Treatment Drugs For Type Ii Diabetes Biology Essay

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Managing the blood sugar levels, doing physical activity regularly and maintaining the weight with diet control are the major steps that have to be followed by a type II diabetic patient before opting for any treatment. A single diabetes treatment is not seen suitable for every diabetic. A treatment drug might be suitable for one person and may not be useful for someone else. The overall type II diabetes treatment plan will be designed by the doctor for every diabetic patient separately and specifically. This plan will let the patients to understand the various benefits and disadvantages of these drugs.

Drugs used for the treatment of Diabetes

If exercise and diet are not able to help the type II diabetic to bring the blood sugar levels to normal then the doctor might help in suggesting medications. Some of the medications that can lower the blood sugar levels are discussed here under.

Metformin is one of the biguanide drugs and is helpful in reducing the blood glucose levels by decreasing the quantity of glucose released by the liver into the blood. This drug is also known to be enhancing the body cell sensitivity to insulin. The research has revealed that this drug will help in reducing the risk of heart attacks and heart stroke. If the control of diabetes was not possible through lifestyle changes then the first tablet that is suggested is metformin. Metformin might cause mild diarrhea and sickness.

Sulphonylurea drugs

Some of the Sulphonylurea drugs are used for the treatment of type II diabetes. They include glimepiride, gliclazide and glipizide. These drugs function by enhancing the insulin levels secreted by the pancreas. The type II diabetes patients will not produce sufficient insulin that is useful for keeping the normal blood glucose levels. These drugs are normally used when the person is not overweight and have some problems with metformin. Sulphonylurea drugs might cause hypoglycaemia as they are responsible for stimulating the insulin release.

Nateglinide and Repaglinide

These medications are similar to the Sulphonylurea drugs in their function. A single dose of these drugs will raise the insulin levels while the dose effect will not remain for long period. The single dose is usually taken just prior to the meals. The side effects of these drugs include hypoglycaemia and gain in weight.

Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors

DPP4 or dipeptidyl peptidase 4 is the enzyme that digests the hormones into incretins. There are 2 types of this enzyme called sitagliptine and vildagliptin. When the gut encounters the food, it produces certain substances called incretins. These medications decrease the blood glucose levels by increasing the incretin effects as these chemicals block the functioning of the DPP4 enzyme. Flatulence and feeling ill are some of the rare side effects of this enzyme. The other examples of this groups include saxagliptin and linagliptin.


These group of drugs also increase the body cell sensitivity towards insulin. Thiazolidinedione’s are not prescribed alone. They are given along with Sulphonylurea or metformin. The patients who had heart failure cannot take these drugs. Some of the examples of this category are rosiglitazone and pioglitazone.


This drug will function by slowing down the carbohydrate absorption into the gastrointestinal tract. Hence, this drug will be able to decrease the glucose levels in the blood that reaches peak level after the meals. This drug is preferred to be used along with other blood glucose reducing medications to give proper response, in case the specific effect has not resulted from other tablets. This drug might cause certain side effects like diarrhea and bloating. This group of drugs are mostly involved in inhibiting the alpha-glucosidases.


The glucose levels in the blood are reduced with the help of insulin. Some type II diabetic patients would require insulin if the blood glucose levels are not regulated effectively by the other tablets. Insulin can either be used unaided or in combination with other medications depending on the necessity. The administration of insulin, the time of administration, dosage and the method of administering will be taught to the patient by the concerned doctor or nurse. The common side effect that is seen in the case of insulin intake is gain in weight.


This medication is administered in the form of injection. This drug works similar to the natural hormone glucagon like peptide-1. This drug triggers the release of insulin in the presence of glucose and stops the release of glucagon after the meals. Exenatide is the drug that is used in the place of insulin mostly in obese people.


This group of drugs function similar to the alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. These are taken just prior to the meals. These medications are known to stimulate release of more quantities of insulin from the pancreas depending on the present levels of glucose in the blood. Some of the brand names that belong to this group are Repaglinide and Nateglinide. These drugs can be used along with other medications to achieve efficiency in controlling diabetes.


This drug is accepted by FDA and shall appear in the market very soon. It helps the Diabetics to reduce their blood glucose levels. This drug is consumed in the morning along with the food. The treatment can be started with one tablet per day. It can be increased by one tablet per week till the maximum dose of two to six tablets per day are followed. This drug is known to have safety against cardiovascular problems. The side effects of this drug otherwise called as Cycloset include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, headache and fatigue. The diabetic patients also taking dopamine antagonists and those who have psychotic disorders are not advised to take Cycloset.

Pramlintide Acetate

This drug is otherwise called as Symlin. It is the drug that is administered in the form of injection. This drug attempts to decrease the necessity of the person to insulin. Symlin is observed as the analogue of the insulin that is secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas. Hence, it is known to regulate the blood glucose levels. This drug is known to be used by the type I diabetic patients as well. The common side effect shown by this drug is nausea which seems to subside as time progresses.

Tags: Type 2 diabetes treatment, treatment methods for type 2 diabetes, diabetes type2 treatment, treatment for type2 diabetics.