Water fit for human consumption is called drinking water or potable water. Wastewater is liquid waste discharged by domestic residences, commercial properties, industry, and agriculture. In the most common usage, it refers to the municipal wastewater that contains a broad spectrum of contaminants resulting from the mixing of wastewaters from different sources (Wikipedia). In my study area I take the kitchen waste water and tap water from different locations of NIT Rourkela and take comparison of them.
I directly collect the tap water of the kitchen into a bottle. For waste water I used a mug to take the kitchen waste water into the bottle. Similarly I took 8 samples of water and kitchen waste water from different locations of NIT Rourkela and do the experiments. I have done 4 times those experiments.
FOR COMPARISION OF WATER AND KITCHEN WASTE WATER ANALYSIS SAMPLING POINTS ARE:-
HBH- Homi Bhaba hall of NIT Rourkela
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MSS- M.S.Swaminathan hall of NIT Rourkela
Faculty residence of NIT Rourkela(A type)
E type quarter
3.2.0 METHODOLOGY FOR MEASUREMENT OF pH VALUE (ELECTROMERIC METHOD)
The pH of the sample is determined electrometrically using either a glass electrode in combination with a reference potential or a combination electrode.
3.2.2. APPARATUS USED
pH meter - With glass and reference electrode
Standardize the instrument with a buffer solution of pH near that of the sample and check electrode against at least one additional buffer of different pH value. Measure the temperature of the water and if temperature compensation is available in the instruments adjust it accordingly. After the standardization place the sample in the beaker and immerse the electrode, then take the reading in the pH meter and the temperature (SW-846).
3.3.0 METHODOLOGY FOR MEASUREMENT OF TURBIDITY
It is based on comparison of the intensity of light scattered by the sample under defined conditions with the intensity of light scattered by a standard reference suspension under the same conditions.
3.3.2. APPARATUS USED
Sample tubes - The sample tubes should be of clear and colorless glass.
Turbidity meter - Systronics digital nephelo-turbidity meter 132
Insert three pin plug into appropriate 230V AC mains socket.
Switch the instrument on and allow 10-15 minutes to warm up.
Select the appropriate range.
Set the CALIB control to maximum, clockwise position.
Insert the test tube with distilled water into cell holder and cover with light shield.
Adjust SET ZERO controls to get zero on the display.
Remove the test tube and replace the test tube containing standard solution.
Adjust CALIB control for display the result.
The instrument is now ready for test samples. Insert test tube containing unknown sample in cell holder. The display directly gives the turbidity in NTU (Laboratory manual).
3.4.0 METHODOLOGY FOR MEASUREMENT OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN
Oxygen saturation or dissolved oxygen (DO) is a relative measure of the amount of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium. It can be measured with dissolved oxygen meter.
3.4.2 APPARATUS USED
Dissolved oxygen meter
First take the unknown sample in the incubation bottle. Then with the help of DO meter 3 readings have been noted, first reading has been taken at the bottom, second at mid point and third at top of the bottle. Now the average of the readings will give the dissolved oxygen present in the water sample (Laboratory manual).
3.5.0 METHODOLOGY FOR MEASUREMENT OF BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAN ( BOD)
Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) is a measure of the oxygen used by microorganisms to decompose this waste. If there is a large quantity of organic waste in the water supply, there will also be a lot of bacteria present working to decompose this waste. In this case, the demand for oxygen will be high (due to all the bacteria) so the BOD level will be high. As the waste is consumed or dispersed through the water, BOD levels will begin to decline (Field book).
3.5.2 APPARATUS USED
Incubation bottles- 300 ml capacity
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Place the unknown sample in the incubation bottle, and 4 capsules (4 gm) of NaOH has been kept at the neck of the bottle. A magnetic stirrer continuously rotates inside the bottle. Then it is kept air tight by the special caps attached with an electronic meter, which directly records BOD reading at every 24 hour. Now the bottles are preserved in the Refrigerator for days as per requirement of study. The same procedure follows for BOD 3 days and BOD 5 days (Laboratory manual).
3.6.0 METHODOLOGY FOR MEASUREMENT OF HARDNESS
Total hardness is a measurement of calcium and magnesium, and is expressed as calcium carbonate; our body needs both Ca and Mg to remain healthy. If water is too hard it will also decrease the washing ability of many soaps and detergents as well as affect the taste of the water (SDWF).
