Use on maize and wheat yields


Chemical fertilizers have been a key factor in contributing to increased agricultural production in farming systems in Pakistan. If used injudiciously, however, they can have adverse effects on soil quality (Kanwar and Katyal, 1997). In this context, the continued unbalanced use of nutrients spectrally (N: P2 O5: K2 O) is one of the prime areas of concern for agricultural sustainability in Pakistan. Besides keeping the production levels low, the unbalanced use of nutrients could trigger processes of land degradation. The effects of continuous managing and cropping are discussed in this paper with reference to crop yields and soil quality.

A field experiment on maize was initiated during spring 2007 NARC, Islamabad representing the high rainfall area as batohes. The area receives mm mean annual rainfall (averaged for with June to September being the wettest months. At the beginning of the experiment in Jan, 2007, the following physical and chemical properties of surface soils (0-0.15 m) were recorded calecren with a pH of 7.8 (1: 2.5 soil: water); moderately rapid permeability; 7.9 g kg-1 organic carbon (Walkley and Black, 1934); 736, 12 and 194 kg ha-1 of available N (Subbiah and Asija, 1956), P (Olsen et al., 1954) and K (Black, 1965) respectively; and 1.31 g cm-3 bulk density (Singh, 1980). The soil texture is silty clay loam with 29, 47, and 24% sand, silt and clay respectively, and illite is the dominant clay mineral. Taxonomically these soils are classified as Typic Hapludalfs (Soil Survey Staff, 1975).

