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The credential part of this paper gives the theoretical application of nanodevices in the treatment of cancer. The latest technology for the treatment of cancer is the chemotherapists treatment in which drugs of specific composition is given to the patients depending on the biopsy of the tumor from the patient. The main disadvantage of using chemotherapy is that the drug used is not so specific and hence it causes damage to the surrounding healthy
cells. To make the treatment more specific, we use the nanodevices that use nanosensors to sense the cancer cells with biomotors to decrease hypoxia environment and some specific compounds that control the telomerase production, which could serve as a means of controlling cell division.
This paper is only a theoretical analysis given and all the information provided are specifically organized by us with help from a cancer patient, her doctor and a microbiology student. We sincerely thank them for their cooperation with us for our paper.
"This technology has the potential to replace existing manufacturing methods for integrated circuits, which may reach their practical limits within the next decade when Moore's Law eventually hits a brick wall,"
Physicist Bernard Yurke of Bell Lab
With the introduction of nanotechnology we say we are in for a new invention, but we would rather consider it to be a discovery as it happens in the deepest of human physiology. We knew the concept of this technology from the days of Darwin; even his findings were based on this nanotechnology. There are many evidences for the existence of the nanotechnology of which some are described in the paper below. This paper gives some of the theoretical applications that could be possible with nanotechnology in the field of bio-medical instrumentation, to diagnose the disease.
Nano is one billionth of one. Now we have the so-called microprocessors and micro array technology that would reach the nano level within a few decades, we suppose. Some call this technology to be nanotechnology and some others name it the molecular nanotechnology, to be specific.
Get essentially every atom in the right place.
Make almost any structure consistent with the laws of physics that we can specify in molecular detail.
Have manufacturing costs not greatly exceeding the cost of the required raw materials and energy.
CONCEPTS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY:
Both positional assembly and self-replication are new in the field of mechanical manufacturing, but are common in our human system. The self-replicating model of a DNA, which arranges the adenine, guanine, cytosine and thiamine with hydrogen bonds in between them, is self-explanatory for both self-replication and positional assembly.
The human body is made up of many cellular units that worn out regularly and replaced by new cells referred to as mitosis. There are certain control systems that control these dividing mechanisms. Cancerous cells are those cells with boundless dividing capabilities that affect the normal body put up. Cancer begins when there is a permanent change in the DNA structure, referred to as the mutation.
STEPS FOR CHANGES IN GENE STRUCTURE:
I. Primary steps:
Cells communicate with each other by receptor organs through the chemotherapic process. During this primary steps the following changes took place in DNA structure of Gene configuration.
Proto-Oncogenes Become Oncogenes: Oncogenes which gives message for repeated multiplication of cells, being the main causative of cancerous cell growth.
Tumor Suppressor Genes Stop Working: The adjacent cells produce the tumor suppressor activation to inhibit the growth of the cells. At times this might also malfunction.
Excessive cell growth.
Normal cells cannot survive without an extra cellular matrix, which is not the case with the cancerous cells.
Tumor Forms: The tumor is a collection of cells without the aid of extra cellular matrix for its survival, which maintains a blood vessel network by angiogenesis.
Prevailing only in one part.
Surgical removal is possible.
Serves as the pre-cancer tissue.
Surgical removal is not possible.
Malignant tumors spread to the entire region
Affects the nearby regions to form secondary growth or metastases.
Adhere to one another thus increasing the danger of spreading the cancer cells.
CURRENT TECHNOLOGY IN TREATMENT OF CANCER:
The current technology used in the treatment of cancer is CHEMOTHERAPY which uses the anticancer (cytotoxic) drugs that reaches the all parts of the body and destroys the cancer cells by stopping their growth or the administration of cancer-fighting drugs, such as taxol, has proven effective in destroying breast cancer cells that have spread to other organs. .
Following a healthy analysis of the samples, an Ex-Vivo Apoptotic (EVA) assay taken from the biopsy, the drugs efficiency towards each tumor is identified. The present situation has the following ways for treatment of cancer
GOALS OF CHEMOTHERAPY:
Shrinks primary tumors.
Slowdown the tumor growth.
Kill cancer cells that may have spread (metastasized) to other parts of the body from the original, primary tumor.