A pipette -( Minimum 50 ml capacity)
4 - 8 oz. glass bottle
Pipette 50 ml. of the sample into 4 - 8 oz. glass bottle.
Add the standard soap solution, in small portions at first (0.5 ml.), shaking vigorously after each addition.
As the end point is approached, the quantity added should be reduced to 0.1 ml. for each addition.
After a permanent lather is produced which is last for 5 minutes with the bottle on its side, record the ml. of soap solution used.
Continue the addition of small quantities of soap solution. If the lather again disappears, the first point was false owing to the presence of magnesium salts. (The ml. of soap used to obtain this false end point may be used for calculation of the approximate magnesium hardness by substituting in the formula used for calculation.)
Continue the addition of the soap solution until the true end point is reached and record the ml. used. If the quantity of soap solution used is greater than about 14 ml, repeat the procedure using a smaller sample diluted to 50 ml. with freshly boiled and cooled distilled water(Laboratory manual).
3.7.0 METHODOLOGY FOR MEASUREMENT OF ALKANITY
3.7.1 APPARATUS USED
Pipette - Minimum 100 ml. capacity
3.7.2 REAGENTS USED
0.02N sulfuric acid
Methyl orange indicator
Pipette 100 ml. of the sample into the Erlenmeyer flask and the same quantity of distilled water into another.
Add 3 drops of phenolphthalein indicator to each.
If the sample becomes pink, add 0.02N sulfuric acid from a burette until the pink color just disappears and record the no. of ml. of acid used.
Add 3 drops of methyl orange indicator to each flask.
If the sample becomes yellow, add 0.02N sulfuric acid until the first difference in color is noted when compared with the distilled water. The end point is orange. Record the no. of ml. of acid used (Laboratory manual)..
3.8.0 METHODOLOGY FOR MEASUREMENT OF ACIDITY
3.8.1. APPARATUS USED
Pipette - Minimum 100 ml. capacity
3.8.2 REAGENTS USED
0.02N sodium hydroxide
Pipette 100 ml. of the sample into a Erlenmeyer flask.
Add 3 drops of phenolphthalein indicator.
Add 0.02N sodium hydroxide from burette until the first permanent pink color appears and record the no. of ml. of sodium hydroxide used (Laboratory manual).
Ml. of 0.02N sodium hydroxide - 10 =p.p.m. total acidity expressed in terms of CaCO3
3.9.0 METHODOLOGY FOR MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL SOLIDS
3.9.1 APPARATUS USED
Flask or pipette
Clean the pit crucible and place it in a1030C oven for 1 hr.
Place the crucible in a desiccator until cools, then weigh.
Thoroughly mix the sample and measure 100 ml. by means of a volumetric flask or pipette.
Transfer the sample to the dish, rinse the flask or pipette several times with small portions of distilled water and add the rinsings to the dish. Be sure that all suspended matter is transferred to the crucible.
After the sample is evaporated, dry the crucible and residue in the 1030C oven for 1 hr., cool in the desiccator and weigh (Laboratory manual)..
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[Increase in weight (cm) - 1000] ÷ Ml. of sample = p.p.m. total solids
3.10.0 METHODOLOGY FOR MEASUREMENT OF CHLORIDE PRESENT
3.10.1 APPARATUS USED
Porcelain evaporating dish
3.10.2. REAGENTS USED
Potassium chromate indicator
Standard silver nitrate solution
Pipette 50 ml. of the sample in the porcelain evaporating dish.
Place about same quantity of distilled water into second dish for color comparison.
Add 1 ml. of potassium chromate indicator to each.
Add standard silver nitrate solution to the sample from a burette, a few drops at a time, with constant alternating until the first permanent reddish coloration appears. This can be determined by comparison with the distilled water. Record the ml. of the silver nitrate solution used.
If more than 7 or 8 ml. of silver nitrate solution are required, the entire procedure should be repeated using a smaller sample diluted to 50 ml. with distilled water (Laboratory manual).
