Use Of Tolterodine In Urinary Bladder Disorders Biology Essay

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The generic name of the drug being sold as Detrol LA is Tolterodine. Detrol LA is part of a class of drugs that are known as Cholinergic Receptor Blockers. Doctors prescribe this drug for patients suffering from urinary bladder disorders which in turn affect urination.

A person has conscious control over his bladder when he urinates. The nerves in the muscular wall of the urinary bladder release a chemical called acetyl choline, which attaches itself to the receptors on the muscle cells, thus enabling the bladder to contract. But patients with urinary bladder disorders lose this control and so may urinate without any warning. Detrol LA blocks the effect of acetyl choline on the urinary bladder muscles so that the sensation to urinate is reduced and this in turn prevents embarrassing situations for a patient due to uncontrolled urination. The generic drug, Tolterodine was approved by the FDA in 1998 and Detrol LA was approved in 2001.

Generally patients complain of the need to urinate frequently and incontinence, which are the symptoms of an "over active bladder". Doctors use Detrol LA to treat this condition. The minimum dosage given to a patient is 2mg twice daily. Detrol LA reacts adversely with medicines like erythromycin, nizoral, and miconazole. The effects of Detrol LA are unknown on the fetus and so it is safer for a pregnant woman to avoid it. But as Tolterodine traces were found in mother's milk in a study done on animals, it should be definitely avoided by nursing mothers.

The tips to be followed by patients while taking Detrol LA are:

The tablets should be swallowed whole preferably with water.

It can be taken either on an empty stomach or with food.

Even if a patient feels fine, he should continue the medicine.

If a patient misses a dose he should never take two doses together.

Among the side effects of Detrol LA, the most frequent one is dry mouth. Some other side effects are dizziness, constipation and abdominal pain.

Stability Personified Generic Depakote

The generic name for the drug Depakote is Valproic Acid, Divalproex Sodium and Sodium Valproate. The active e ingredient in the drug is Valproic acid. This drug received approval from the American authorities in 1978. It is used to treat patients with epileptic seizures, maniac depression or bipolar disorder as also migraine headaches. The drug is also known and sold as Depakene, Depacon Depakote ER and Divalproex.

Doctors prescribe this drug to stabilize the mood of the patient. Depakote acts by affecting the Gamma-amino butyric acid in the brain. This chemical also known as GABA is used by the nerves to communicate with each other. Depakote is available in various forms like capsules and tablets of differing dosage strengths from 125 mg to 500 mg. Other forms of Depakote available in the market are sprinkles syrups and even injections. In every 5ml of the syrup the content of Valproic acid is 250 mg and every 5 ml of injection contains 1000 ml of the drug.

A patient suffering from epileptic seizures starts with a low dosage of 10 to 15 mg per kg of body weight and the doctor slowly increases the dosage till the Valproic acid in the blood reaches the level of 50 to 100 mcg per ml. while patients suffering from bipolar disorder start with a high dosage of 750 mg, those treated for migraine headaches with Depakote have a dosage of 250mg twice daily of delayed release tablets to start with.

Depakote should not be used by pregnant women as it affects the fetus and the baby will be born with congenital cardio vascular problems, spina bifida as also neural tube defects. Depakote also reduces platelet count thus leading to the inability of the blood to clot as also abnormal bleeding.

While taking Depakote patients should consult their doctor if they encounter side effects like mild abdominal cramps, constipation or diarrhea, indigestion or loss of appetite, unusual weight gain or weight loss. Women may experience menstrual cycle changes as well.

Generic Diovan - A Boon to Hypertension Patients

The generic name of the medicine Diovan is Valsartan which is an oral medicine. It belongs to a class of drugs called ARBs or anqiotensin receptor blockers. It is used effectively in the treatment of hypertension and had been approved by the FDA in 1996.

The powerful anqiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) attaches itself to the angiotensin receptors in the muscle cells of the blood vessels which causes them to narrow down, thus leading to hypertension or high blood pressure. Diovan blocks the angiotensin receptors, dilates the blood vessels thus lowering the blood pressure of the patient.

