immediately introduced into Kwa-Zulu Natal at about the same time (Joubert, 2009). Since its first appearance, the removal and control of the water hyacinths has been unsuccessful in South Africa. This is problematic as the water hyacinths have many negative impacts on South Africa's environment, society and economy. Some environmental impacts are that the water hyacinths obstruct and block water ways and drainage systems. They affect and disturb the aquatic ecosystems within the water bodies. The prolific growth of the water hyacinths calls for many large programmes for the different types of control of the plants. These programmes therefore require funding, thus affecting South Africa's economy. The blockage of the water ways disrupts aquatic recreational activities as well as affecting the health of the communities near the invaded water bodies, exposing these communities to more vectors of disease. This therefore has effects on societies within South Africa. This literature review will describe how the concentration of nutrients in the water bodies can limit the success of the control of the water hyacinths, as well as how the nutrients in the water encourage the growth and success of the water hyacinths.
Water hyacinth plants form free-floating mats which cover the surfaces of water bodies and obstruct water ways, thus clogging water supply systems, drainage canals and hydro-power generators (Marshall, 2003). These aquatic weeds also disrupt navigation by boats (Joubert, 2009). The dense cover of weeds reduces and prevents light from penetrating through the water. This prevents submerged aquatic plants from photosynthesising to produce food, causing a decrease in the oxygen and an increase in the carbon dioxide within the water bodies (Jones, 2009), as the submerged plants are unable to use the available carbon dioxide within the water and less oxygen is being released by these plants as their photosynthetic rate is decreased. The reduction of oxygen in the water has catastrophic effects on the aquatic life forms that depend on oxygen for survival. The submerged aquatic plants are also a form of sustenance for many aquatic organisms which would start to decrease in numbers if the plants are unable to photosynthesise. The water hyacinths, therefore, aid in the disruption of the ecological functioning of the indigenous aquatic life forms. The water hyacinth also causes water loss through transpiration which is distinctly greater than the loss of water from open water through evaporation (Marshall, 2009). This is a problem as it decreases the water available to other aquatic organisms, thus decreasing their survival rate. According to the University of the Witwatersrand, the dense mats of this aquatic plant disrupts the flow of water, causing stagnant water to occur, and thus provides suitable breeding sites for vectors of disease such as mosquitoes (2013).
Due to all of these negative impacts of the water hyacinth, different methods of management have been implemented to assist in the control of water hyacinths. Mechanical, chemical and biological methods have all been implemented in the hope of controlling the plants (Kluge, 1978). Since 1974, six species of biological control agents have been introduced into South Africa (Coetzee et al. 2011). Two species of weevils (Neochetina eichhorniae and Neochetina bruchi), a moth ( Niphograpta albiguttalis), a mite (Orthogalumna terebrantis), a leaf sucking mirid (Eccritotarsus catarinensis), and a pathogenic fungus (Cercospora piaropi). These biological control agents damage the tissues of the plant, and they kill the roots, flowers and seeds, thereby reducing the plants resources (Coetzee et al. 2011). Although biological control accelerated and was the most effective in the 1990s, this control could not be sustained and thus, despite the high numbers of agents that are released successful biological control has not yet been achieved in South Africa. This is due to certain factors such as the removal of the weed through flooding and the presence of many nutrient-enriched water bodies in South Africa (Coetzee et al. 2011). Another factor is the climatic incompatibility, for example some of the agents do not survive in the colder climate during winters in South Africa (Byrne, 2013).
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The majority of these facts are obtained from the A Review of the Biological Control Programmes in African Entomology Vol. 19 are reliable. This is because all 4 authors are recognized scholars in the fields of entomology, ecology and the environment. Dr Julie Coetzee and Angela Bownes are both recognized researchers who are members of the Agricultural Research Council - Plant Protection Research Institute, which is the primary research institution for agriculture in South Africa. Professeor Marcus Byrne Lectures at the University of the Witwatersrand, and is the project leader of the Intergrated Management Plan for Water Hyacinth in South Africa, which is programme that was developed at the University of the Witwatersrand. Professor Martin Hill is the co-leader of this programme, and lectures at Rhodes University. All of the authors are academics and thus they are often scrutinized by peers. The authors provide contact information which shows that they are open for scrutiny. The authors have referenced all of the sources from which they have gotten their information. They remain objective, representing fact and not opinion. Their research has been conducted on appropriate samples that are representative of the population. This is seen as they have conducted research in many water ways in many provinces across South Africa. For example, they carried out their investigations in Delta Park in Gauteng and Nselei River in the Eastern Cape, therefore the study is reliable. The conclusions that the authors made were based on the results that they obtained. This source is therefore reliable.