Literature cited

  • Hadda, M.S and S. Arora. 2006. Soil and nutrient management policies for sustaining crop yield under maize and wheat cropping sequence in sub-mountain Punjab India. Soil and Environmental 25 (1): 1-5.
  • Mahmood-ul-Hassan, M; S.M. Mian and M. Salim. 1989. Wheat response to farm yard manure and urea nitrogen applied in different proportions. Pakistan J. Soil. Sci. 4(3-4):.
  • Khaliq A; M. K. Abbasi and T. Hussain. 2006. Effect of integrated use of organic and in-organic nutrient sources with effective micro-organics (EM) on seed cotton yield in Pakistan. Biosource Technology. 97: 967-972.
  • Ghosh P.K; P. Ramesh, K.K. Bandyopadhyay, A.K. Tripathi, K.M. Hati, A.K. Misra, and C.L, Acharya. 2004. Comparative effectiveness of cattle manure, poultry manure, phosphocompost and fertilizer-NPK on their cropping systems in vertisol of semi-arid tropics. I. crop yield and system performance. Biosource Technology. 95: 77-83.
  • Sial R.A; E.H. chaudhary, S. Hussain; and M. Naveed. 2007. Effect of organic manures and chemical fertilizers on grain yield of maize in rainfed area. Soil and Environment. 26(2):130-133.
  • Bishnu. H; Adhikari, Ram C. Gaul: and Bhoj. 2001. Effect of manures and fertilizers on the grain production of maize in rotation with cowpea in an acid soil. Maize symposium Nepal Dec. (2001).
  • Prasad B. and S.K. Sinta. 2000. Effect of fertilizers and organic manures on crop yield, nutrient balance and soil properties in rice-wheat cropping system in Bihar. Rice-wheat consortium New Dehli, India. PP 105-109.
  • Rasoli, S; and A., Forghani, 2006. Effect of organic manures on micronutrients availability in different soils 18th world congress of soil science July 9-15, 2006. Philadelphia, Pennsylicania, USA.
  • Negassa, W; Abera, T; Friesen, D. K; Deressa, A; and Dinsa, B. (2001). Evaluation of compost for maize production under farmer conditions. Seventh Eastern and Southern Africa regional maize conference 11-15th Feb. 2001. PP 382-386.
  • Sharma, S.P; and S.K. Subehia. 2003. Effect of twenty five years of fertilizers use on maize and wheat yields and quality of an acidic soil in the western Himalayas. Expl. Agri. (2003) 39: 55-64.
  • Bokhtiar, S.M. and K. Sakuari. 2005 integrated use of organic and chemical fertilizer on growth yield and quality of sugarcane in high gangs River flood plain soils of Bangladesh. Communications in soil science and plant analysis, 36: 1823-1837, 2005.
  • Roy, S.K., R.C. Sharma, and S.P. Trehan. 2001. Integrated nutrient management by using farmyard manure and fertilizer in potato-sunflower paddy rice ration in the Punjab, Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge. 137; 271-278.
  • Rasool, R; S.S Kukal, and G.S. Hira, 2007. Soil physical fertility and crop performance as affected by long term application of FYM and inorganic fertilizers in rice-wheat system. Soil and tillage Research 96: 64-72.
  • Bhattacharyya. R., S. Kundu, V. Pratash, H.S. Gupta. 2008. Sustainability under combined application of mineral and organic fertilizers in a rain-fed soybean-wheat system of Indian Himalayas. Eurep. J. Agronomy 28: 33-46.
  • Polessbaya, O. G., E. I. Kashirina, and N. D. Alekhina. 2004. Changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in wheat leaves and roots as a function of nitrogen source and supply. Russian Tournal of plant physiology 51 (5): 615-620.
  • Wang, H. and J. V. Jin. 2007. Effect of Zn deficiency and drought on plant growth and metabolism of reactive oxygen spaces in maize. Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (2007).
  • Rahimizadeh, M. D. Habib, H. Madani, G. Mohamrradi, A. Mehraban, and A.M Sabet. 2007. The effect of micronutrients on antioxidant enzymes metabolism in sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) under drought stress. Hella. 30(47): 167-174.
  • Aydin, M., M.A. Demiral, and Kaptan. M.A. 2006. Effect of zinc on growth, nutrient composition and antioxdative enzyme activities of maize as influenced by phosphorus. International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology. 3(2): 411-412.
  • Wang, H. and J. Y. Jin. 2005. Photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and lipid peroxidation of maize leave as influenced by zinc deficiency photo-synthetics. 43(4): 591-596.
  • Gao-Zn:, Lin-Bao and Zhou-wei. 2001. Effect of zinc nutrition on endogenous plant harmonies and free reveal in spring maize. Plant nutrition and fertilizer science. 1(4): 424-428.
  • Imtiaz, M., B.Alloway, M. Aslam, M. Memon, P. Khan, S. Siddique, and S. Shah. 2006. Zinc sorption in selected soils. Communications in soil science and plant analysis 37(11): 1675-1688.
  • Covdo, E., F. Alvarez, N. M. L. Andrade couce, F. A. Vege and P. Marcet. 2004. Zn sorption by different fraction of Galician soils. Journal of collected and interface science. 280(2): 343-349.
  • Rupa. 2003. Effect of FYM and Phosphorus on Zinc transformation and phyto availability in alfsols of India. Biosoura Technology. 87 (3):279-288.
  • Karaca, A. 2004. Effect of organic wastes on the extractability of cadmium, cropper, nicble, and Zn in soil. Geoderma 122: 297-303.
  • Jamwal, J.S. 2000. Effect of integrated nutrient management in maize (Zoa mays) on succeeding winter crops under rainfed conditions.
  • Chaudhry, Manju; Narwal, Ram Phal. 2005. Effect of long term application of farmyard manure on soil micronutrient status. Archives of Agronomy and soil Science. 51(3): 351-359.
  • Andrew, J. R. Ford E. Below and R. N. Hageman. 1980. Nitrate Reductase and protease activities development in maize plant physiology 66:164-170
  • David .T. Somers, Tsung -Min Kao Andris Alguail, M., F. Cararaca, P. Diaz-vivancas, J.A. Hernandez. 2006. Drought stress on entroxident enzyme and nitnte reluctare activities in janiperus oxycedrus L. grown in compsted see wge shidge-amended somt-arid soil. Plant and Soil. 279: 209-218.
  • Dale, L. Shaner and J. S. Boyer .1976. Nitrate Reductes activity in maize leaves. Plant physolosy. 58: 499-504.
  • Konard mengal, Pane Rorin and louis salsac. 1983. Nitrate reductase activity in shoots & roots of maize seedling as affected by the form of nitrogen nutrition and the pH & the nutrient solution. Plant physolodogy. 71: 618-622.
  • Soraja tarairanich and arim incharosnsakdi. 2007. Pungvcation & charatemzation of ritntion reductive from it ballottement ajanobcetion water J. monaural biotechnical. 23: 85-92.
  • Mesquita, M. E., V. E. Silva, J. M., Castelo Branco, M. A., and E. M.sequeria. 2000. Copper and zinc competitive adsorption: Desorption in calcareous soils. Arid soil research Rehabilitation 14: 27-41.
  • Khan, M. A. R., N. S. Bolan, and A. D. Mackay. 2005. Adsorption and desorption of copper in pasture soils. Communication in Soil Sci. Plant Analysis, 36: 2461-2487.
  • Claussen, W., Lenz, F., 1999. Effect of ammonium or nitrate nutrition on net photosynthesis, growth, and activity of the enzymes nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase in blueberry, raspberry and strawberry. Plant Soil 208, 95-102.
  • Alguacil, M., F. Caravaca, P. D. az-Vivancos, J.A. Herna ndez and A. Rolda. 2006. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizae and induced drought stress on antioxidant enzyme and nitrate reductase activities in Juniperus oxycedrus L. grown in a composted sewage sludge-amended semi-arid soil. Plant and Soil. 279:209-218.
Lady using a tablet
Lady using a tablet


Essay Writers

Lady Using Tablet

Get your grade
or your money back

using our Essay Writing Service!

Essay Writing Service