[(Ml. of silver nitrate used - 0.2) - 500] ÷ Ml. of sample = p.p.m. chloride
3.11.0 METHODOLOGY FOR MEASUREMENT OF METALS LIKE Fe, Cu, Ca, Mg BY ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY (AAS)
Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) resembles emission flame photometry in that a sample is aspirated into a flame and atomized. The major difference is that in photometry the amount of light emitted is measured, where as in AAS a light beam is directed through the flame, into a monochromator , and on to a detector that measures the amount of light absorbed by the atomized element in the flame. The amount of energy of the characteristic wavelength absorbed in the flame is proportional to the concentration of the element in the sample.
Atomic absorption spectrometer
Figure 2.Atomic Absorption spectrometer
Pressure reducing valves
3.11.3. REAGENTS USED
Metal free water
Standard metal solution - A series of standard metal solutions of respective metals in optimum concentration range by appropriate dilution of the stock metal solution.
In general proceed according to the manufacturer's operating manual.
Install a hollow cathode lamp for desired metal in the instrument and roughly set the wavelength. Set silt width according to the manufacturer's suggested setting for element being measured. Turn on the instrument, apply to the hollow cathode lamp the current suggested by the manufacturer, and let instrument warm up until energy source stabilizes, generally about 10 to 20minutes.
Optimize wavelength by adjusting wavelength dial until optimum energy gain is obtained. Align lamp in accordance with manufacturer's instructions.
Install suitable burner head and adjust burner head position. Turn on air and adjust flow rate to that specific by manufacturer to give maximum sensitivity for the metal being measured.
Turn on acetylene, adjust flow rate to value specified, and ignite flame. Aspirate a standard solution and adjust aspiration rate of the nebulizer to obtain maximum sensitivity. Atomize a standard and adjust burner both up and down and sideways to obtain maximum response. Record absorbance of this standard when freshly prepared with a new hollow cathode lamp.
The instrument is now ready to operate. First put the standard solutions and stock solutions to obtain a graph of the respective metal concentration, put the unknown sample to get the value of the metal present with respect to the respective graph (APHA).
4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
4.1 COMPARISON BETWEEN TAP WATER AND KITCHEN WASTE WATER AT SELECTED SITES OF NIT ROURKELA
HBH Waste water
MSS Waste water
(A type) Water
(A type) Waste water
(E type) Water
(E type) Waste Water
Table 1.Comparision between water and kitchen waste water
HBH- Homi Bhaba Hall of NIT Rourkela
MSS- M.S.Swamintahan Hall of NIT Rourkela
4.1.1 VARIATION OF pH VALUE ON WATER AND KITCHEN WASTE WATER
pH value is the logarithm of reciprocal of hydrogen ion activity in moles per litre. In water solution, variations in pH value from 7 are mainly due to hydrolysis of salts of strong bases and
weak acids or vice verse. Dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and ammonia also affect pH value of water (IS 3025: part 11). In this study the pH range varies from 5.06 to 6.6275. A pH range of 6.5 - 8.5 is normally acceptable for drinking water purpose. Beyond this range the water will affect the mucous membrane and/or water supply system(IS 10500).
Table 1.pH values of water and kitchen waste water on sampling location
4.1.2 VARIATION OF BOD VALUE ON WATER AND KITCHEN WASTE WATER
BOD of a sample is defined as the amount of oxygen required by the micro-organisms to oxidise the organic matter by aerobic microbial decomposition to stable inorganic forms at some standard time and temperature. BOD gives a quantitative index of the degradable organic substances in water and is used as a measure of waste strength. The low BOD value in all samples showed good sanitary condition of the water (IS 3025: part 44). In this study BOD of tap water is 2 mg/l in all areas and BOD of kitchen waste water is >50 mg/l.
Table2.BOD of water and kitchen waste water on sampling location
4.1.3 VARIATION OF DO VALUE ON WATER AND KITCHEN WASTE WATER
Dissolved oxygen content in water reflects the physical and biological processes prevailing in water and is influenced by aquatic vegetation. Low oxygen content in water is usually associated with organic pollution. DO is ranged from 1.19 to 8.165 mg/l in the study area, where as the prescribed limit for DO is 5.0 mg/l. (IS 10500)
Table 3.DO of water and kitchen waste water on sampling location
4.1.4 VARIATION OF TURBIDITY ON WATER AND KITCHEN WASTE WATER
Measurement of Turbidity reflects the transparency in water. It is caused by the substances present in water in suspension. In natural water, it is caused by clay, silt, organic matter and other microscopic organisms. It ranged from 1 to 3 NTU. However the prescribed limit of Turbidity for drinking water is 5 NTU (IS: 10500) and for waste water it should be les than 40 NTU (IS 3025: part 10).