The generic version of the drug Diovan will be available in the market only in the year 2012. It is used to treat hypertension and congestive heart failures, as also helping to improve survival rates after a heart attack. Diovan helps to work more efficiently. The drug is manufactured by Novartis pharmaceuticals and the patent for the drug Diovan prevents any pharmaceutical company from manufacturing the generic version of Diovan. However, there are a number of pharmaceutical companies that sell fake, sub- standard or spurious generic Diovan drugs which can be dangerous.

The active ingredient in Diovan is Valsartan which is also prescribed to patients with diabetes to protect them from kidney damage. The best thing for a patient not to miss a dose is to take the medicine at the same time every day. As Diovan raises potassium levels in the body, patients taking this medicine should avoid potassium supplements and salt substitutes that contain potassium without the doctor's permission.

Patients taking Diovan complain of side effects like dizziness and blurred vision. Increased potassium levels lead to muscle weakness or slow heart beats. If a patient experiences serious side effects like fainting, decreased sexual ability or very serious side effects like change in amount of urine passed, severe nausea and stomach pain or unusual fatigue, he should consult the doctor immediately.

Generic Effexor X R - A Boon or Bane to Patients?

The generic version of the drug Effexor X R is Venaflaxine Hydrochloride. This drug is a popular anti-depressant. Having been cleared by the FDA authorities, US, in the month of June, 2010 and manufactured by TEVA Pharmaceutical Company. Generic Effexor XR or Venaflaxine Hydrochloride is available in the form of tablets in different dosage strengths of 37.5mg, 75mg and 150mg. Generic Effexor XR has been formulated as an extended release capsule. The drug release is not pH dependent. The inactive ingredients found in it are Ethyl Cellulose, Cellulose, Gelatin, Iron Oxide Titanium Dioxide and Hypromellose.

Doctors use effexor XR to treat major disorders like general anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder and panic disorder. The greatest advantage Effexor XR is along with a combination of antipsychotic drugs, Effexor XR and Remeron, help to control a patient's depression.

The greatest disadvantage of Generic Effexor XR is that discontinuing the medicine is not easy. The "withdrawal syndrome" is very permanent part of a patient's life. Once a patient gets used to the drug, he is never free from the discontinuation or withdrawal symptoms. This drug can aggravate maniacal situations in a patient being treated for bi-polar depression and he suffers a great deal.

Common side effects of Generic Venaflaxine Hydrochloride like headaches, nausea, diarrhea or constipation, either insomnia or sleepiness disappears after some time. But loss of libido and sexual dysfunction and weight gain are permanent side effects.

Patients taking Venaflaxine Hydrochloride also complain of some not so common side effects like shock-like sensations, anorexia, either high B.P. or low B.P. It is safer to avoid alcohol while taking this medicine as it causes alcohol abuse or intolerance. Yet other side effects to look out for are suicidal thoughts, physical and mental hyperactivity, panic attacks, mood swings and anxiety, to mention just a few.

Generic Effexor - An Effective Anti-Depressant

The Generic drug Venaflaxine is manufactured and sold under the brand name Effexor. Since an imbalance in the neurotransmitters in the brain is the cause for depression or anxiety, Effexor inhibits their release and thus is effective in treatment of such conditions.

Generic Venaflaxine is a prescription drug and is available in tablets of varying dosage strengths from 5mg to 100mg. It is the 6th most commonly prescribed and used drug in the U.S. Doctors prescribe the drug to treat the symptoms of depression like anxiety, social anxiety and generalized anxiety disorders. This drug should be taken as per the doctor's instructions, after food. Discontinuing the medicine also should be done gradually under medical supervision.

Generic Effexor reacts adversely with Nardil and Parnate and these reactions can even assume a life threatening aura. Since the drug acts on the neurotransmitters in the brain, it slows down reflexes and impairs judgment so that the patient has to be extremely careful and cautious when he first begins treatment.

Generic Effexor increases the blood pressure and eye pressure of a person and so hypertension patients who suffer from glaucoma should be careful while taking this drug. It is safer to avoid Generic Effexor or Venaflaxine while a woman is pregnant as the drug can cause a miscarriage. However, there are no indications of congenital disabilities or any abnormalities in the baby. Therefore, while prescribing generic Effexor or Venaflaxine for pregnant women, a doctor has to consider each case individually.

