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Skin is the largest organ in the human body, it is a protective barrier that guarding the body against high temperature, ultra violent light , and harmful chemicals. It produces antibacterial substances that prevent infection like boils.
Boils are a common nuisance that spoils the comfort of many people from around the world. Characterized by redness, pain, and the formation of pus in the center which tends to "point" and drain through the skin (Edwards, 1993). Boils present as one or more tender red spots, lumps or pustules. It is a deep form of bacterialÂ folliculitis ; superficial folliculitis is sometimes present at the same time. (dermnetnz.org)Â Boils has different types, among those are FuruncleÂ or carbuncle that can have one or more openings onto the skin and may be associated with aÂ fever or chills. It is an abscess that involves a group of hair follicles. Another type is CysticÂ acne this is a type of abscess that is created when oil ducts become blocked and infected, this affects deeper skin tissue than the more superficial inflammation from common acne. Most common on the face and typically occurs in the teenage years. The formation of multiple abscesses under the armpits and often in the groin area are called Hidradenitis suppurativa as a result of local inflammation of the sweat glands. Pilonidal cyst is a unique kind of abscess that occurs in the line of the buttocks. PilonidalÂ cystsÂ often begin as tiny areas of infection in the base of the area of skin from which hair grows . (medicinenet.com)
Boils are caused by Staphylococcus aureus, they are gram-positive cocci, in pairs, and in irregular, grapelike clusters, nonmotile, non-spore-forming, and catalase-positive bacteria, facultative anaerobes that grow by aerobic respiration or by fermentation.The termÂ StaphylococcusÂ is derived from the Greek termÂ staphyle,Â meaning "a bunch of grapes." The cell wall contains peptidoglycan and teichoic acid. The organisms are resistant to temperatures, high salt concentrations, and to drying. Colonies are usually large (6-8 mm in diameter), smooth, and translucent. The colonies are pigmented, cream-yellow to orange. (emedicine.medscape.com)
Staphylococcus aureus which belong to the Bacterial family Staphylococcaceae are normal inhabitants of the human skin surface and cause boils when they manage to enter openings in the epidermis such as sweat pores and hair follicles or when there is a localized infection that causes pus and infected material to collect in the skin or subcutaneous tissue. (skin-care.health-cares.net) The bacteria multiply, and the immune response of the body brings about an inflammation. Skin abscesses are painful, and may disrupt the everyday living of an individual in most cases, depending on the severity and location of the abscess.
There is a claim from a source that after being stung by wasps while climbing a tree, his skin abscess healed faster than usual. The inflammation subsided the next day. It is by this claim that this research was based. By studying the effects of wasp venom in localized Staphylococcus aureus skin infections, the solution to the problem of boils might come to light. Related to this, there are people who use bee therapy, also called Apitherapy which has therapeutic use for arthritis, gout ,Lupus, Lyme disease, neuropathy, cancerous tumors etc. wherein they sting themselves with killer bees in which the poison is said to have a therapeutic effect on the body. The healing potency of bee venom is initiated after sting, when it stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol, a natural human hormone that has anti-inflammatory properties. (beewelltherapy.com)
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This study will test the effects of wasp venom on skin infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus.
Specifically, this study aims to do the following:
What is the effect of wasp venom on the diameter of the lesion?
What are the changes on the signs of inflammation after wasp venom is induced?
Is there a deviation from the usual or normal course of the skin infection after the application of wasp venom?
The wasp venom has no significant effect on Staphylococcus aureus skin infections.
The time of healing of Staphylococcus aureus skin infections is not affected by introduction of wasp venom to the system.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The results of this study will determine the effects of wasp venom on Staphylococcus aureus skin infections. This research might lead to confirming the claim that wasp venom has the ability to lessen the extent of inflammation or even completely heal the infection. Thus, wasp venom could be a potential remedy for staphylococcal skin infections, such as furuncles, carbuncles, folliculitis and impetigo.
SCOPE AND DELIMITATION
The scope of this study is for the observation of Staphylococcus aureus skin infections after envenoming with wasp poison. This research will collect data on the diameter of the skin lesion, the effects on inflammation, and the time of healing.
Review of Related Literature and Studies
A study made by AtanaskovaN,TomeckiKJ (2010) entitled "Innovative management of recurrent furunculosis" stated that one of the most general bacterial infections of the skin and soft tissue is furunculosis (boil), an inflammatory swelling that involves the hair follicle, with small abscess formation extending through the dermis into the subcutaneous layers. The mainstay of therapy is incision and drainage of a furuncle coupled with bacterial culture. Affected patients and their family members must practice good hygiene, predicated with regular hand washing, fomite cleaning, and avoiding contact with contaminated skin.
According to a research done by Aust W,Â Wichmann G,Â Dietz AÂ (2010) entitled "Therapy control of specific hymenoptera venom allergy" mentioned that in Germany anaphylactic reactions after insect stings are mostly caused by honey bee (Apis mellifera) and wasp (Vespula vulgaris, Vespula germanica). Majority of cases, venom immunotherapy is a successful therapy and protects patients from repeated systemic anaphylactic reaction. In some patients constant severe reactions after insect sting can even occur in spite of venom therapy, as a sign of therapy failure. It is important to identify these patients, who do not benefit from venom immunotherapy, in an early stage of therapy. In this case dose rate of venom immunotherapy must be adjusted for a successful therapy outcome. Skin prick tests and in vitro diagnostics are not suitable for detecting therapy failure. Patients with treatment failure can be diagnosed by insect sting test and almost all of them will become fully protected by increasing the maintenance dose.