Table 4.Turbidity of water and kitchen waste water on sampling location
4.1.5 VARIATION OF CHLORIDE PRESENT ON WATER AND KITCHEN WASTE WATER
Chloride is one of the major inorganic anion in water and wastewater. In potable water, the
salty taste produced by chloride concentrations is variable and dependent on the chemical composition. Chloride concentration is higher in wastewater than in raw water. High chloride content may harm metallic pipes and structures as well as growing plants (IS 3025: part 32). In the study area chloride concentration is in between 13.5 to 110 mg/l. For drinking purpose it should be less than 250 mg/l. (IS 10500)
Table 5.Chloride present in water and kitchen waste water on sampling location
4.1.6 VARIATION OF HARDNESS ON WATER AND KITCHEN WASTE WATER
Total hardness of water is the sum of the concentrations of all the metallic cations other than
cations of alkali metals, expressed as equivalent calcium carbonate concentration. In most natural water, hardness is mainly due to calcium and magnesium ions. In some waters, measurable
concentration of iron, aluminium, manganese, barium, zinc and other metals may be present.
When the hardness is numerically greater than the sum of carbonate alkalinity and bicarbonate
Alkalinity, the amount of hardness which is equivalent to total alkalinity is called 'carbonate
hardnes, and the amount of hardness in excess of this is called 'non-carbonate hardnes'. Some
water containing high concentrations of borates, phosphates, silicates, may contribute to total
alkalinity (IS 3025: part 21). Based on present investigation, hardness varied from 26 to 472 mg/l. However the permissible limit of Hardness for drinking water is 300 mg/l (IS 10500).
Table 6.Hardness present in water and kitchen waste water on sampling location
4.1.7 VARIATION OF ACIDITY ON WATER AND KITCHEN WASTE WATER
Acidity of water or waste water is its quantitative capacity to react with a strong base to a designated pH. Strong mineral acids, weak acids like acetic and carbonic and hydrolyzable salts like ferrous or aluminium sulphates may contribute to the measured acidity. Acids contribute towards corrosiveness, influence chemical reactions and biological processes(IS 3025: part 22). The measurement also reflects a change in the quality of the source water. In this study area the tap water has total 21 to 24 p.p.m. of CaCO3 , where the kitchen waste water has 420 to 440 p.p.m.
Table7.Acidity of water and kitchen waste water on sampling location
4.1.8 VARIATION OF ALKALINITY ON WATER AND KITCHEN WASTE WATER
Alkalinity of water or wastewater Is its quantitative capacity to react with a strong acid to a
designated pH. Alkalinity is significant in many uses and treatments of natural and wastewaters.
Alkalinity measurements are used in the interpretation and control of water and wastewater treatment processes(IS 3025: part 23). In the present study Alkalinity was ranged from 10.775 mg/l to 11.225 mg/l. However the prescribed limit for Total Alkalinity is 120 mg/l(IS 10500). Here the tap has alkalinity value where kitchen waste water does not show any value means they are purely acidic.
Table 8.Alkalinity of water and kitchen waste water on sampling location
4.1.9 VARIATION OF TOTAL SOLIDS ON WATER AND KITCHEN WASTE WATER
Total residue is the term applied to the material left in the vessel after evaporation of a sample
of water and its subsequent drying in an oven at a definite temperature. Total residue includes
non-filterable residue (the portion of the total residue retained by a filter), and filterable residue
(the portion of the total residue which passes through the filter)(IS 3025: part 15,16). In the study area TDS varied from 13.2 to 164 mg/l. A prescribed limit of TDS for drinking water is 500 mg/l, all the water samples have TDS concentration well below the prescribed limit(IS 10500).
