Using Animal In Scientific Research Biology Essay

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Using animal in scientific research has actually causes many disagreements among people in this world. Though it aids the medical researchers to learn more on animals and humans health problems. It also helps to ensure the safety consume and apply of drugs, cosmetics and medicines by the human beings. But this cruelty and unfair act must be stop immediately. It not only does not assist in the animal testing experiments sometimes as the reaction of certain substances towards animal and humans are always differing. The use of animals in scientific experiments is actually cost a fortune. Medical researchers, scientists and toxicologists should not waste money on the animal testing experiments anymore. Instead the money should be use to help those who are in need in the poorer countries. Medical researchers could actually discover the treatments for certain diseases without the help of animal testing experiments. In some instances, the opposition reactions of drugs towards animals and human beings have lead to the loss of human lives due to the wrong prescriptions given by the doctors. Hence, the use of animals in scientific research is creating problems to the doctors and patients indirectly and there is no any evident prove showing that the animals save anyone's life directly. This is the reason why the use of animals in scientific research should be ban and never be justified.

Introduction

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To use animals in scientific research such as testing drugs and cosmetics, discover new surgical techniques or further develop certain surgical techniques and other biomedical research has actually lead to many disagreements among people. Though there are still many who are agree with these acts as the human beings can gain even more knowledge on the health problems of human and as well as animals. The use of animals in the 21st century is one of the important topic in the world as it does brings many advantages and disadvantages to mankind, animals and the environment. It really influences a lot on everyone daily lives. (Whisenant 2011). The advantage of using animals in scientific research is that it aids the medical researchers in developing useful drugs and treatments to improve medicine and human's health. It also helps to ensure the safety of drugs, cosmetics and medicines that are used or are exposed to the humans regularly. However, should the use of animals in scientific research be justified? I firmly think that it should not be justify simply because these actions are really cruel and unfair to the animals. It definitely will cause innumerable of animals to be experimented and being killed after their use. Next, the use of animals in scientific research requires huge amount of money. Then, the most importantly is that the reaction of a drug in an animal's body will always differ from the reaction in a human's body. (Murnaghan 2010).

Background

As the animal testing experiments can be seen widely all around the world in the 21st century, we should never be surprise on what is mean by animal testing anymore. Animal testing means by using the animals in scientific experiments. It has been introduced to the world since many years ago. Starting in 1775, Dr. William Withering from Wellington, Shropshire has discovered a substance called digitalis from a fox plant. The dogs which are used in the animal testing experiments have their blood pressure raise to a dangerous level and thus Dr. William Withering thinks that digitalis is also harmful to the human beings. Though it is the oldest and most useful cure to the heart failure patients. This is the reason why the use of digitalis on heart failure patients has been delayed. (Animal testing 2011). While in the present time, animals such as monkeys are still used to discover how the HIV and AIDS virus is develop and avoided. (HIV drugs, vaccines and animal testing 2011). Toxicologists are also using animals in their toxicological research frequently nowadays. Toxicologist is the researcher who is involved in the experiments that determine the effects of certain chemical substances to the human beings. In addition, toxicological research is the research that the toxicologist involved in. (The importance of animals in the science of toxicology 2006).

First Counter Argument

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Medical researchers need to have better understanding on certain health problems before they could actually investigate ways to treat those health problems. Hence, medical researchers have chosen to use the animals in their scientific research. One of the examples is the cancer which used a chicken to provide it with the earliest models of how is cancer grows and spreads. While cancer treatment which is discovered later by the medical researchers are various surgical techniques that were developed using rodents, dogs and monkeys. When a person is having cancer, the cell of cancer might multiply and divided into many more cells uncontrollably and slowly destroy the patients' bodies. In 1930s, among five patients which are suffering from cancer, only less than one patient of them was able to survive and live for five years. As for today, the medical researchers have developed modern surgical techniques and better medicines. Thus, around half of the patients who are suffering from cancer are now be able to live more than five years. While some of the patients did not even face with the reoccurrence of their diseases anymore. (Why do scientists use animals in research 2006).

Second Counter Argument

Other than that, the use of animals in toxicological research also enables the toxicologists to ensure that the use of drugs, cosmetics and medicines are safe and cause little or no harm to the human's body. (The importance of animals in the science of toxicology 2006). Thus, animals like mice and rodents are used in the research to determine the effectiveness of penicillin and other antibiotics so that to figure out which kind of antibiotics are more useful against certain organisms, their toxicity and the potential side effects cause by the medicine are also the major aspects that are going to be figured out. (Why do scientists use animals in research 2006). Next, toxicologists also use animals to determine if the cosmetics are safe to be use by human beings. Toxicologists have used animals such as rats, mice and dogs in their experiments. These animals are fed with certain substance which is a part of ingredients that are being used to produce the cosmetics, in different amount of doses through a long tube direct to the stomach of the animals. Every effect occurred on the animals' bodies such as diarrhea, vomiting, bloody tears and breathing difficulties are then recorded. After the toxicologists obtained the results and if the results shown that the cosmetics are safe to use, then the cosmetics will be released and sell to the public very soon. (Animal testing of household products 2011).