DISADVANTAGE OF CHEMOTHERAPY:
Kills both cancer and healthy cells.
Induces anemia that then exacerbates hypoxia in the tumor.
Treatment is made specific by the use of Nanodevices that use nanosensors to be more specific in application of chemotherapy to the malignant tumors, thereby increasing the safety in the usage of chemotherapic drugs
Multi-fractionated irradiation and radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy, a radiosensitizer, or hyperthermia have all been used to improve the therapeutic effect of radiotherapy. The radio sensitivity of cancer cells in an aerobic environment is about three times higher than that of hypoxic cells. If artificial blood developed using nanotechnology can change a hypoxic cell into an oxygenated cell, it might improve the radio sensitivity.
IMPLEMENTATION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY:
Monoclonal Antibody (MAb), laboratory-produced protein molecule used in medicine to detect pregnancy; diagnose disease, including acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis, and various kinds of cancer as diagnostic tools and treatment aids-i.e., they are also used in laboratories to track proteins in experiments.
Synthesis of Mab (monoclonal anti-body)
A monoclonal antibody is created in the laboratory by fusing, or joining together, a normal B cell, which normally dies within a few weeks, and a cancerous B cell, which lives indefinitely. This fusion creates a hybrid cell, called a hybridoma that can live forever and produce an unlimited supply of the antibody secreted by the original, normal B cell. By varying the types of normal B cells used to create hybridomas.
An ingenious technique was developed that combined the myeloma cell's (a type of cancer cell) ability to rapidly produce large quantities of the same antibody with the ability of a normal B cell to produce a useful antibody. Normal mouse B cells and mouse myeloma cells were grown together in a laboratory culture. The growing medium included a chemical that would join the membrane of one normal B cell with the membrane of one myeloma cell, creating a B cell hybridoma.
Each hybridoma from the culture when placed it in its own growing medium grew and multiplied at the rapid rate of the original mouse myeloma cell from which it was derived, but all of its daughter cells (the new cells it produced) secreted only the antibody made by the original, normal B cell used to create the hybridoma.
HOW MAB's ARE USED?
Today scientists use MAbs to identify and measure minute quantities of hormones, infectious substances, toxins, and other molecules in tissues and fluids.
MAbs can also be used to identify malignant cells (cells with abnormal growth) in tissues.
In our case to help diagnose cancers hidden in the body, radioactive substances are attached to MAbs that recognize and target cancer cells.
These MAbs are then injected into a patient's body. The MAbs find cancer cells for which they are targeted and bind to them.
A special machine that uses film sensitive to radioactivity is used to take an internal picture of the patient's body.
HYPOXIA ENVIROINMENT (low oxygen content):
Induces angiogenesis (blood vessel growth into the tumor).
Promotes tumor growth.
Hypoxia leads to Anaemia.
The best way of evaluating blood oxygen-carrying capacity is to measure hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. Since cancer cells thrive in a hypoxic environment, the cancer patient's hematocrit and hemoglobin should be maintained in the upper one-third range of normal prior to the initiation of chemotherapy.
Biomolecular nanomotor is to be used for the transportation of chemotherapic drugs in our case.
It uses the concept of ATP synthesis that serves for two purposes.
ATP TO ADP TRANSITION BY HYDROLYSIS:
F1 subunit rotates.
ADP TO ATP SYNTHESIS:
Gradation of concentration of Hydrogen ions to rotate F0 subunit.
What is an ATP? ATP serves as fuel for basic life functions, such as cell growth and muscle movement. Boyer helped explain the complicated molecular process in which the enzyme, called ATP synthase, processes energy into ATP, which cells then use as fuel. When the body processes nutrients from food or sunlight, chemical energy is released. The enzyme ATP synthase absorbs that energy, converts it into the fuel-like ATP, and transfers the fuel to any of a number of functions that require it-from the growth of cells to the contraction of muscles to the transmission of nerve messages. ATP synthase transfers energy to ATP molecules by adding a phosphate ion to an adenosine diphosphate (ADP) molecule. Bonding phosphate to ADP produces ATP and makes the molecule more stable.