Table 9.Total solids present in water and kitchen waste water on sampling location
4.1.10 VARIATION OF Ca VALUE ON WATER AND KITCHEN WASTE WATER
Calcium is essential for living organisms, particularly in cell physiology. As a major material used in mineralization of bones and shells, calcium is the most abundant metal by mass in many animals(Wikipedia). In the study area Ca concentration varies between 8.7085 to 15.84325 mg/l. But prescribed limit is 75 mg/l. Excessive use causes adverse effects on domestic use(IS 10500).
Table 10.Ca present in water and kitchen waste water on sampling location
4.1.11 VARIATION OF Mg VALUE ON WATER AND KITCHEN WASTE WATER
Magnesium ranks eighth among the elements in order of abundance and is a common constituent
of natural water. Magnesium salts are important contributors to the hardness of water which
break down when heated, forming scale in boilers from zero to several hundred milligrams.
The magnesium concentration may vary Chemical softening, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis,
or ion exchange reduces the magnesium and associated hardness to acceptable levesl(IS 3025: part 46). In the study area Mg concentration varies between 6.404 to 8.874 mg/l.
Table 11.Mg present in water and kitchen waste water on sampling location
4.1.12 VARIATION OF Cu VALUE ON WATER AND KITCHEN WASTE WATER
Copper is found mainly as a sulphide, oxide or carbonate in the minerals. Copper enters the
water system through mineral dissolution, industrial effluents, because of its use as algicide and
insecticide and through corrosion of copper alloy water distribution pipes. It may occur in
simple ionic form or in one of many complexes with groups, such as cyanides, chlorides,
ammonia or organic ligands. The test for copper is essential because dissolved copper salts
even in low concentrations are poisonous to some biota. Desirable limit for copper in potable
water is 0.05 mg/l maximum which can be relaxed in the absence of better alternate source to
1.5 mg/l (IS 3025: part 42). In the study area Cu concentration varies between 0.263 to 0.29525 mg/l. Undesirable usage outside the desired limit causes Astringent taste, discoloration and corrosion of pipes, fitting and utensils (IS 10500).
Table 12.Cu present in water and kitchen waste water on sampling location
4.1.13 VARIATION OF Fe VALUE ON WATER AND KITCHEN WASTE WATER
Iron (Fe) is naturally abundant in earth's crust. Amount of iron available in soluble from depends upon the concentration of the complex forming ions, pH and oxidation conditions. In the absence of the complex forming ions, ferric iron is not significantly soluble unless thepH is very low. Oxygenated surface waters seldom contain more than 1 mg/1 of iron. Ground waters and the surface waters which are acidic, may, on the other hand, contain considerably more iron. In water samples, iron may be present, as free hydrated ions, in the form of organic/inorganic complex ions, in a colloidal state or as relatively coarse suspended particles. Iron in water
can cause staining of laundry and porcelain. A bitter sweet astringent taste is imparted to the drinking water at levels above 1 mg/1 of iron. Iron appears to be an essential element for all organisms - both plant and animals. In animals iron is found in many important proteins, major functions of these proteins are in oxygen storage and transport and electron transport (IS 3025: part 53). In the study area Ca concentration varies between 0.808 to 2.0395 mg/l. Prescribed limit for fluoride is 1 mg/l and beyond this limit can cause fluorosis.
Figure 15.Fe present in water and kitchen waste water on sampling location
For tap water in NIT Rourkela, the pH ranges from 6.3425to 6.6275where for kitchen waste water it varies from 4.9125 to 5.1325. The Turbidity1NTUfor tap water and 2-3 for kitchen waste water. The value of Turbidity was found to be within the permissible limit in all the cases. Hardness, ranged from 25 to 28 mg/l for tap water and around 420 mg/l for kitchen waste water, it is found that the water supplied to the campus area is soft. The DO and BOD were in the range of 7.72 to 8.1 mg/l and 2 mg/l for tap water but for waste water it beyond the prescribed limit given in IS 10500 for drinking water purpose. The Chloride and Alkalinity were in the range of 12 to 18 mg/l and 11.3 to 10.7 mg/l respectively for tap water but for kitchen waste water there is alkalinity value and chloride present is ranges from 92 to 116 mg/l. The parameters studied for tap water resemble the drinking water quality but kitchen waste water resembles no use for recycling purpose.