Urinary Tract And Blood In Urine Biology Essay

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Any individual that experiences blood in their urine ought to seek immediate medical attention for a correct diagnosis. Although blood in urine is a common problem, it could also be the first sign of a serious condition. Only a thorough examination by a medical professional can determine the cause for this condition.

Urinary tract and blood in urine

Blood in urine could sometimes indicate a problem with the urinary tract. The kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, are major parts of the urinary tract, and include the genitals and prostate in males. Blood in urine may not be visible at times and can only be detected through laboratory tests. An excess amount of blood makes the urine look pinkish or smoky brown, similar to the color of tea. This condition is called gross hematuria. This condition can occur once or recur many times. Women are more likely to develop hematuria since they are prone to urinary tract infections, a common cause for the condition. In addition, older adults may experience blood in urine due to medications that are known to irritate the urinary tract.

Common symptoms and treatment

Blood in urine can result from an infection, injury, or inflammation of the urinary tract. Kidney stones, and cancer of the kidney, bladder, and prostate also lead to hematuria. Blood clotting disorders and STDs or sexually transmitted diseases are also common causes for blood in urine. Symptoms that usually accompany the passing of blood in urine include abdominal pain, back pain, pain in the groins, the labia in women and the penis in men.

A full urological evaluation is essential for individuals over 40 who notice blood in urine, especially smokers, sine a common cause is bladder cancer. An full urological evaluation for blood in urine includes a cystoscopy, where the doctor inserts a cystoscope into the urethra and bladder. If you happen to notice any blood in urine, it is important to seek immediate medical help to determine the cause.

Vaginal Discharge

Vaginal discharge is common among women of all ages and is the usual way for the female reproductive system to lubricate and keep the vagina clean, and help prevent infections. For the most part, vaginal discharge consists of fluid contain dead cells and bacteria produced by glands inside the vagina and cervix.

Common causes for vaginal discharge

The amount of vaginal discharge varies in women, which changes in color depending on the menstrual cycle. A clear discharge is normal, but frequent white vaginal discharge could indicate an infection. A slight discoloration usually occurs at the time of ovulation, pregnancy, or breastfeeding. A rise in Ph levels in the vagina caused by douching and soaps can result in a change in color of the vaginal discharge. Yeast infections can cause a white vaginal discharge of varying consistency. On the other hand, a light or dark yellow discharge is the result of a bacterial infection. Yeast infections can often be caused by the use of antibiotics and during pregnancy. These infections are treated with oral medications. However, frequent recurrence with severe vaginal discharge must be thoroughly examined by a doctor.

Underlying symptoms and treatments

Infections are usually accompanied by itching or burning in the vagina, often accompanied with an odor. A thin vaginal discharge may indicate a mild infection that will clear up easily. However, heavy white discharge may indicate candida overgrowth or even sexually transmitted diseases. Chlamydia and gonorrhea are two STDs known to cause vaginal discharge. Both diseases are bacterial infections of the cervix that need to be treated with antibiotics under the supervision of a medical professional.

To reduce the frequency of normal vaginal discharge it is essential to wipe from front to back. This will prevent any spread of the bacteria. In addition, it is advisable to use loose cotton clothing and underwear, and avoid wearing tight pants, biking shorts, and swimsuits for long periods.

Brown Discharge

Many women are alarmed when they experience brown discharge for the first time. Many women don’t experience this condition very often, but brown discharge during menstruation with an awkward color and strong smell is not uncommon.

Yeast infections and vulvovaginitis

Yeast, bacteria, and sexually transmitted diseases (STD) lead to an infection of the vulva or vagina, known as vulvovaginitis, which causes brown discharge. This infection is common to women of all ages. An acute yeast infection during the onset of the menstrual cycle can result in this type of discharge caused by candida albicans bacteria. Yeast infections accompanied by a brown discharge can be naturally treated at home. However, it is best to consult your physician to determine the underlying cause of brown discharge. Bacterial vaginosis is another common cause for vulvovaginitis, which is accompanied by a brown discharge with a foul, fishy odor.