Transition Statement

The arguments put forward show that the use of animals in scientific research benefited everyone in this world a lot since modern surgical techniques for cancer have been discovered. Then, the medicines and cosmetics are also proven to be safe to consume and apply on human beings. Many people were agreed on the use of animals in scientific research but I am still strongly disagreeing on all these cruel acts against animals. It is because the use of animals in scientific research has actually causes loss of animals' lives and also makes animals which are still alive suffering greatly. We should not make decisions for the animals as they have the rights to choose not to be involved and hurt or even die in the progress of the experiments. Next, it requires a lot of money to let the animals be involved in the animal testing experiments and the results obtained from the animals on certain experiments will always differ from the results obtained from human beings. (Murnaghan 2010).

First Argument

The first disagreement from me towards the use of animals in scientific research is that it is cruel and unfair to the animals as they all have their rights to live their very own lives as they like, without being controlled by the human beings. (Dixon 2009). As a human being, we also do not like to be controlled by the others on how do we behave and what should we do. The same thing goes to the animals, some people have never thought of the feelings of the animals. Is there any possibility that the animals are willing to be hurt or even die after the animal testing experiments? It is definitely no but the animals just cannot protect themselves from being hurt by the human beings and must obey what the human beings want them to do. In order to gain even more knowledge on the AIDS virus, the medical researchers have been using monkeys in their experiments. Firstly, monkeys are being infected with the AIDS virus and then the monkeys will be recorded on how the virus affect and destroy their bodies. (Dixon 2009). On the other hand, monkeys are being infected with the HIV in the laboratory by the medical researchers too. The medical researchers will then feed the monkeys with huge amount of alcohol and see how the HIV speeds up the process to become the AIDS virus. This is really cruel and unethical to let the healthy monkeys to suffer from HIV and AIDS virus, then leave them dying since there is no any cure for AIDS virus yet. There are really uncountable amount of animals being killed after animal testing experiments. (HIV drugs, vaccines and animal testing 2011).

Second Argument

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In spite of the use of animals in scientific research is cruel, it actually requires a huge amount of money to carry out the experiments. The National Institutes of Health was estimated to be spending around eight to nine billion US dollar on animal testing experiments per year. This much of money can actually help those who are poor in the poorer countries instead of being wasted on animal testing experiments which medical researchers sometimes did not even learn anything from the experiments. (The escalating cost of animal experimentation 2011) Between, it is estimated that the cost of carry out an experiment on testing a certain substance using a whole animal will exceed two million US dollar. These amounts of money include the food, housing, and other basic expenses incurred in using the animals for scientific research. (Pinholster 1998). Plus, most useful drugs can actually be developed without involving the animals in scientific research and there is no any clear evidence showing that the uses of animals in scientific research have save somebody's life directly. (HIV drugs, vaccines and animal testing 2011)

Third Argument

The most important thing that medical researcher, scientists, toxicologists must consider: is the reactions of certain substances on humans body same with the reaction on the animal's body? This question influenced a lot on the use of animals in scientific research. This is also the biggest problems faced by the medical researchers, scientists and toxicologists as they are not sure whether the results obtained from the human beings same with the results obtained from the animals or not. Although some of them have already discovered and found out that the results obtained from animals and human beings will always differ, they still carry out animal testing experiments on animals just to in case that the harmful substances not to be used or consumed by the human beings. In United Kingdom, a group of scientists and doctors have written to the Prime Minister and the Health Secretary to appeal that the use of animals in scientific research has actually causes many cases of drug failures and opposition reactions on certain drugs. There are almost ninety percent of new drugs fail in the clinical trials. The opposition reactions on drugs have causes approximately 197,000 European citizens being killed. The group of scientists and doctors also said that there are many animal tests which are failed frequently. (Scientists criticize animal experiments 2011). In one case, strychnine, which is a harmful and poisonous substance to the human's body, is actually causing no harm at all to the monkeys, chickens and rodents. Human who consumed or applied strychnine to the body might die in a very short time. While on other case, a substance named belladonna which is harmless to the rabbits and goats are actually harmful to the human's body too. (Animal testing 2011)

Conclusion

Last but not least, I am still standing firm on my own view that I will strongly disagree on the use of animals in scientific research. This cruelty and unfair act must be banned as soon as possible. Otherwise, we human beings must know the ethics on using animals in scientific research and it is necessary to put the animals to the least harm as possible when they are involved in the animal testing experiments. Moreover, all of us in the world must work in close cooperation to oppose the use of animals in scientific research. We can do this by stop using cosmetics that are manufactured using animal skins and other substances that are obtained from the animals' bodies. We should use only the cosmetics which are manufactured by using herbal and organic ingredients. Consequently, companies selling cosmetics will stop manufacturing any of the cosmetic that contain substances derived from the animals' bodies. Then all of us in this world will never see any animal being sacrifice anymore in the animal testing experiments.

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References

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