The most dangerous side effect of generic effexor is the increase in the rate of suicide risk. Children and adolescents who are being treated with this drug are known to display increased hostility and suicidal behavior and therefore should always be kept under observation. Other common side effects include headaches, nausea, sexual dysfunction, drowsiness, and even loss of appetite.

Generic Entocort-A Blessing for Crohn's Disease Patients

The drug Entocort is known by the generic name Budesonide. This is a synthetic steroid drug. Budesonide is like cortisol or hydrocortisone, a natural hormone produced in the body by the adrenal glands. Entocort is an effective anti- inflammatory drug and people suffering from Crohn's disease are treated with Entocort. Budesonide is the active ingredient in Entocort. It acts directly when it is in contact with the colon and the ileum and then it is taken to the liver where it is broken down and subsequently ejected from the system. As a result, the absorbed medicine is not distributed throughout the body. This causes very few side effects of Entocort.

The generic version of the drug Entocort is not yet available in the market. A patient needs to take only one tablet a day, for eight weeks to treat either a mild or moderately active Crohn's disease, as the disease attacks the second half of the small intestine and the colon.

Generally patients taking Entocort tolerate the medicine fairly well. However they mostly complain of side effects like headache and nausea, which are the side effects of having excess corticosteroid in the body. Other side effects include swelling in the ankles, acne, moon faces and getting bruised easily. Entocort may also lead to suppressing the body's own ability to make cortisol naturally and also causes bone breakdown. Budesonide interacts adversely with medicines like erythromycin, nizoral and indinavir to mention just a few. Although the doctors and scientists are not very sure whether Entocort and its main ingredient Budesonide will cause any abnormalities or congenital malformations in the fetus, it is safer if pregnant women avoid the drug. Since traces of the drug have been found in mother's milk, it is likely to adversely affect a baby being breast fed.

Taking Entocort with certain antibiotics or anti fungal medicines and even grape fruit or grape juice can increase levels of this medication in the blood.

Generic Enablex- A Help for Patients with Overactive Bladder Symptoms

Enablex (darifenacin) is a drug that is used to treat patients with over active bladder symptoms. A person who suffers from over active bladder symptoms cannot control urinary bladder contractions. Generic Enablex is a long acting medicine. The patient has to just take one tablet a day. Enablex is an anticholinergic drug.

At present Generic Enablex is not being marketed as the drug Enablex is protected by a patent. As a result, no pharmaceutical company can manufacture the generic version of the drug Enablex till the patent expires in March 2015. So the earliest a pharmaceutical company can start manufacturing generic Enablex is in 2015.

Generally a patient suffering from over active bladder symptoms has a problem of frequent and unusually uncontrollable urinary bladder muscle contractions. Such a person suffers from urinary incontinence and a frequent need to urinate. Uncontrollable and frequent muscle contractions cause over active bladder symptoms. Enablex binds specific muscarinic receptors help the urinary bladder muscles to relax, and thus relieve the symptoms of an over active bladder.

Enablex interacts adversely with different kinds of medicines like erythromycin, ketoconazole (Nizoral), belladonna, donepezil to name just a few. So a patient should tell his doctor about all the medicines, over the counter medicines and even herbal products he is using before starting the drug Enablex. Patients with urinary or gastric retention, muscle spasms of the urinary bladder and urinary tract, glaucoma which is not being treated and a block in the stomach or intestine should avoid Enablex.

Enablex produces side effects like impaired reactions and vision, hot and dry skin, severe stomach pain, thirst and pain and burning sensations while passing urine. In such cases the patient should contact the doctor immediately. Pregnant women and nursing mothers should take the doctor's advice before taking Enablex as the drug is likely to harm the baby.

Is Generic Evista A Cure for Osteoporosis? Yes, It Is!

Evista is an estrogen tablet whose active ingredient is raloxifene hydrochloride. Raloxifene hydrochloride is often referred to as a SERM Drug (Selective Estrogen Receptor Module Drug), as it binds estrogen receptors on the one hand and at the same time also activates some estrogen paths while blocking some others. A single Evista tablet comprises of 60 mg raloxifene hydrochloride.

This medication is prescribed by doctors to lower the incidence of breast cancer in post menopausal women who suffer from osteoporosis. During menopause, estrogen levels decrease, leading to accelerated bone loss and osteoporosis. A patient who suffers from osteoporosis is prone to an increased risk of fractures especially of the hip, spine and even the wrist.