The role of STDs in brown discharge

Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and genital warts are sexually transmitted diseases which have symptoms of brown discharge. Individuals with such symptoms must seek medical intervention immediately. Genital warts is also a viral skin disease that must not be treated with ordinary over the counter medications. It is essential to consult a doctor for the treatment of genital warts which causes a brown discharge. The symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) include a brown discharge. The sexually transmitted disease is caused by a bacterial infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. In most cases, it is spread by chlamydia and gonorrhea bacteria. The brown discharge with a foul odor, pelvic pain, and bleeding after intercourse are the common symptoms of PID.

In some cases, a brown discharge with a foul odor may be an indication of cervical cancer. No matter what symptoms you may experience, it is always prudent to consult your physician for a thorough examination. Women that experience brown discharge after menopause must seek an immediate diagnosis of their condition. Regular exercise with a healthy diet rich in vitamins and minerals can help reduce or eliminate any uncomfortable vaginal discharges.

White Discharge

The female reproductive system, like other systems in our body secrets releases fluids that are expelled through the vagina on a regular basis. White discharge is a natural process that contains dead cells and bacteria from the cervix. The color, odor, and texture of the discharge may vary among women and the type of infection, if any.

Candidiasis and white discharge

The presence of any odor along with white discharge may indicate a form of bacterial infection. Candidiasis, a yeast infection, is caused by bacteria that results in a thick white discharge along accompanied with vaginal itching. Frequent bouts of yeast infection in sexually active couples are an indication that their partner is also infected. The infection recurs after sexual contact, accompanied by thick, white discharge. It is prudent for couples to refrain from intercourse during an infection and seek proper treatment. Both partners will continue to experience the same symptoms until medical treatment is sought.

Multiple causes and treatment

Various hormonal changes that take place during the menstrual cycle can trigger white discharge. Medications, depression, stress, and certain types of ailments can also result in an increase in thick white discharge. The possibility of a sexually transmitted disease cannot be ruled out, which is one of the main reasons why it is important to contact a gynecologist immediately. A doctor will determine the kind of infection and the course of treatment to be administered.

Natural remedies for white discharge

In order to prevent white discharge it is advisable for women to wear only cotton panties and panty lines. Cotton panty liners act as an absorbent and keep the vagina dry. Women with heavy white discharge ought to change their panty liners frequently. Washing the vaginal area with warm water several times a day will help contain white discharge. It is also prudent to refrain from using vaginal deodorants and sprays as they may exacerbate the condition and cause excess white discharge. These precautions, along with medication under the supervision of a physician will go a long way in treating the condition.

Mouth Sores

Often, an infection or inflammation can cause painful mouth sores. The sores may vary in size and affect any portion of the mouth, internally and externally. Mouth sores that contain fluid are called bullae or vesciles, while others may be ulcers that form holes in the lining of the mouth.

Herpes simplex virus and other common causes

Saliva protects the lining of the mouth. When the production of saliva decreases due to an injury or irritation, it increases the chances of developing mouth sores. Several acidic foods, drugs, and chemical can trigger an allergic reaction leading to mouth sores. Often, toothpaste, chewing gum, and candy contain ingredients that do not agree with some people, leading to mouth sores. Mouth sores are also side effects of chemotherapy drugs used to combat cancer. Many types of mouth sores are caused by viruses like the herpes simplex virus. Herpes zoster causes multiple sores that are usually found on one side of the mouth. These mouth sores flare up at any time due to the virus and remain dormant in the body. Other common causes are bacterial infections from the teeth or gums. The bacteria spreads from decaying teeth to the floor of the mouth causing severe mouth sores under the tongue, known as Ludwig’s angina. Such infections can spread to the brain if left unattended.

STDs â€" A common cause for mouth sores

Mouth sores are often the result of a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Syphilis that spreads to the mouth produces red, painless sores in the mouth and on the lips. These mouth sores usually take several weeks to heal. The condition is high contagious which can easily spread through kissing. Inflammation of organs such as the skin, eyes, brain, genitals, and gastrointestinal tract also cause painful mouth sores. It is also common in some people with inflammatory bowel disease. The autoimmune skin disease, Pemphigus, is known to cause uncomfortable mouth sores.

Doctors usually prescribe treatment for mouth sores after they diagnose the underlying cause. Corticosteriod gels and low-powered laser treatment can relieve pain and prevents mouth sores from reoccurring.

