Three Causes Of Infertility In Women Biology Essay

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

The Bar Mitzvah ceremony is a rite of passage into manhood and coming of age. It is conducted when the boy reaches the age of 13 to show that the boy has become a man in the eyes of the Synagogue and are now responsible for themselves. The boy is seen as an adult after this ceremony. The boy is now entering puberty (and thus in the process of becoming fertile). This is a celebration of the start of puberty and thus fertility.

Some sedating medication is given to the woman; however, general anaesthesia is not required. The surgeon then inserts a needle into the woman's ovary via the vagina in order to remove the eggs. The liquid collected is then examined in order to ensure eggs are present. The man, who has been instructed to not have sexual intercourse before the sample must be given, then provides a semen sample. This is normally done by masturbation. The sperm is then removed from the semen and are mixed with the eggs. Fertilization can be detected after 18 hours or so. The embryos are the \n incubated for 2 to 3 days before being inserted into the woman's uterus. This is done via the cervix using a catheter. The woman must remain in the resting position for about an hour. Certain hormones are given to the woman. The pregnancy test result will be positive if implantation occurs.

Sperm is either collected through masturbation or is surgically removed from a testicle though an incision. The female must receive daily hormonal injections and be monitored for two weeks before the procedure. FSH is injected to stimulate the production of multiple eggs. If follicles develop, a human chronic gonadotropin (hCG) is injected into the female to cause the follicles to mature. These eggs are then collected about 36 hours after the follicles have matured using a laparoscopy. Under high magnification, a holding pipette is used to hold the egg in place while the single sperm cell is injected into the egg using an injection pipette (this is done to multiple eggs to ensure fertilization). The eggs are incubated overnight and then checked to determine whether fertilization has occurred or not. If the eggs have been successfully fertilized, the eggs will be left to develop for another 3 to 5 days. Two to four of these embryos are then placed into the uterus using a catheter which is inserted through the cervix. The unused embryos may be frozen for future use.

Advantages:

Can be done even if the man has a low sperm count

Can be used where the man has had an irreversible vasectomy

Can be used when the man has no sperm in his semen due to blocked tubes or blockages. If IVF was not successful this procedure can be tried

Immature sperm cell can be used

Disadvantages:

The hormone treatment can cause ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

Increased chance of multiple births

There are possible birth defects (e.g. Heart and internal urinary/genital defects)

Relatively new procedure so not all side effects are known

Slight increased chance of abnormalities in offspring

http://www.healthlinkbc.ca/kbase/topic/detail/other/tn8214/detail.htm

http://www.babycentre.co.uk/preconception/fertilitytreatments/icsi/

Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT)

Basic Overview:

Very similar to the IVF procedure, except the gametes are transferred into the woman's fallopian tubes. This means that fertilization occurs in the body. The embryo therefore develops inside the body naturally.

How is this technique carried out?

The woman is given hormones before the procedure to stimulate the ovaries to produce more than one egg. Some sedating medication is given to the woman; however, general anaesthesia is not required. The surgeon then inserts a needle into the woman's ovary via the vagina in order to remove the eggs. The liquid collected is then examined in order to ensure eggs are present. The man, who has been instructed to not have sexual intercourse before the sample is given, then provides a semen sample. This is normally done by masturbation. The gametes are immediately inserted in the woman's fallopian tubes. This is done via the cervix using a catheter. The woman must rest for a while after the procedure. Natural fertilization and implantation then take place. A progesterone injection is given to the woman to prepare the lining of the uterus for implantation.

Advantages:

Can be used if there are problems when inserting the zygote through the cervix into the uterus

Fertilization and implantation occur naturally, thus this procedure may be preferred to IVF due to religious reasons

Does not increase the chances of ovarian cancer

Disadvantages:

It is more complicated than the IVF procedure

If no pregnancy occurs, you cannot tell whether fertilization took place or not. This means you cannot tell whether the sperm was able to penetrate into the egg

You are more likely to have multiple births (can increase risk of miscarriage)

Fertility drugs can have side-effects

You have an increase chance of an ectopic pregnancy

More invasive procedure than IVF

http://www.gettingpregnant.co.uk/GIFT.html

http://www.pregnancyquickstart.com/fertility-conception/gamete-intrafallopian-transfer-gift.html

http://www.babycenter.ca/preconception/ref/gift/

Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (ZIFT)

Basic Overview:

The egg is fertilized outside the woman's body and then inserted into the fallopian tube of the woman.

How is this technique carried out?

Medications are given to the woman to stimulate the maturing of the woman's follicles. The eggs are then removed while the woman is under anaesthesia. The eggs are then mixed with the woman's partner's sperm and left overnight to fertilize. Once the eggs have been fertilized, they are placed back into the woman's fallopian tubes through laparoscopy. 1 to 4 embryos are inserted and then left to implant into the uterus naturally.

Advantages:

Fertilization occurs outside the body. This means that id no pregnancy occurs; the doctors know that it is not due to the fact that the sperm did not fertilize the egg.

Fairly invasive

Implantation occurs naturally

Disadvantages:

Women with a history of ectopic pregnancies should avoid this procedure

A decent sperm sample is needed

Multiple pregnancies can occur

Increased risk of ectopic pregnancies

Expensive

Requires two surgical procedures

http://www.womens-health.co.uk/infertility/ZIFT.html

http://www.fertilityfactor.com/infertility_medical_options_zift.html

http://www.emedicinehealth.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=12411

Ethical issues surrounding ART:

Child is not seen as a kind gift of nature

Women undergoes medical and psychological risks

Allows single women or lesbian couples to have a child

Some believe that surrogacy is the exploitation of the woman as an incubator

Recommended technique:

I believe that one cannot simply recommend any technique to every person, as each person's circumstances are different. Firstly, the reason for infertility needs to be considered. Is it due to a blocked or damaged fallopian tube? If so, neither GIFT nor ZIFT can be carried out as the gametes/embryo needs to be inserted into the woman's fallopian tube. Another cause could be a low sperm count, in which case either GIFT or IVF would probably be most effective as a single sperm cell can be used in GIFT. IVF, however, seems to be the most popular method of ART, it is less invasive on the body, is less expensive and has a relatively high success rate with little or no complications in the resulting child's health later on in life. GIFT would be the best option for someone who is religious and does not believe in fertilization outside the body as with the GIFT procedure, fertilization and implantation occur naturally inside the body.

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.