In the recent years one of the areas of science which is developed significantly is Genetic engineering. The main purpose of this field is to understand the inheritance patterns in human beings, animals and plants. Scientists who are working in this field are involved with some investigations and methods of treatment of infertility. For instance Invitro fertilization can be mentioned as one of the common methods of treatment infertility in the recent years. There are some related topics in this field which are link together such as cloning in animals and humans, genetic screening, gene therapy and gene transformation among different species. Each one of these parts which are mentioned has its own processes and ethics. Generally some people are against these kinds of gene manipulation, whereas the other people are for these methods. In general there are different ideas about the future of this new technology and it needs more investigations.
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One of the methods of treating infertility among women is Inviter fertilization or I.V.F. This process can be defined as combining sperm and the egg outside the womb of the woman in a test tube and finally transfer the produced cell which is zygote to the uterus in proper time. Sometimes they patients prefer to frozen the zygote and keep it for the future. Generally the women with the problems of their fallopian tubes, unexplained infertility or disease which cause infertility on them are the cases of I.V.F treatment. The process has four main stages which are prescribing medication, gathering the eggs, fertilization outside the body and finally transfer the embryo into the uterus. At the first stage the physicians are using some drugs such as hormonal drugs to stimulate the production of follicles which may contain the egg. The follicles are the sacs in ovary which are contain of eggs. After some days the patient must return to the clinic for blood testing and also sonography to measure the number and size of follicles. The second stage is the process of releasing egg from follicles which may be under anaesthesia. After removing the egg from the ovary of woman they will mix the mature egg and the sperm which is donated in tubes or Petri dishes. After some days the result of combining of sperm and egg which is a number of cells which are calling embryoblast are transferring to the uterus of the women without any anaesthesia. During the whole process of I.V.F all patients are using some antibiotics to prevent from any infectious diseases. After inserting the embryoblast in the uterus the patient have a regular test such as sonography to make sure about its procedure. However in some cases after this process the patient is unsuccessful for being pregnant.( http://www.integramed.com/inmdweb/content/cons/art.jsp).
In the recent years I.V.F has become fairly a routine method, however many people believe that it can be a kind of shortcut for being pregnant. Although some scientists believe in this idea that I.V.F method is not completely a safe method and people should be really cautious about making a decision for being pregnant through this way. Because scientists have found some complications for babies during pregnancy of the woman who become pregnant by I.V.F method. Generally scientists are optimistic about this method, although they have some concerns.( http://www.bionews.org.uk/page_38009.asp)
One of the controversial subjects about I.V.F is the topic of ethics in this field. In general there are different arguments about ethical issues; however based on job and ideas of different people they have different ideas. For instance pop Benedict XVI believes in this idea that the baby should be generate not to be produced. On the other hand UK MPs have stated that it is an end to the right of fertility. Many people believe in this idea this not only is beneficial for infertile people but also can be a good treatment for the women and it does not have any effect on religious ideas. (http://www.ivf.net/ivf/ivf_ethics-o2120.html)
Scientists are optimistic about the future of I.V.F application. For instance they have predicted in the near future transfer of the sexed embryos, cloning, improvement in genetic engineering, transplantation of the embryonic cells and tissues. For instance in the future they can biopsy one or two cells from matured embryo without any problems for the embryo. (http://www.brown.edu/Courses/BI0032/IVF/future.html)
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Artificial insemination can be defined as placement of sperm from a male into the women reproductive tract. Due to placement of sperm the women will become pregnant. There are different kinds of artificial insemination such as IUI(Intrauterine insemination),IVI(Intravaginal insemination),ICI(intracervical insemination),ITI(Intartubal insemination).However among these four kinds of artificial insemination methods IUI is the most common among women and also it seems it is much more successful in comparison to the other methods. Through this method the physician is transferring washed sperm into the uterus. This method is mostly used when the male partner has some disorder in his semen fluid such as low count of sperm. In some cases when the women uterus mucus is less than the normal they use IUI treatment for fertility. This method is much cheaper than I.V.F and it does not need to use drug during treatment cycle. The collected sperm will wash and transfer through a tube to cervix of the women. The other method of artificial insemination is IVI. This method is mostly use when the female partner has no infertility and the male is donor. It is advised to insert the washed sperm very closely to the cervix to increase the rate of success. It's not a really common method just in cases of home insemination treatments for males.ICI which is mentioned before is the method of inserting sperm directly into the cervix. Doctors are using needle syringe for transforming sperm. In this method if they prefer to increase the success rate of fertility they will pre wash the sperms. ITI which is the last kind of artificial insemination can be mentioned as the less common infertility treatment. Because it has some main issues such as risk of trauma of infectious diseases. Trauma can be defined as a serious injury or distress. In this method doctors are place the pre-washed sperm directly into fallopian tube through the cervix. For transferring the sperm they use special catheter that goes through cervix and then fallopian tube. Due to higher expense and low rate of success it's not mostly suggested by physicians. The ethical issues related to artificial insemination is a complex area study of ethics in science. It has different aspects such as philosopy, moral and legal aspect. A group of people believe in this idea that it would be really useful to use this method to decrease the infertility even the women use the sperm sample from their dead body of their husband. For instance in 1978 a baby whose name was Louise Brown was born by this method. Anna Smajdor believe in this idea that it is such a complex area of study and we can give a definitive answer because different people have different ideas, different emotions, therefore it's not definitive. In the next few years the number of people who are using artificial insemination might be increase. For instance the female homosexual couples (Lesbians) who are looking for fertility prefer this method.
The other kind of being pregnant is embryo transplantation. This method is mostly use for the women who have uterus problems or disorders. Due to the uterus disorders the uterus does not have the ability of fertility therefore it will cause foetus abortion. In this process a fertile egg through invitro fertilization method will transfer to the recipient. This technique is really common among animals these days; however the biologists are having investigations on this method among human beings. In the process of embryo transplantation the doctor transfer the fertile egg through a thin tube into the vagina and then cervix. In some cases doctors prefer to use more than one fertile egg to increase the rate of success. During the transferring usually they use ultrasound guidance to pass the fertile egg in to the uterus and make sure it has stick to the uterus wall. Embryo transplantation and IVF and artificial insemination are also using in animals with the same processes. For instance they use these techniques among sheeps, horses to increase breeding among animal. The main purpose of embryo transplantation among animals is to increase the rate of high quality animals. Scientists are really optimistic about the future of embryo transplantation because they believe in this idea that they will decrease the rate of infertility among women with uterus problems. In the near future this method will be most common because nowadays it is not really common and also it would be extremely helpful for the women who had frozen their egg to become pregnant in older age and after invitro fertilization they can transfer fertile egg into the uterus of women.
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