Mouth Ulcers

Mouth ulcers are open lesions that occur in the mouth. Many disorders such as gingivostomatitis, oral cancer, oral thrush, leukoplakia, and the herpes simplex virus can lead to ulceration in the mouth. Mouth ulcers are pain lesions that can affect the gums, edge of the tongue, inside of the cheeks, and roof of the mouth, making it uncomfortable to chew. These types of ulcers are usually not contagious.

Causes of mouth ulcers

Damage to any region of the mouth is the most common cause for mouth ulcers. They are common among children and young adults. Often, stress can cause ulcerations in the mouth. Some women get mouth ulcers prior to the onset of the menstrual period while some may be affected by pregnancy. Biting your inner cheeks and rigorous brushing of the teeth and gums are also common causes of mouth ulcers. The lack of vitamins such as vitamin B and folic acid, and minerals in a daily diet and the consumption of certain foods can cause the ulcerations in the mouth as well. The use of certain medications can trigger a drug reaction leading to severe mouth ulcers. Sexually transmitted diseases like Syphilis can spread to the mouth causing sores and ulcers.

Symptoms and treatment

Mouth ulcers are usually less than 1 cm in diameter, and are distinguished by yellow, white, or grey, round or oval shaped formations in the mouth. Common symptoms include a burning sensation a day before the ulcer appears. Mouth ulcers can cause severe discomfort and pain during eating or drinking. In serious cases, they grow larger and deeper, forming multiple pin head size sores. Some mouth ulcers disappear in about two weeks. However, timely treatment can ease the pain and protect the mouth from further infection. Treatments include the use of pastes, gels, mouth washes, and liquid paint treatment. Among the natural remedies for mouth ulcers are tea tree oil, and calendula. A well balanced diet of fresh fruits and green vegetables along with good oral hygiene can prevent the growth of mouth ulcers.

Yellow Discharge

Normal vaginal secretion is typically colorless or white. However, yellow discharge may be an indication of some sort of infections or a sign of a sexually transmitted disease STD. It is important to find the underlying cause for yellow discharge and contact a physician immediately.

Diseases associated with yellow discharge

Profuse yellow discharge is often a symptom of vulvar vestibulitis or HPV condyloma virus. Ovulation, emotional distress, pelvic inflammatory disease, vaginitis, and cervical polyps can also cause severe, foul smelling yellow discharge. Gonorrhea is an STD that is accompanied by this type of secretions. Cervical polyps, Chlamydia, and vaginal cancer are also associated with this condition. Inflammation of the cervix or cervicitis results in the secretion of gray, white, or yellow discharge. The bacteria can cause serious problems during pregnancy if left untreated.

Treatments for yellow discharge

There are several ways to treat yellow discharge, however, it is important to let your physician or gynecologist determine the exact cause. In addition, keeping the vaginal area dry and clean can prevent excess yellow discharge. In case of the condition, it is advisable to use condoms in order to avoid STDs. Refrain from douching and the use of deodorants and sprays during this period. Doctors usually prescribe an antibiotic course, depending on the cause of yellow discharge.

Precautionary measures to prevent yellow discharge

Hot tubs, whirlpool spas, and the use of tampons and scented sanitary towels, can irritate the vaginal area. It is also advisable to refrain from wearing underwear made from synthetic material that creates a moist environment for bacteria to thrive, thereby causing yellow discharge. The consumption of yoghurt containing lactobacillus cultures can help discourage the development of yellow discharge. It is also prudent to refrain from masturbation while experiencing yellow discharge, which can trigger a severe infection leading to further medical complications. Other natural remedies for yellow discharge include tea tree oil. No matter what form of treatment you seek, it is essential to seek medical advice in order to pursue the appropriate course of medication.

Fever Blister

A fever blister is caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The virus is a strain of the type 2 herpes virus that causes genital lesions. A fever blister is also called a cold sore. Over half the population in the U.S. experience fever blister before they reach adulthood.

The dormant and deadly HSV-1

A fever blister can form on the nose, mouth, lips, chin, and genital area. These blisters can spread from one person to another by direct contact, which includes through sexual intercourse, and secretions, including saliva. A fever blister can spread rapidly and become ulcers inside the mouth. The HSV-1 causes an infection during childhood or adolescence, which is often mistaken to be a viral or bacterial throat infection. The virus lies dormant in the body in nerve roots near the affected skin. A fever blister can recur at any time when the virus becomes active, causing new fever blisters that can be triggered by a cold or fever. In addition, stress, trauma, undue exposure to the sun, menstruation, and an immune deficiency can cause fever blisters to develop. These blisters can be transferred to other parts of the body including the eyes, genitals, and fingers. Fever blisters can cause severe illnesses in individuals already combating other health problems including cancer. Fever blisters cause headaches, vomiting, fever, swelling of the gums, and throat infections. These symptoms usually occur a week prior to the onset of fever blisters.

