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Venous disease is quite a common condition where about 15percent of the population is affected. It is caused by veins that have an unusual shape or are abnormal. It is not a serious problem if the patient has mild symptoms, but as venous disease worsens, it can become chronic venous insufficiency. Arteries carrying away oxygenated blood from heart to all parts of the body, and veins return blood to the heart. Valves control blood flow to the heart as opening and closing, and it goes through in a one-way direction. Blood is squeezed forward in the veins when the muscle is contracted. When muscles go back to relaxation, the valves closed down to prevent blood from flowing backward
There are three different types of veins in the legs: superficial veins, communicating veins, and deep veins. Superficial veins are located just under the skin and carry 10 to 15 percent of blood in the legs. Superficial veins drain into communicating veins. Deep veins located inside the muscles and carry 85 to 90 percent of the blood back to the heart. Blood flows backwards when vein walls get damaged and the valve becomes injured or stretched too much when the muscle relaxed. This makes abnormally higher forces or pressure in the veins which will then twist, swell and stretch. Abnormal veins are the causes of venous disease and the system of blood flow creates disease or disorder known as spider veins or varicose veins. Spider veins are not serious disease but some of patients may feel pains or discomfort. Most patients may have cosmetic concerns that spider veins appear red, blue or purple. They located commonly close to the surface of the skin on the calf, thigh or ankle. Spider veins are smallest veins, and they are not always used even if the spider veins connected to the bigger venous system. Varicose veins are a larger problem than spider veins. The word varicose comes from the Latin word ï¿½ï¿½varixï¿½ï¿½ and it means twisted.
Deoxygenated blood return from the outer parts of the body to the heart and lung goes through the blood vessels which called veins. Twisted, enlarged or squeezed veins are called varicose veins. Varicose veins can form anywhere in the body and generally veins in the thigh or legs can easily become varicose. The superficial veins and their branches located close to the skin. These veins normally become varicose. Also included in this category are the communicator or perforator veins, which connect the superficial veins with the deep veins. The deep veins are enclosed by muscle and connective tissue, which help to pump the blood in the veins and back to the heart. The veins have one-way valves to prevent them from developing varicosities. Generally, blood passes through from the superficial veins to the deep veins. From there, the blood moves through a network of larger veins back to the heart.
There are many theories of the causes of varicosities occurrence in veins, but the main reason that is agreed by many studies is that there are defective and damaged valves within the veins. Valves prohibit backward flow of blood within the vein. Valves also keep blood in the vein moving, in the direction of the heart. The reason for why the valves stop working in the heart is up for debate. Some specialized expects think hereditary problems may cause and some people to have too few valves or valves that do not work as well as they have been designed to. Some people may be born with abnormalities of the vein wall. This causes weakness that may predispose the valves to disconnect and become leaky. The effects on a person with poorly functioning valves is that when they stands up, the blood flow reverses and goes to the superficial veins when the blood flow should be going up towards the heart. The muscles wrapped around the deep veins contract, depleting the deeper veins witch then cause a build-up of pressure. In turn the buildup in pressure then causes even more blood to go the wrong way through faulty valves in the perforator veins. This increases the pressure in the superficial veins causing varicosities. Many other factors can worsen this situation.
Patients are concern varicose veins as cosmetic nuisance and they can easily identify. They may feel protrude or bulge from under the skin and feel ropey and sometimes legs regularly ache and feel intense and itchy. Symptoms can easily get worse, if patients standing with one leg for many hours or long day and this behavior may create severe pain when patient standing or even muscle can get cramped in the night. Some people may have no symptoms at all but some pregnant women may have this kind of symptoms in pregnancy period. For the most of all the patients, varicose veins are just mainly cosmetic concern. However varicose veins are more serious problem, if patients have a developed superficial thrombophlebitis. Thrombophlebitis is a blood clot with inflammation of a segment in vein. . Blood clots may easily identify and troublesome in the superficial veins but are not normally harms, patients may feel pain and an area of tenderness in the varicose vein, also the area may feel solid and firm or along with swelling or redness. In this condition, deep vein thrombophlebitis is not a serious concern which is blood clot in the veins. Deep vein thrombophlebitis is more serious, if patient who has clot which traveling toward the heart and lodge in the lung.