Water hyacinths spread the most effectively in waters that are polluted with fertiliser run-off from commercial farms near the water bodies (Joubert, 2009), as they can absorb large concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous from the water bodies. Other contributors to these high levels of nutrients and phosphates are the waste products of humans and animals (Marshall, 2003).
An investigation was conducted on the effect of pH and high phosphorous concentrations on the growth of water hyacinth (Haller & Sutton, n.d.). The findings of the investigation, when compared to the previous research conducted on other aquatic plants, indicated that water hyacinths absorb as much as four times the phosphorous than the other aquatic plants that had been studied (Haller & Sutton, n.d.). The high concentrations of phosphorous that were absorbed by the hyacinths depended on the phosphorous content in the water. This indicates that the water hyacinths do not absorb a fixed concentration of nutrients, which thus allows them to thrive in nutrient-enriched waters, as they can absorb most of these high levels of nutrients. Findings in the investigation also indicated that increased levels of phosphorous in the water, resulted in the increased growth and productivity of the water hyacinths (Haller, WT & Sutton, DL. n.d.). The investigation concluded that the introduction of water hyacinths into water bodies that suffer from eutrophication would aid in reducing the levels of nutrients. Although this is true, it has been found that the water hyacinths thrive too well in nutrient-enriched waters and, thus, cannot be controlled (Coetzee et al. 2011). Therefore this conclusion is no longer valid as although the water hyacinths would be effective in reducing concentrations of nutrients, they would cause other environmental problems.
William Haller is a graduate research assistant and D. Sutton is an assistant professor. Both were members of the Agricultural Research Center at the University of Florida. As they are scholars and academics, it can be assumed that they are often placed under peer scrutiny, however the authors did not indicate their contact information. All of the literature that they have cited has been referenced, which increases the reliability of their report. However, the research investigation and experiment is not dated. This decreases the reliability, as it cannot be determined if the results apply to modern issues surrounding the water hyacinths. The study was conducted on water hyacinths that occurred in Florida, thus the research may not reflect the factors that affect the growth of water hyacinths in South Africa, as the two regions have different climates and other environmental conditions. The method of the experiment was clearly described. The results were carefully explained and discussed. These results support the conclusions that were drawn from the investigation. The study can be assumed to be reliable, however it may not apply to research taking place in South Africa.
At phosphorous levels below 0.06 mg P/l (mg of phosphate per litre of water) the hyacinths are expected to die (Coetzee et al. 2011). Between 0.06mg P/l and 0.1mg P/l the plants can survive but are not very successful (Coetzee et al. 2011). Levels between 0.1mg P/l and 1.06mg P/l will result in the active growth and success of the hyacinths depending on nitrogen levels (Coetzee et al. 2011). Maximum growth occurs at a nitrogen concentration of 21mg N/l (Coetzee et al. 2011). This data was recorded in 2005, when the South African Water Research Commision (WRC) commenced an investigation to test certain ideas for improving the biological control of water hyacinths (Coetzee et al. 2011). The findings of the investigation were published by Byrne et al. 2010. The investigation aimed to determine the factors that were limiting the success of the biological control, and then aimed to solve these issues by implementing new ideas. The investigation aided Coetzee et al. (2007) and Byrne (2009) in concluding that higher nutrient levels aided the water hyacinths in surviving the damage created by the biological control agents (Coetzee et al. 2011). The findings of this investigation indicated that the biological control of any aquatic plant becomes increasingly difficult as the nutrient levels, in the water in which the plants are situated, increase.
The website of the University of the Witwatersrand quotes Hill & Cilliers (1999) in stating that one of the major factors that limit the success of the biological control of the water hyacinths is the excessive eutrophication of South African waterways (2013). According to the National Eutrophication Monitoring Programme (n.d.), "eutrophication is the process of the excessive nutrient enrichment of waters that typically results in problems associated with macrophyte, algal or cyanobacterial growth", and in this situation, the growth of water hyacinths. The causes of eutrophication in South Africa are nutrient loads in agricultural, urban and industrial runoff, as well as in discharges from sewerage treatment plans. Eutrophication has a variety of detrimental impacts on South Africa. Examples of ecological impacts are the loss of biodiversity and the result of toxins that are released into the water from the bacteria that are thriving in the nutrient-enriched waters. Water treatment costs contribute to economic impacts. Other impacts are the disruption of the recreational uses of the water bodies, as well as human health impacts due to the toxins that are released (National Eutrophication Monitoring Programme, n.d.). Eutrophication is one of the major causes for the wide distribution of water hyacinths across the South Africa (Joubert, 2009).