Treatment and prevention of fever blisters

In order to prevent fever blisters it is important to prevent children from kissing anyone with fever blisters. Several vaccinations have been developed to protect people who have never been infected with both types of HSV virus. Using sunscreen lotion on the lips can prevent fever blisters. In addition, antiviral medications can prevent fever blisters in individuals with a weak immune system, which include creams and anti-viral drugs. It is advisable to consult your doctor when fever blisters persist. Being a lifelong problem, it is essential to take precautionary measures to prevent fever blisters from erupting frequently.

Burning Urination

Sexually transmitted diseases can cause a host of unwanted symptoms such as burning urination, rashes, and severe itching. These are common occurrence among STDs, with urinary tract infections, and rash centered on the genitals. In most cases, these symptoms are a precursor to warts, sores, and blisters.

STDs â€" Major cause for burning urination

It is important for your physician to find out the cause of burning urination. Individuals who have had more than three sexual partners in a year are at a great risk of being infected by sexually transmitted diseases. These include Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and other venereal disease that cause burning urination. Urinary tract infections that cause burning urination is usually experienced by women a day after sexual intercourse. These diseases can cause infertility and miscarriages, which is why they need to be treated immediately. Any individual that experiences burning urination must have their urine samples cultured in order to seek the appropriate course of antibiotic treatment. Burning urination results from an inflammation of the urethral lining, which is usually an indication of a STD. However, the problem is that burning urination is also a common symptom with other bladder infections, and prostate infections in men.

Symptoms and treatment of burning urination

Burning urination is often accompanied with pus and vaginal or urethral discharge. Many men experience swelling or tenderness of the genitals in men, although similar symptoms are not easily indicative in women. Women are more prone to urinary tract infections and burning urination due to a short urethra, which makes it easier for bacteria to infect the bladder. While natural remedies do exist to relieve the symptoms of burning urination, it is essential for a doctor to prescribe the right course of treatment. Drinking plenty of water, plain barley water, and fruit juices help to flush the urinary system of harmful bacteria. A daily dose of Vitamin C and a diet rich in fresh fruit and vegetables is also a preventive remedy.

Cold Sores on Lips

Cold sores on lips can be painful and unpleasant. They are also called fever blisters and are distinguished by fluid-filled blisters that erupt on the lips. Sometimes, cold sores can spread to the nose and around the chin.

Herpes virus and cold sores

Cold scores on lips are caused by the herpes type 1 virus. The virus is extremely contagious, where the primary infection usually occurs during childhood or adolescence. The virus is often confused for a cold or flu during this time. Cold sores on lips are painful and may disappear after a fortnight. However, the herpes type 1 virus lies dormant and continues to erupt frequently following a fever, cold, sunburn, or emotional stress. Fortunately, there may be warning signals before the onset of cold sores on lips. An individual may experience a tingling or burning sensation for a couple of days prior to any eruptions. It is prudent to take remedial action during this time to prevent an outbreak of cold sores on lips. An increase in fluid intake including fruit juices can be helpful during this stage. Antiviral medications are usually prescribed by doctors, which must be taken as soon as the symptoms are noticeable.

Treatment and prevention of cold sores on lips

The herpes type 1 virus can be transmitted through contact with an infected person especially through sexual intercourse. Sexually transmitted diseases are a common cause for cold sores on lips, which can easily spread to other parts of the body. Since the virus lies dormant, it is essential to practice safe sex and refrain from sexual intercourse with multiple partners, which can easily trigger the virus and cause cold sores on lips more frequently. It is important for people to be vigilant about their health condition and take precautionary and preventive measures. Over-the-counter medications can relieve the symptoms of cold sores on lips. Common compounds that promote healing include zinc and tannic acid. However, the first preventive measure is to seek medical help in order to prevent cold sores on lips from reoccurring frequently.