There is no clear reason has discovered why the valves and walls of the vein stop functioning correctly but there is factor that may influence the risk of developing varicose veins. Family history is the one of the common factor, individual is more likely to be affected, if a family member has varicose veins. This is the pretty common risk factor for primary varicose veins. Deep vein thrombosis can damage the deep veins valves making them incompetent and causing reflux of blood. The larger amount of refluxing blood in the deep veins increased higher pressure on the superficial veins, producing incompetence and creating secondary varicose veins. During a pregnant time the pressure of the fetus blocks the blood leave from the leg, creating more pressure in the veins on the legs. Even if this is the most obvious cause of varicose veins, but they often happen in the first few weeks or months of pregnancy before the fetus has grown large enough to cause venous obstruction. This is caused by hormone changing during pregnancy, which rest the vein walls preventing the valves from performing and allowing reflux of blood. This is the same way the increased body weight. Increasing a body weight makes higher amount of pressure on the arteries and veins.
A primary varicose vein occurs over several years when there is a lack of superficial veins when there is no presence of an essential disease. A secondary varicose vein occurs as a result of a venous obstruction which is medically known as deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The pressure created in the superficial veins, hereditary abnormalities can also affect veins, giving them the form of varicose veins. These being such things as venous malformations, arterial venous malformations and Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome which is a combined vascular deformity. In these cases prompt and accurate diagnosis is particularly important to ensure that correct management is instigated. In such urgent cases an accurate diagnosis is very important to ensuring the correct protocol to dealing with the client.
Chronic venous insufficiency is an impediment of useless superficial that creates increased pressure of blood in the vein. The point of utmost pressure or venous hypertension is at the lowest point in the vein. Osmosis is reliant on pressure and will not occur correctly when pressure is too high, this results in peripheral oedema which causes skin changes. Skin changes characteristically happen around the medial malleolus which has the area of greatest venous hypertension, and manifest.
Acute complications related with varicose veins include bleeding and superficial thrombophlebitis. The skin protects the structures below it and trauma severe enough to break the skin can puncture a vein, resulting in bleeding. This is worse problem, if older people who tend to have thinner and weaker skin, reducing the skinï¿½ï¿½s protective function. In these statues relatively minor trauma can lead to bleeding. This is normal not life threaten fact, but it can be dramatic as there is usually a huge amount of blood stored in the vein. Superficial thrombophlebitis is a blood clot in the superficial veins resulting in a hard lump easily palpable below the skin, with localized tenderness, pain and redness along the route of the vein.
Varicose veins can lead to thrombophlebitis(due to inflammation or blockage of the vein) and following bleeding of the swollen veins near the surface of skin. Other complications such as edema, skin pigmentation, varicose eczema, and venous ulceration, are main result of venous hypertension. However, the presence of varicose veins does not signify that complications will inevitably occur. For example, 40% of limbs with ulceration caused by superficial venous incompetence do not have varicose veins. The exact progress that reasons of venous ulceration is still not completely understood; however, overlying large varicosities, low oxygen levels, and stagnant blood are considered to be possible causes. Compression therapy is an essential part of the prevention and treatment of venous diseases that affect the lower limbs. Graduated compression stockings (GCSs) provide a convenient method of maintaining pressure while allowing ambulation. Many studies have demonstrated that proper compression magnitudes and gradients can provide support to the superficial venous system and accelerate lower limb blood circulation.
Sclerotherapy is a medical procedure used to eliminate varicose veins.It involves an injection of a solution (generally a salt solution) directly into the vein. The solution irritates the lining of the blood vessel, causing it to swell and stick together, and the blood to clot. Over time, the vessel turns into scar tissue that fades from view. Sclerotherapy is a well tested procedure and it has been using since the 1930s. Normally the salt solution is injected through a needle directly into the vein. At this point, patient may experience discomfort and cramping for few minutes, especially when larger veins are injected. The procedure itself takes approximately 15 to 30 minutes. The number of veins injected in one session varies, and depends on the mass and location of the veins, as well as the general medical condition of the patient.