Although the article by the National Eutrophication Monitoring Programme is not dated, and an author is not indicated, it can still be treated as reliable. This is because it is a government issued document that has referenced all the literature that has been reviewed and cited. The information has been presented objectively with the purpose to educate and inform the public.
A research study was carried out by the Faculty of Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences at the University of the Witwatersrand in 2007. The aim of the investigation was to determine the impact that the concentrations of nutrients in the water had on the biological control of the water hyacinths. It was determined that at high nutrient levels, the productions of water hyacinth leaves and daughter plants were double than at lower nutrient levels (Coetzee et al. 2007). The lengths of the stems were also doubled at high nutrient levels when compared with low nutrient levels. The chlorophyll content was also double at high nutrient concentrations than at low concentrations (Coetzee et al. 2007). These findings indicate that higher nutrient levels encourage the success of the water hyacinths. They also indicate that biological control would be insufficient to reduce the numbers of water hyacinths at such high concentrations of nutrients.
As mentioned above, the authors of this investigation (Coetzee, Byrne and Hill) are all recognized academics, and thus their work is reliable. They are often exposed to peer scrutiny, and they have indicated their contact information. Their report is objective, and functions to inform. They reference all the literature cited. The investigation was conducted at the University of the Witwatersrand which is a recognized academic institution. The results are reliable, as the experiment was repeated a number of times. The research was carried out on a sample that represents the population. The data collected relates clearly to the hypothesis stated. The research procedures were clearly described. Explanations of the findings were given, and the conclusion was supported by the results of the investigation. This investigation is therefore reliable.
According to all of these research investigations, high levels of nutrients in the water promote the growth and development of water hyacinth, as well as encourage its distribution. It is evident that this is one of the main factors that have limited the success of biological control of the hyacinths in South Africa, as South Africa's waterways and water bodies experience severe cases of eutrophication. This promotes the spread and growth of the hyacinths as the plants are better suited for survival in nutrient-enriched water. What has not been clearly indicated in the literature findings is how the nutrient levels in the water negatively affect the biological control of the hyacinths. This research task will, hopefully, indicate if the concentrations of nutrients in the water directly affect the amount of feeding by the weevils on the hyacinths. This will determine one of the ways in which the concentrations of nutrients in the water impact the success of biological control. The research will also indicate the requirement for methods of the control of the levels of nutrients in the water, in order to aid in the success of the biological management of water hyacinth.
Four tubs of the same size and volume, each filled with 60 litres of tap water, will be used in this research investigation. Three healthy, free-floating water hyacinth plants of the same size and at the same stage of development will be placed into each tub, with all dead leaves and stems removed. The 60 litres will be measured using a bucket that is filled with 10 litres of water by a measuring jug. The level of the 10 litres of water will be marked off, and thus the buckets will be used to measure a volume of 10 litres of water, which will be used to accurately measure out 60 litres of water for each tub.
The following are descriptions of the contents of each tub:
Tub 1 will contain 60 litres of water, 8g of iron chelates, and three water hyacinth plants that are infested with 5 weevils each.
Tub 2 will contain 60 litres of water, 8g of iron chelates, three water hyacinth plants that are infested with 5 weevils each and 24g of 7:1:3 fertilizer.
Tub 3 will contain 60 litres of water, 8g of iron chelates, three water hyacinth plants that are infested with 5 weevils each and 48g of 7:1:3 fertilizer.
Tub 4 will contain 60 litres of water, 8g of iron chelates, three water hyacinth plants that are infested with 5 weevils each and 72g of 7:1:3 fertilizer.
The concentrations of nitrates and phosphates will be calculated using ratios, and the given information of the bag of fertilizer. The bag states that the fertilizer has a nitrate concentration of 95g N/kg and a phosphate concentration of 14g P/kg. Using ratio calculations, these concentrations will be converted to concentrations measured in mg/l, as this is the standard unit of measurement for nutrient concentrations in water.