Serious side effects of Evista include problems like deep vein thrombosis, retinal vein thrombosis, as also pulmonary embolism. As there is an increase in the risk of venous thromboembolism and even death due to stroke, Evista should not be used by post menopausal women with coronary heart problems, as the risk of death due to stroke is high. Evista is not recommended for pre menopausal women as it is not safe for them to take it. The drug should never be taken by pregnant women and nursing women as there is a risk of damaging the baby.

The earliest possible date that generic Evista will be available in the market is in July 2012.This is when the first patent for the drug would expire. But circumstances may further delay the availability of the generic version of Evista. Many pharmaceutical companies claim to sell the generic version of Evista online. But no one can be sure whether these drugs are safe and how genuine these drugs are. So it is safer to wait for the generic drug to be manufactured and sold after the patent for Evista expires. Evista adversely interacts with medicines like diazepam, cholesterol and thyroid medicines and oral contraceptives.

Generic Exelon -New Hope for Alzheimer's Patients

Exelon is a drug used to treat patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease who also suffer from mild to moderate dementia which is characterized by impaired memory, changed personality and even abstract thinking. The active ingredient in the drug Exelon is Rivastigimine and the different dosages available are 1.5mg, 3mg, 4.5mg and 6mg.The drug is available in the form of liquid or oral solutions capsules and even patches. Even though the generic version of Exelon is available in the form of capsules, the generic form of the oral solution and patches is not available in the market as of now.

The first patent for Exelon patches will expire in August 2012 and that is the earliest that the generic version of Exelon patches would be made available in the market. However as both the capsules and the oral solution are covered by the same patent, the generic version of the oral solution can be manufactured and marketed at any time the manufacturer chooses to do so.

Before a patient starts taking generic Exelon, he or his care giver should tell the doctor about any medical condition like liver, heart or lung problems, seizures, bleeding from the stomach or any other stomach or intestinal problems, allergy to the active ingredient, Rivastigimine or to any other medications. Generic Exelon interacts adversely with medicines like antihistamines, atropine, and certain medicines given for infections of the urinary bladder.

A patient should have regular checkups with the doctor while taking Exelon. The side effects usually caused by Generic Exelon are skin rash, change in either vision or balance, swelling of the face, lips or even the tongue, loss of weight, incontinence, and even uncontrolled movements. Exelon interacts adversely with medicines like Detrol, Donepezil, Ibuprofen to name just a few. Since generic Exelon is usually used to treat older people, it is likely that pregnant women and nursing mothers will not need this drug.

Generic Exforge - A Break-through In the Treatment of Hypertension

Amlodipine and Valsartan are the active ingredients found in the drug Exforge. This drug contains two medications in one tablet. A patient needs to take just one tablet a day and so this drug eliminates the need to take two tablets. The drug Exforge is now protected by a patent and so the generic version of the drug will be available only when the patent expires in September 2012. The responsibility of manufacturing and marketing Exforge lies solely with the pharmaceutical giant, Novartis.

Exforge works in two different ways. As Amlodipine is a calcium channel blocker and Valsartan an Angiotensin Receptor Blocker, these two medicines work in ways which are complementary to each other and also block the substances that causes the blood vessels to constrict as a result of which the blood pressure of the patient rises. Exforge helps to relax the blood vessels and dilates them thus lowering the blood pressure. The medicine should be taken according to the doctor's advice. Exforge is available in different dosage strengths like 5/160, 10/160, 5/320 and 10/320, where the numerator indicates the strength of Amlodipine and the denominator the strength of Valsartan. Exforge should be swallowed whole and taken daily at the same time either on an empty stomach or after food.

The common side effects of Exforge are swelling of the hands and feet, congestion of the nasal passages, sore throat and difficulty or discomfort while swallowing and infection of the upper respiratory tract. The serious side effects which a patient must report to the doctor are low blood pressure, chest pain or kidney problems. Before beginning to take Exforge, a patient should tell the doctor about any medicines he is taking like prescription drugs, herbal products and even over the counter medicines. As Exforge harms the unborn baby and can even cause fetal death, pregnant women should avoid the drug. Nursing mothers too should avoid Exforge as the drug adversely affects the baby.