In the hydrolysis direction, an ATP in solution first diffuses to the
Catalytic site and is weakly bound (ATP docking). The rate of this step is affected by the ATP concentration in solution. The weakly bound ATP may dissociate from the catalytic site, returning to the solution. Occasionally, it proceeds from weak binding to tight binding (the binding transition). During the binding transition, the bonds between the ATP and the catalytic site form sequentially, ATP binding affinity increases gradually, and each bond formation drives a small conformational change. In this way, the binding free energy is used efficiently to generate a nearly constant force during the multi-step ATP binding transition. ATP concentration in solution does not affect the binding transition, but only how often ATP attempts docking to the catalytic site. After the binding transition, the ATP is in chemical equilibrium with ADP and Pi. The transition ATP <--> ADP + Pi weakens the ATP binding and distributes it over ADP and Pi so that the hydrolysis products can be released and the cycle repeated.
Function of ATP:
Increases the oxygen content in the local environment.
Decreases the possibilities of hypoxia and thereby reducing the spread of cancer tumors and the formation of vascular blood vessels or the so-called angiogenesis.
Nanosensors: The ability of medical nanodevices to measure both absolute temperature and changes in temperature is crucial for monitoring in vivo physiological thermoregulatory mechanisms and intracellular energy transactions.
The treatment of cancer using nanotechnology uses the following type of sensors:
Temperature sensor - senses the variation of temperature in the local environment.
Pressure sensor - senses the variation of pressure in the local environment.
Chemical sensor- Chemical analysis of local environment.
Biosensors - Reverse the action of telomerase by proper administration of drugs.
PROCESS AND DEVELOPMENT OF NANOSENSORS:
The present technology for the Single Walled Carbon Nanotubule (SWNT) is either not economical or that it is not very efficient. We have an idea of developing such sensors through this nanotube technology or from genetically coding the T4 bacteriophage that is currently being used to develop FET transistors.
Process that follows are
If we use some kind of nanotube that has the characteristics of being attracted by the radiation components then the couple of nanotubes being used would be attracted by these compounds that there would be some displacement in the nanotube coated with the radiation attracted compound.
This would change the interseparation distance of the nanotubes there by changing the capacitance in between them.
The variation in distance between the nanotubes directly controls the speed of nanomotor for the administration of chemotherapic drugs to the cancerous cells.
The Nanorobot we devised is an integrated system of three components viz. Nanomotor, Nanosensors, Nanopumps and NanoDevices for the administration of chemotherapic drugs.
Features in a nutshell
CHEMICAL ELEMENTS Carbon in the form of Diamond or Diamond Fullerene Nanocomposites largely because of tremendous strength and chemical inertness of Diamond.
SIZE-500 nm TO 3000 nm
DRUG CARRYING CAPACITY (DCC) - 1cc injection of 1Î¼ nanodevices has a capacity of carrying 0.5 cc of the drug.
POWERING-By means of explicitly supplied acoustic signals.
INTEGRATION - Using Biotin-Steptravidin linkages.
TRACKING - use of navigational Nanorobots.
IMPLEMENTATION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN CANCER TREATMENT:
Here we have provided an algorithm for the treatment of the same using the present technological advancements already implemented. The algorithm includes
In this case we could use the nanorobots, specially designed nanodevices that could carry the chemotherapic drugs for the treatment of cancer cells.
The use of ATP powered biomotors used for nanodevices create a low hypoxia environment that decreases the danger of spreading of tumor to other regions.
Use of Monoclonal Antibodies (MAb) in these nanorobots for the detection of cancerous areas, the present radiation detection method.
BROWNIAN MOVEMENT OF NANOROBOTS:
Removal of these radiation compounds effectively through these nanosensors.
This would directly show the presence of the cancer affected area for the implementation or administration of the chemotherapic drugs through nanopumps.
Bio medical applications.
Research in Avionics.
Defence (satellite chip).
Satellite Communications (NASA).
The paper is just a theoretical justification. But the recent advancement in the field of nanotechnology gives the hope of the effective use of this technology in medical field. This paper starts by giving an introduction to nanotechnology and its importance as recognized by various other technocrats. This is the beginning of nanoera and we could expect further improvements such as cure to AIDS using nanotechnology.