To measure the amount of feeding performed by the weevils, the feeding scars on the leaves will be counted at the end of each 7 day week for the duration of the experiment. To ensure that feeding scars will not be twice counted, ribbons will be tied around each leaf and stem that has already been counted so as to ensure accuracy. Feeding scars will be counted as they clearly show the amount of feeding that has occurred on each plant during each week, therefore conclusions based on the amount of feeding by the weevils will be able to be made observing the number of feeding scars. The feeding scars also indicate the damage that has been done to the plant, and will, therefore, allow for conclusions to be reached on the success of the biological control of the water hyacinths. Photographs will also be taken each time readings are taken, so as to provide a digital documentation of the development of the investigation. The photographs will also provide support of the honesty of the data collection, so as to address any ethical issues surrounding the honesty of the data collection.
60 weevils will be used during the course of the investigation. Their treatment will be humane and cruelty-free, ensuring that none will be intentionally harmed by a human. When placing the weevils on the plants, they will be handled gently by either picking them up gently or coaxing them with water hyacinth leaves. It will be ensured that the weevils are placed directly on to the plants, and not just dropped into the tubs. The boxes that contained the weevils will be thoroughly checked before disposal, so as to ensure that no weevils are disposed of. This treatment will eliminate any ethical issues surrounding the treatment and use of the weevils in the investigation.
As the investigation involves the use of invasive alien plants, as there are ethical issues surrounding the use of these plants due to their negative impacts. In order to eliminate the presence of these issues, careful steps will be taken in the control of the plants. Each time a reading is taken, it will be ensured that all that comes in contact with the plants and that may carry its seeds, such as hands, is cleaned and washed and ensured that all plant material is removed. This is to ensure that parts of the plants or their seeds are not transferred and carried to other places, as this may cause infestation of water hyacinth in more places, thus exacerbating the problem. The water hyacinths will remain in the tubs which ensures that they are isolated from any running water, such as pipes in the gardens, as this could potentially cause the growth of the water hyacinths in these water ways and bodies, thus blocking them. This would also aid in distributing the plants, and would cause problems that are expensive to fix. Careful measures will be taken in the disposal of the plants, to ensure that they are properly disposed of in the correct manners, which includes properly cleaning all the tubs that contained the water hyacinths.
4 tubs of the same size and volume
Hosepipe and water source
4 plastic bags
144g of 7:1:3 fertilizer
32g of iron chelates
Red, green and yellow ribbon
12 healthy, free-floating water hyacinth plants
Method of investigation:
Using the electronic scale measure 8g of iron chelates and place in a plastic bag.
Repeat step 1and fill the other three plastic bags with 8g of iron chelates each.
Using the electronic scale, measure 24g of 7:1:3 fertilizer and place in one of the plastic bags.
Repeats step 3 for measurements of 48g and 72g of 7:1:3 fertilizer to be placed respectively in the 2 other plastic bags.
Close all 4 plastic bags, including the one containing only iron chelates.
Label the bags, indicating their contents.
Set out the four tubs.
Using the permanent marker label each tub as 'tub 1', 'tub 2', 'tub 3' and 'tub 4'.
Using a measuring jug mark off 10 litres of water in a bucket using a permanent marker. Ensure that the bucket is set on level ground.
Use the bucket to fill each of the four tubs with 60 litres of water from a hosepipe.
Pour the contents of the plastic bag containing only 8g of iron chelates into tub 1.
Pour the contents of the plastic bag containing 8g of iron chelates and 24g of fertilizer into tub 2.
Pour the contents of the plastic bag containing 8g of iron chelates and 48g of fertilizer into tub 3.
Pour the contents of the plastic bag containing 8g of iron chelates and 72g of fertilizer into tub 4.
Remove the dead stems, leaves and other dead material off of 12 individual, healthy water hyacinth plants that are of the same size and at relatively the same stage of development.
Place 3 individual water hyacinth plants in each tub.
Using the ribbon, tag each plant to differentiate between them in order for data collection. Tie the pieces of ribbon around the longest stalk of each plant. In each tub: use a piece of red ribbon for plant 1, a piece of green ribbon for plant 2 and a piece of yellow ribbon for plant 3.
Count the number of feeding scars on the leaves of a hyacinth plant by marking each of the leaves that have been counted with pieces of blue ribbon.
Record the data in a table.
Remove the blue ribbon from the plant once all of the feeding scars have been counted.
Repeat steps 18 - 20 for each plant in the tubs.
After 5 days, place 5 weevils on each of the 12 plants in the tubs.
Repeat steps 18-21 on the same day every week for the next 8 weeks.
Analyse the data by plotting line graphs and determining the relationships between the variables.
The information gathered will be recorded in a table format:
Independent variable: the concentrations of nitrates and phosphates measured in mg/l.
Dependent variable: the number of feeding scars per plant